|Unlike Verdurian, whose grammar is not too far from European models,
Kebreni has a grammar which deviates any way it can
from English. I'm particularly proud of the verbal system.
You can decipher the map names using the lexicon.
Verbs * Pronouns * Numbers * Derivational morphology
Parameter order * Noun phrases * Adjectives * Conjunctions * Locative verbs * Questions * Complex sentences
The first states of men in the Plain were Monkhayic: Como and Methaiu on the upper Svetla, established about Z.E. -1150. By the time they appeared, men had lived in the Plain for twenty thousand years, and the Monkhayic peoples were divided into dozens of mutually incompatible languages.
Civilization and trade spread the prestigious dialects of the cities, and just before the Eastern invasion we are aware of three major speech varieties: that of Okiami and Methaiu in the south, that of Davur along the lower Svetla, and that of Agimbea and Newor along the Serea and the Mishicama littoral.
The Easterners pushed the Monkhayic peoples (those who were not absorbed) north and east (-375). Refugees from Davur established the kingdom of Davrio on Kebri.
Most of these lands were conquered by Munkhâsh (440), except for the littoral (reorganized as Leziunea) and Kebri.
The continental Monkhayic peoples (and, for about two centuries, even Kebri) were incorporated into the Cadhinorian empire as it pushed back and ultimately destroyed Munkhâsh (1667), and though the Monkhayic languages persisted throughout the entire classical area, colonization and Cadhinorization eventually replaced Monkhayic languages everywhere except two areas, Kebri (plus some regions of Érenat and, till recently, the island of Koto) and Monkhay, the mountainous southwestern corner of Dhekhnam.
The relationship between Kebreni and Monkhayu (both the languages and the peoples) has been obscured by long isolation. In addition, Kebreni has been highly influenced by Cadhinor, Ismaîn, and Verdurian, and has borrowed from languages further afield, the Kebreni being great seafarers; while Monkhayu is heavily influenced by Dhekhnami, Caizuran, and Sarroc.
"Monkhayu", which has given its name to the language family, simply means "the people"; compare Kebreni neh'ada.
Following Verdurian scholars, we will call it Methaiun, after the state of Methaiu-- although the language of pre-invasion Methaiu was actually a southern Monkhayic language.
This is certainly the most rickety of the ancient languages presented in this volume, not excluding proto-Eastern. To begin with, there are no direct ancient attestations; the Monkhayic peoples were illiterate, