Virtual Verduria

Cadhinor through the ages

I've already put Shm Revouse's grammar of Cadhinor on the web. Rather than add the entire grammatical sketch from Languages of Almea, I've included the most useful portions not covered by Revouse:

Examples [To Index]

Here I give examples of Cadhinor through the ages, from the earliest times to near the present.

Old Pre-Imperial Cadhinor: Petitions to Caloton, 800
Early Classical Cadhinor: Court annals, 1310
Mature Classical Cadhinor: Ilcorea, 1685
Late Classical Cadhinor: Peleion of Scormai, 2250
Late Vernacular Cadhinor: Okhdennos, 2400
Medieval Scholarly Cadhinor: Mesheli Cördi, 3032

I have followed the practice of modern printed works in Cadhinor, separating words by spaces and inserting commas for readability. The letterforms are normalized, so as to use the Eleisa and Verdurian fonts; but the orthography is that of the original documents.

Old Pre-Imperial Cadhinor: Petitions to Caloton, 800 [To Index]

The first Central nation to write in its own language was Araunicoros (c. 650); the middle Svetlan principalities, Cadhinas proper, followed about half a century later.

It was the custom in Ctésifos at this time to write requests to Caloton on slips of reed paper and stuff them into a hole at the base of his statue in the god's Hill Temple. Periodically the priests would burn the papers to make room for more; but a quantity were lost, and discovered two milennia later in the ruins of the temple.

I've used the Eleisa (Cuêzi) font, to indicate that the letterforms of this time were closer to Cuêzi than to later Cadhinor forms.

Sesieica kesset1, Ienomais trabret.

Ut necan hionnokethilei2 timeriae3 ahus4 celeren caelilei maretao.

Caloteion belor palledhes tandes im aidhin, cuedros eris eth rohit.5

Ut iretha virakhei erii motretit6, ut imfantulit tuae tiumad scustebremont, ut kira tuae racniam khmatulan babetes7.

Pidor eae8 maleioth dhomilei9 scoluat.

Icte zonnan10 len is bounad bounimaa precie, ac nisios fuae. Scupises buesi.

Aidhoclithis11 uila kae medh eri rikhinset dia dhebremet, cthelteim hieim turi.12

Kira eris Isciran medh precet, pro ketotan13 medh kirae uilae erie diset. Elorein14 clithe er dia bucelossit15 precu.

That the drought end, there is too much sun.

That I may wed the daughter of the baker on the third street from the river.

Caloton, our greatest friend among the gods, my heart churns.

That my enemy's crops rot, that his children fall to the plague, that his wife cuckold him with a slave.

I want my father to recover from his arthritis.

I asked you last year for a calf from my cow, and there was nothing. Do not be miserly!

The old witch who is looking on my son to harm him-- scorch her evil eye.

My wife is asking Iscira for a son, because she hates the son of my first wife. Speak to the Queen and ask her not to hear.

Notes [To Index]

1 Most of these wishes appear in the remote mood, since they describe desired states. Later Cadhinor would demand ut if the main clause was remote, but at this time ut was optional. Note the irregular remote stem for kescen.

2 Literally, 'bread-provider'; the later word was bulondic.

3 Din 'three' seems hardly related to tmeres 'third', but the connection is clear in proto-Eastern (*di:m, *di:mer), and slightly clearer in this earlier form of tmeres.

4 Later aius.

5 Literally, 'my heart twists me'.

6 The ending -etit later dissimilated to -etis.

7 Literally 'open wide her thighs'; babec was later restricted to the mouth (= 'gape'), and in Verdurian, to one type of mouth-opening, the yawn.

8 In classical Cadhinor it would be a great faux pas to use the genitive to refer to a superior. The dative must be used: pidor seon.

9 Maleio is an early word for 'badness', later malneica. The 'badness of stone' is arthritis or gout, which were believed to result from an overabundance of the element of stone in the body. Later medicine preferred the word tugeica 'stiffening'.

10 Literally 'before the year'. Later Cadhinor would have de ictedhen zonnan.

11 Aidhoclithis is an early word for a female priest, literally 'god-speaker'; this would not be a priest of the temple, but a popular shaman, who channelled the fantit, intermediary spirits between god and man.

12 This is a topic-comment sentence; a classical writer would clean it up by putting the godspeaker in the genitive ("scorch the evil eye of the witch").

13 Later kettan.

14 The queen is of course Iscira, Enäron's wife. The man's wife is addressing her as the goddess of marriage and childbirth.

15 Celuscir once had an irregular remote stem celoss-.

Early Classical Cadhinor: Court annals, 1310 [To Index]

Though this passage (from the annals of the Bumehul Reth borough court) comes at the very dawn of the classical era, it already carries the ease and authority of that period-- not suprisingly, since Cadhinor had already been the language of empire for several centuries. Spelling is mostly standardized, and the chief characteristic of this era remains a certain artlessness of syntax and lexicon. Some examples will be pointed out in the notes.

Curies litim Opogarei Ctaneroth argentorionei curiae akh Ravoberacan medrilen mactanae nengiae. Opogaros necaa, kae iat redel alderu, doman Ravoberacei derae cum numan psorer er mihiretaa caedec er melia spakhea scrifec.1 Ravoberac dia gina im nubraa ctanevut2 er deceorevut3. Opogaros cum aidhoclithun aidhnaurei Caloteionei laudae er Ravoberac melemu. Ravoberac baesae dia ginaa kirad aldetes. Dhunit eleuit4 den5 nosei cumaldiunt. De illun dennan harada, Ravoberac busan marin lescelan ctanae, er kensadae dia gina nessei basei fuae, er busan scriftan, er tala sulies dia gar butenu.

Opogaros dia neca im doman ctanevut ac mesmos im curien ctanae. Clithu6 dia Ravoberac cumaldel caie diserut er cadhin sonsand dekutherut er necaa tuae and nosin altrein deceorerut. Ravoberac clithu dia cumaldel eta lescelan marin7 budemerirae er admetteca culpevut8 dia gina ceora bufurae.

Sudrae curies dia cumaldel dandel lutiecoth, sonsandos guesos hamurabei tenes. Maris lescel demutim duha esces9. Ravoberac culerionoth er mascionoth tuae ginan deceorevut, odia curies sudrae dia sonsand aldantei hescevut. Aetotos10 bolgies vaureica es akh Caloteionan.11 Ut duha bargaum opei nacitaumei12 Ravoberacei preninet; aeloth dimoth bargaum Opogaran er bargaum curien er dhunoin bargauim aidhnauren Caloteionei probrinet.

The court heard the quarrel of Opogaros of Cterano, a silversmith, against Ravoberac, a noble of the same city. Opogaros had sent his daughter, who had already had her coming of age, to the house of Ravoberac to serve and to practice manners and learn good language. Ravoberac took the girl to his bed and despoiled her. Opogaros went with a priest of the temple of Ishira and complained to Ravoberac. Ravoberac promised to have her as his wife. The two men agreed on a date for the wedding. On that day, however, Ravoberac came without a gift for the bride, and explained that the girl was of inferior birth, uneducated, and so young that she had no sense.

Opogaros took his daughter home, but came into the court, stating officially that Ravoberac had broken his word, defied Cadhinorian custom, and ruined his daughter for any other match. Ravoberac claimed that there had been no agreement on a gift, and alleged as well that the girl was not a virgin.

The court ruled that in the absence of an agreement otherwise, custom has the force of law; thus that Ravoberac owed the customary bride-price to Opogaros. The court found also that, Ravoberac being her host and master at the time he despoiled the girl, he had violated the laws of hospitality. This is a great offense against Caloton. A quarter of his worldly goods should therefore be confiscated; of this, a quarter was assigned to Opogaros, a quarter to the court, and two quarters to the temple of Caloton.

Notes [To Index]

1 In early Cadhinor multiple conjoints each needed their own conjunction.

2 In early Cadhinor causatives were more conspicuously treated as subclauses; thus the dia. Later writers would have Ravoberac ginan im nubraa ctanevut.

3 This concept was expressed differently over time: deceoran 'spoil' early on, carpec 'seize' in classical times, and stupen 'oppress' from the Dark Years and on into Verdurian. We would also expect an object pronoun tun here, but at this time it was often omitted.

4 Early imperial society was highly stratified, and eleus 'free man' was often used where we would expect simply urestu 'man'. This particular case is famous in Cadhinorian law, because it is one of the first clear judgments against a noble and in favor of a craftsman, though a rich one.

5 The sound change V:C > VCC did not apply in a final syllable, so that den is the expected form. In mature Cadhinor the spelling was regularized to denn, but the pronunciation remained the same.

6 There were several words for 'say' or 'speak' in Cadhinor. Clithec implies ceremonial or official import; we might say "stated under oath" or "gave as his statement". Note that a priest is an aidhoclithus, one who speaks formally to the gods.

7 In later times the order of the two words could not be varied like this-- a sign that at this date maris lescel was a description, and not fully an idiom. Indeed, variants like lescel nosei are found.

8 Later there was a word for 'allege' (adgaetir, literally 'throw at'); but for now the word culpir (meaning 'accuse' in its dynamic forms) is used. Similarly, prenan below for 'confiscate' would strike later writers as naïve; they would use adcothir.

9 Here and later in the passage, the court's orders are reported in the remote past, which is appropriate for a command issued in the past.

10 Aetotos is an old spelling of aettos.

11 Except perhaps for the ablative of role which is unfamiliar to English speakers, the syntax here is simple, avoiding subordinate clauses-- rather as in speech. The overall structure is "Ravoberac did X, so (odia) the court said he did Y. This is Z" Later writers would prefer "The court said that, because Ravoberac had done X, then he did Y, which is Z." Also to be noted is the verb hescir; in Cadhinor one 'falls short' of a law.

12 Opos nacitaum is literally 'wealth to be carried', thus, 'moveable goods', as opposed to opos tekec 'standing wealth', meaning one's house, land, and title. Nothing a noble could do to a mere craftsman would result in the loss of these things, the foundation of his noble estate.

Mature Classical Cadhinor: Ilcorea, 1685 [To Index]

Ilcorea was, along with Genremos, the greatest of the Cadhinorian philosphers. An idealist and agnostic, he antagonized the clergy not with his opinions, but by his preaching them in the street, and appealing to the worshippers of the gods to idolize order, goodness, reason, and beauty instead.

His masterpiece is Aidhos ab raduman ("God viewed with reason," 1685), containing his argument that these four qualities are the building blocks of God. The cornerstone of his theology is his version of the argument from perfection, below.

Ilcorea has remained a paragon of Cadhinor style for three milennia; yet few have equalled his effortless mastery of the resources of the language, his clear and direct style, and his lack of pretension. Im Ilcorean, commented one admirer, nisios cael ibrilen er ielan ctet. ("In Ilcorea, nothing comes between the reader and the idea."

Nis scos cumpugul im naurondan leilai-- scehis tura, scehis faubel, scehis nactec punsaa tenes. Nisios harada fasilor es im raduman ielaa implican turae cumpuguliae, faubelei busan punsan, nactecei esistascei er meliscei.

Iela cumpugeioi im raduman erin seon kredhut dia aidhos1 demerir debrit. Kensa epesemet dia implicantos ab kettan cumpugeiom gadimu thisiot andeoror er tistedhes prirondad tenetes?2 Fasilnecue gadhum er ierecue dumom; deroait kisciat esam, er fruhecue is Alameiad3 faucum. Ielet tandet borgel caduth bueusont4; tas ielaa talaa im raduman tenileith, prironda thisiot esistedhe currec debrit, currec aidh.5

I see no perfect thing in the world: every pear, every painting, every leader contains a flaw. Yet there is nothing easier than to entertain in the mind the idea of a perfect pear, a painting without flaw, a ruler utterly noble and good.

The ideal of perfection within me convinces me that God must exist. How could it be that imagination, by which I conceive of perfection, contains something grander and purer than reality? We perceive shoddily, and think dully; we are weak creatures, and soon gone from the world. Our ideals cannot be the exception to this rule; if we can have such an idea within our minds, reality must contain something greater still,must contain God.

Notes [To Index]

1 We are so used to addressing God that we may pass over this usage of aidhos without comment; but it seems to have been pioneered by Ilcorea. The Cuêzi trinity was referred to by its individual names, or by Cuêzi theological terms; philosophers spoke of aidhantos 'the divine'.

2 Note the use of the remote to indicate the unreality of the possibility under discussion (that the imagination of an inconsiderable being may contain something greater than reality itself).

3 Ilcorea uses three words for 'world' in this passage. Nauronda is the general, everyday term, literally 'the great place', most like our word 'world'; prironda is a philosophical term, 'what is real'; and Alameia, literally 'earth and water', refers to the human world, excluding the celestial and the divine-- the world that we leave at death.

4 Epesan alone is an ellipsis for esan epesan.

5 A rare but effective bit of drama: we might have expected "...aidh currec debrit". The outer-level verb is omitted for brevity, and since in effect currec (debrit) is now the topic of this subclause and aidh the comment, the latter is placed last.

Late Classical Cadhinor: Peleion of Scormai, 2250 [To Index]

The text is from the Rocca Atrabantei Lebei er Uilei ('Epic of the Old and New Empire', 2250) of Peleion of Scormai, a history of Cadhinas from the civil wars through the period of the Oligarchy, culminating in a rather hagiographical account of the restoration of the Empire under Irun.

Like other writers of his time, including the priests who would soon be commissioned to write the Adhivro, Peleion aimed for as classical a Cadhinor as possible. Dictionaries of classical usage were compiled, so that authors could avoid any word not found in the standard authors; manuals of usage were written to bolster bits of grammar already fading from speech (such as the ablative or the comparative) and warn against common errors. The most noticeable difference between Peleion and Ilcorea is stylistic-- Ilcorea does not try half so hard to write elegantly.

Kethulit, ceram pseril kettos naiun Cadhinai nunc deforkhae. Atrabant kaeth tanduit lihalerint1 pidorit, kahe zonnith scorui2 isramperiont esistasce atrabant kaeth khupe Ienomain leileriont cebran, er zahie stupeci stupen viocteim Munkhai ctaneriont,3 kestevint hurulecit er iduresmeit, Claetura Rugities scustebreca. Bucreteit asuenaa Aeirveai velen, ditrui imfantuli tagiae atrabiiae gueveca er kuebicue kekiont. Kae lebdan4 medinilea trohinet?5 Kae belor licrei esces, kae claetudonecin pro meain caie adveitisat?6 Kae khrabricaa khumei7 Aerivileai habiris?

Children, reflect on the shame which now attached to the realm of Cadhinas. The empire which was raised by our fathers, who emerged from the Years of Darkness to build the greatest empire ever seen under the sun, and came to oppress their oppressors, the demons of Munkhâsh, was overthrown by pirates and greedy men, the murderous Red Cabal. Not content with the seizure of Ervëa's throne, they murdered the innocent children of the imperial house, like cowards and brutes. Who could be found to restore the divine order? Who would be the friend of the poor man; who would make the caballists answer for their deeds? Who would show the bravery of the blood of Ervëa?

Notes [To Index]

1 The past anterior is used to report the deeds of the ancestors, the simple past being used for the days of the Cabal. The transition back to the past, with kestevint below, helps clarify this rather baroque sentence.

2 The zonnit scorui 'years of darkness' were of course the days of the Munkhâshi occupation. Zonnit appears in the ablative, since it is what our fathers were crawling out of.

3 A more neutral word order would be stupeci zahie, viocteim Munkhai, stupen; but the author juxtaposes stupeci and stupen, for a bit of stylistic oomph.

4 The placement of the infinitive in second position, though allowed in classical Cadhinor, is one of the few telltales that this passage is late. This was the first stage in the change to SVO.

5 This series of rhetorical questions is in the remote mood (because finding such a man was problematic) and the past tense (because they refer to a past epoch).

6 Note the use of the causative adveitisat: our unknown hero will force the caballists to answer (adveiten) for their actions. Adveiten pro meain 'answer for one's deeds' is a late idiom; earlier authors would probably write khruditir meai 'embrace the deeds'.

7 The Cadhinorians spoke of inheriting the khumos (literally 'guts', metaphorically 'passions') rather than the blood of their illustrious forebears. Note also the idiom: the hero will 'wear' (= 'show') Aerivileas' courage. Aerivileas (V. Ervëa) is of course the greatest of the Cadhinorian emperors, the conqueror of Munkhâsh.

Late Vernacular Cadhinor: Okhdennos, 2400 [To Index]

This passage is part of Pomaureta Baesie ("Story collection of heroes") by Okhdennos of Aites, a collection of instructive moral stories written at the popular level. Here Okhdennos is retelling the story of the Second Age, a story familiar from the Adhivro and the Ciröma; but these works were written in classical Cadhinor and already somewhat difficult for the masses. (I've retold it myself in Almean Belief Systems.)

Popular writers treated Cadhinor as an orthographically difficult way to write the language they spoke, which was already well on the way to becoming Old Verdurian. Verbs are migrating to the middle of the sentence; prepositions and synthetic constructions are multiplying; the verbal system is being rearranged; sound changes produce frequent spelling errors.

Letterforms developed into a cursive form, ancestral to today's minuscules, and abbreviations appeared (e.g. ua = â, ia = ä). I have shown the latter in the native script, but not in the transliterated form.

Khegiaidhit Aevetalan adveitiont1, er spakhiont dia nis belaca nis espuila nis alete cedel2 toscemont pro maltren kuebi Skagond er viogem3 illui4, ac sula itiranit iliuie. Kettot vulint ab aelun login emec? tu usciscinet5, ac cai fausirient6 er buspakhiont.

Aevetal medh7 Iriandei duminsu8 logi kettot tun diont, ac bucumprennet, er tur hescae9, ne bualterec10 kettot plesten iliuin kae illeth voirient.11

Debutae12 renlaudan, ac olosinet13 lasses, er proscaleae khupe arban. Ne proscalean, hie illui trogae kosca14, kae subrinsae uradom15. Pensae16 soa koscaa17 guebrec, ne agellan uradon. Proscet tu gadet dia so urados18 kosca lelinet19, er im paikhreica siuisinet, er letae ad kobon illae; er altreit uraduit20 pentiont, ne renemec zeinnom21, er guiminiont kob sohei imlaudecei. Ne kescan, laprae kosca, er illun subriont uraduit letecoit. Er Aevetal konsael khegiaidhie cumpreninet.22

The Guardians answered Évetal, and said that neither swords nor magic would suffice to destroy cruel Shkagon and his demons, but only the spirits of the ilii. What do you mean by these words? he cried, but they were gone, and said no more.

Évetel son of Iriam pondered the words he had been given, but did not understand, and he despaired, not knowing what to report to the ilii who had sent him.

He started his return, but grew weary, and rested under a tree. As he rested, his eye fell on a cat, who was stalking a bird; and he thought to frighten the cat away, as a kindness to the bird. But then he saw that the bird had seen the cat, and was twittering away in alarm, and flying down at its head; and other birds also sang out, repeating the outcry , and mobbed the head of the intruder. Finally the cat fled, pursued by flying birds. And Évetel understood the counsel of the Guardians.

Notes [To Index]

1 Pronounced advechont; but there was as yet no way to spell new sounds (and the change was perhaps not yet phonemic). Same story with Khegiaidhit, pronounced Khejaydhî.

2 Classical aletes caedel, the 'high practice'. Final -s was already lost in speech; writers remembered that it was supposed to be there, but often forgot it. The spelling cedel similarly indicates that the ae > e sound change was already underway.

3 Classical viocteim, now pronounced viojem. The spoken j could represent a written g or ct; the writer here has chosen the wrong possibility.

4 The use of illu/illa as pronouns is already old. 'Of those demons' would be illui vioctem; cf. aelun login farther on.

5 Classical husciscae. H was already lost, though writers wrote it when they remembered to. Since final -ae and -et were now pronounced alike, as -e, the past tense was now quite problematic; already, in speech, the remote past was used instead (except for -ec verbs). Writers could still use the static past; but in moments of emotion they were wont to use the remote past, for a colloquial, engaging effect.

6 Classical faucirient. The c > s sound change more often affected spelling, since it resulted in an existing sound.

7 Final -os was most likely pronounced -e, and lost entirely before a vowel (as well as in some words used mostly as accusatives). Writers sometimes wrote (say) medho, sometimes remembered the final -s.

8 Pronounced duminzu; but as this change was regular, and there were no words with <nz>, it was not hard to remember that [nz] was spelled <ns>... at least until the n was nasalized and then lost.

9 The metaphors 'lose the flame' for 'despair' and 'keep the flame' for 'hope' were already in use, though there would be some lexical shifting before V. chasishshelec and chascurec were lexicalized.

10 In Classical Cadhinor such expressions would use the ablative; but ne + infinitive was now a popular way of expressing a gerundive ('not knowing', in this case). Verdurian has the same construction, but now uses she as the pronoun.

11 Classical kahe tua vohirient.

12 Classical debutnae.

13 The classical remote form would be olocinet.

14 Accusative koscaa and nominative kosca had merged in speech; writers sometimes forgot to restore the distinction.

15 Classical urado; the -m was added by analogy with the other neuter declensions.

16 Classical pense. Minor differences between the -ir and -er conjugations, and between -an and -en, tended to be levelled out.

17 Sohaa koscaa, 'the aforementioned cat, the said cat'. The expression is already on its way to becoming an article; but it's used much less than it would be in later times.

18 Classical uradus. The -s was not pronounced; but the vowel was not reduced. Thus the overall progression is -os > -e > -0 but -us > -os > -o.

19 Classical leilae.

20 Classical altrei uraduit. Since the final -t was no longer pronounced, putting it back in writing was a feat of memory, easily botched. Same story with uraduit letecoit farther on.

21 Misspelled zennom. /e/ could be spelled e, ae, or ei, and writers often got it wrong.

22 The placement of the verb is not random; but it's not simple. Often the key is topic/comment: the newest information in this sentence, for instance, is that Aevetal now understands, so cumpreninet is placed last. Brevity was another factor: the verb was more likely to appear last in simple sentences, such as the first one in the passage, Khegiaidhit Aevetalan adveitiont.

Medieval Scholarly Cadhinor: Mesheli Cördi, 3032 [To Index]

This passage come from the Dascora Naurondae (World Bestiary), by Mesheli Cördi, a noblewoman and scholar from Celebes (now the capital of Peleu, then ruled by Verduria). The reader may be interested to look up losu in a Verdurian or Axunashin dictionary to see what animal is being described. The book is full of such monsters, distorted or simply imaginary; but it should be noted that the sections on the domestic and game animals of the Plain are based on an expert knowledge that would put modern city dwellers to shame.

The spelling and morphology are almost entirely correct; but the syntax is largely that of Verdurian, down to the placement of the verb, the use of soh as a definite article, and of illu as a pronoun. Nor is it simply chance that the dynamic aspect and the ablative are not used; these are quite rare in medieval Cadhinor.

The medieval minuscule is used throughout, except that the initial letter and a few important words are written in majuscules. Ancient learning was being revived at this time, and the use of classical letterforms as decoration was fashionable. The native text is shown with standard diacritics and abbreviations (ua = â, ia = ä, cum = cm, er = +), but I have expanded these in the transliteration. (Cördi uses others as well, which are difficult to represent in a printed font.)

Im silvein Akhuenaie lacet holiorastes ecais1 kae zeth nomet losu. Es talo bolge dia gurie2, ac ir iuban nacitet suher koban rog cum iulin vehendei3, ac tal espise er bolge dia arbit. Soho dasco creget fueluim er sucursuim4, ac keda leilet urestum5, sitra tombetis6 akh illun, er illeth kumpemet khupe ungenagein zehie, kahe sont talet bolget dia tinet. Strelis bu epes illeth kekan; sohit akhueneit illeth iagont7 cum espuilein urokelein is rogin illui mesmei. Soh rogos es tal zol dia kol er tene deisi burukhi; soha scalte zeth burukhet cum iulin toscascei8 paltoi; er soho khepato akhhegiet akh tersein malneicein kettot sceset khuptosceio9 endie.

In the forests of Xurno lives a very fearsome monster called the losu. It is as large as a lion, but rather than a mane, it carries on its head horns like a deer's, but as thick and large as trees. The animal eats leaves and branches, but if it sees a man, it will immediately charge, and trample him to death under its hooves, which are as large as plates. An arrow cannot kill it; the Xurnese hunt it with spears made of its own horns. The horn is as strong as iron and has several uses; the hide makes a very warm coat; and the liver is proof against all maladies caused by deficit of wood.

Notes [To Index]

1 An error for encais, influenced by V. ecai.

2 The similarity to V. E otál bolyáshe dy gurë is evident (the adjective tal is substituted since there is no cognate to otál). In classical Cadhinor this would be a comparative expression: Bolgedhes gurien bues.

3 Though cum iulin vehendei is good Cadhinor, it's chosen largely because of its afinity to V. com. There were other ways of expressing a simile in classical Cadhinor; e.g. pellesmes vehendan.

4 This should be sucursui, but writers often missed the distinctive pl. acc. ending of the uncommon neuters in -us.

5 Classical writers would use the ablative of role: Urestum leilecoth. Medieval writers knew that esli 'if' was not Cadhinor, so they substituted keda 'when'.

6 Placing the main clause in a conditional in the remote is correct; but from other passages it is clear that Cördi is actually using the remote as a future tense here. Also note that tombir akh is a Verdurianism (classical Cadhinor would probably have cutec). Kumpen farther on is a frank borrowing.

7 An error for iagent; keeping the -en and -an conjugations distinct was difficult for the medievals.

8 Tosces 'sufficient' for 'warm' is a Verdurianism; classical Cadhinor would be bucalnes. Akhkhegian farther on is a calque on OV akhezhan; classical Cadhinor would simply use khegian.

9 An error for khupetosceio, influenced by V. hiptosheo. Note that Cadhinorian medicine, after two thousand years, is still based on surfeits and deficits of the seven elements.

Cadhinor to Verdurian sound changes [To Index]

The following regular sound changes have been identified in the transition from Cadhinor to the standard Mazhtane dialect of Verdurian. (For sound changes in Barakhinei and Ismaîn, see the web pages covering those languages; for sound changes in Verdurian dialects, see the Grammar of Verdurian.)

My intent is to state the sound changes in a systematic and parsimonious manner-- not to reconstruct a rigorous chronological sequence. Such a sequence (if we had sufficient evidence to produce it) would certainly be much more complex, and show intermediate stages, e.g. sc > shc > shkh > sh.

With these caveats, it is fair to suggest that the rules up through v > f / _#, about halfway through the list, correspond to the transition from Cadhinor to Old Verdurian, and the remaining rules to that from Old Verdurian to modern Verdurian.

I have not, of course, attempted to cover irregular changes such as dissimilation (garorion > garlo) and assimilation (rampan > rappan), metathesis (guesres > grueses > gröse, bidno > bindo), analogy (nikeda > nikagdá by analogy with fsëgdá), abbreviation (tasimurca > murca), or partial reborrowing from Cadhinor (Aecton > Ezhon > Aezhon).

The Verdurian word may also have an unexpected form because it was borrowed from a dialect (e.g. luomos from Arániceri, chehen from Zhésifoni, crator from the Eärdur, in place of the expected lom, tehen, cuator), or because it derives from a diminutive (koshka isn't an unexpected reflex of kosca; it's from OV koshka) or simply because of spelling variations (e.g. budhaye, helyata, tshur for expected budhae, heliata, chur).

Since Mazhtane derives from a northern dialect rather than from that of Ctésifon, some of these "sound changes" are really predictions of ancient northern forms (e.g. the p --> f fricativization), or different ancient lexemes (koza < *konsa, for standard Cadhinor consa).

Note: û and ô represent intermediate forms required to explain the derivation of nouns in -us and -os. They were probably at first laxed variants of u and o, but ô, before being lost, was very likely a shwa, as its reflex still is in Ismaîn. Other laxing rules applied (inasmuch as they are needed for other dialects, and Barakhinei as well), but have been omitted here as they are not needed to explain the development of Mazhtane.

These sound changes (plus a few required for common lexical items or spelling rules) are also available in a Sound Change Applier file.

Abbreviations (others explained in Notes)
F front vowel (i, e) O a stressed vowel (á, ...) V any vowel
B back vowel (u, o) N an unstressed vowel C any consonant
H high vowel (i, u) A any phoneme
From To Environment Example Notes
i zh #_B iusir > zhusir
kh k V_# akh > ak
p f #_F(V)XV pelos > fel X = fricatives, liquids, nasals
F î _D# ecunit > ecunî D = dental stop/fricative; F not stressed
u û _s# manus > manûs > mano
o ô _s# kronos > kronô > rhon
i øV_m# dascoim > dascom also unstress the V
ns z _A pronsen > prozen except before ô
s øV_# lebes > lebe
s ø#e_(p,t) espices > epese, estol --> etol
s øA_l ereslos > erél
s øV_n palasnos > palán
eu, ue ö _A kuebis > köby, leukol > lökol +
kh rh V_B kokhu > korhu
khr rh khris > rhis
p f s_ spakhe > sfahe
p f _s, _t psis > fsiy. ptena > ftena
d z V_H, Vi_V adures > azure, creidas > creza
t ch (V,#)_H til > chil, netuan > nechan
sc sh scoru > shoru
c s _F, Vi_V cisir > sisir, giveica > zhivesa
c s _n aracnis > arasni
t øc_# dect > dec
ct zh ctores > zhore
g zh (V,#,r)_F gina > zhina, lagec > lazhec, borges > borzhe
k c _i kira > cira
i zh V_u aiubren > azhuven
i øé_V(n)# cadeio > cadeo
i y (V,#)_V velaia >vlaya, iacnis > yasny
û o manus > manûs > mano
dr d V_F sudrir > sudir
tr ch F_V, V_F etromos > echom, motrir > mochir
tr ch V_ô pietros > pëch
cth ch Nectheruon > Necheron
ion o C_# scirion > shiro, luteion > luteon
si sh _V desien > deshen
ô ø kronos > kronô > rho
kr rh krase > rhase
th dh V_V letha > ledha
th t thikhis > tihy
v f _# leivos > leiv > lef
íleë A_ tusile > chusë
íl íA_V grilu > griu
il y A_V milaso > myaso
u, e øOC_a# akulua > akula, scamea > shama
ae e caer > cer
ei e _A speica > sfesa but not if i is part of an ending
iu, ui ü _A liubor > lübor, uil > ül
br v A_ subran > suvan
r ø#(C)u_(á,é)C murand > muán, urestu > uestu
i ø(ch,zh)_V tiel > chiel > chel, fagiolo > fazhiolo > fazholo
i øAz_V baedia > bezia > beza
H øch_N latuan > lachan
ai a _A aidhos > adh
áu ä _A caucel > cäsel
au a _A laubrisir > lavisir
ie ë _# melie > melë
ë piedros > për
i y riotos > ryot
uo o C_ thuor > tor
u øó_ dhoulos > dhol
h y ú_a, a_ú duha > duya, ahurec > ayurec
h y ó_irohir > royir
h ø vehatha > veadha
kh h khutor > hutor
e ø_BA andeor > andor unaccented e only
on u _K ilontis > iluti C is not d or y
nd n cumunda > cumuna except énd, índ, ndo
nt t V_V yantar > yatar
ng ny unge > unye except before u
lg ly culgo > cuyo
e, a, o øO(n,m)_rN tiamora > chamra > chambra
l u _S# kolpos > koup S = non-dental stops
l u _SA khaltes > haute S = stops
d ør_#, _r# homardos > omár, cuedros > cör
t ør_# suertos > sör
b øm_# bembos > bem
V øOC_CN(C)# veredes > verde
V øNZ_COA khunodotis > hunodochi > hundochi Z = one of lr nm ptck s
e ø#(f,v,s)_lO pelasner > felaner > flaner
m mb _r tiamora > chamra > chambra
n nd _r zonres > zondre
n ø_m aetanima > etanma > etama
s ø_m bekasmes > bekame
s ø_r cumdisres > cunire
h ø_C akhnusian > ahnushan > anushan C is not d or y
h ør_ esarkh > esar
D øî_ ecunit > ecunî D = dental stop/fricative; F not stressed
rr r garra > gara
ér ë _C acernos > asën C is not d or y
ín ü _C ninsos > nüs C is not d or y
én ë _C dennos > dën C is not d or y
en e _C(C)(C)O lenkarion > lekaro C is not d or y
ns z _# falens > falez
CC C agella > azhela i.e., doubled consonants lost
d t _t medeta > metta
m n _D comitos > comt > cont D = dental stop/fricative
ye ë _# nenges > nenye > nenë
i øy_# milgis > milyi > mili > mily
VV V culda > cuuda > cuda don't change ä; treat iy as ii

Derivational morphology [To Index]

General [To Index]

Negative bu-:
dhahes correct > budhahes incorrect
merir measure > bumeril unmeasured

Nominalization [To Index]

Naming a simple action: -ei-:
cregen eat > cregeio eating
scalean breathe > scaleia breath

Process, action, or result: -eica (often -eca after double consonants, for N conjugation and adjectives only)

gives lively > giveica liveliness
leilen see > leileica vision, faith

Abstraction, art, or state: -antos:

raulan cook > raulantos cookery
aeluities virtuous > aeluitantos virtuousness

What results from an action: -el:

sudrir decide > sudrel decision
adaecten fetch > adaectel cost

Associated or resulting object : -ile:

gunen arm > gunile armor
minga mat > mingile paper
parir bet > parile bet
sadu prince > saduile highness

Collection of things: -ora:

khostos bone > khostora skeleton
kestos thing > kestora philosphy

Collective (viewed more as a unit than formations of -ora): -ta:

scrifec know > scrifta knowledge
nuric providing > nuricta provisions
oreises most true > oreista truth
peric mourner > pericta funeral entourage
falakh soldier > falakhta army
helgaios olive > helgaita olive grove

Associated action or object: -ura:

barekh arm > barekhura armful
londos honor > londuran appoint
kilima hill > kilimura column

Person in charge: m. -(r)ion, f. -(r)eis:

kescanda borough > kescarion, kescarieis steward(ess)
sul alone > sulorion, suloreis hermit, member of a religious order
vacus shrine > varurion priest of such a shrine

Area: -anda:

satres sovereign > satranda autonomous area
comitos government overseer > comitanda overseer's jurisdiction

Augmentive -unda, -onda:

ber mist > berundos fog
cuma hearth > cumunda town

Diminutive -ima:

calco heel > calcima knuckle
nier holy > nierima shrine

Sickness: -arda

dicena gums > dicenarda scurvy
agasan poke > agasarda cholera

Associated tool, place, or object: -ensa

aiubren retire > aiubrensa country house
naget feet > nagensa couch
medeta table > medetensa table covering

Substance (and later, colloquially, tool or object): -osios

glitan stick together > glitosios glue
melie bee > melosios honey

Adjectivization [To Index]

Noun to adjective: add -ises or -etes:
cira body > cirises physical
zandis meaning > zandetes meaninful
nirus machine > niruises mechanical

Associate adjective: -r-:

aeca needle > aecres sharp
licis barren > licres poor
ponos warrior > ponres manly, brave
rukh speed > rukhris fast

Characteristic of: -il:

elir life > elil lively
fasa front > fasil straightforward
khucua gods' house, oracle > khucil prophetic

Quality: -nes:

fadha patience > fadhenes patient
flaia flat surface > flanes flat
litis quarrel > litnes quarrelsome
mal bad > malnes sick

Tendency toward: -esmes:

garos common sense > garesmes sensible
teker stand > tekresmes solid

Verbalization [To Index]

Some simple verbs share the same root as the associated noun:
crivos scroll > crivan write
culpa blame > culpir be guilty
elir life > elirec live
nou rain > noer rain
remos oar > remir row

Another common verbalization is -dan or -nden:

lennos line > delendan disarrange
mehu furrow > mehunden plow
ogonos flame > ogondir roast
reth far > rethunden extend
tom thump > (assimilated) tombir fall, drop
zennos sign > zendan indicate

Make, go: -bren:

dhuos frown (n.) > dhubren frown (v.)
is out, away > isubren go out
tras over, beyond > trabren go too far

A causative -icer is used mostly with adjectives:

faliles white > falilicer whiten
ctodos anger > ctodicer make angry
perir (originally) fear > pericer threaten
scoli how much > scolicer cost

Use a part of the body: -atir (by extension, used as a general depreciative suffix):

pillis eyelash > pillatir blink
nogen squeeze > nogatir charge interest

Do prolongedly: -ins- (and by extension, interminably or badly):

emec talk > eminsec prattle on
noer rain > noinser rain long and hard
prosan walk > prosinsan promenade

Do again: ren-:

emec say > renemec repeat
leilen see > renleilen see again
laudan go > renlaudan return

Numerous verbs are formed by the addition of a preposition. Such verbs generally have no dynamic aspect (since the verb itself has a dynamic meaning).

leilen see > irleilen oversee
mettan put > demettan subtract
nusian be determined >akhnusian oppose
veiten speechify > adveiten answer

Compounds [To Index]

Compounds can be fairly freely formed in Cadhinor. Some examples:
aelu this + dennoth day (abl.) > aeludennoth today
aidhos god + clithec speak for > aidhoclithus godspeaker (priest)
caepos chain + sanno lord > caeposanno castle commander
cuma hearth + gina girl > cumagina girlfriend
furan feign + aeluthres virtuous > furaeluthres hypocritical
gula bile + labanis tongue > gulabanres acid-tongued
khice number + scrifta knowledge > khicescrifta accounting
lebes new + tractul dragged (in) > lebtractul newcomer
magnos stomach + tibri pain > magnotibri stomach pain
ras against + polege position > raspolege inclination, affection

The combination form of a noun is generally the nominative, minus any final -s: e.g. aidho- from aidhos 'god'.

Virtual Verduria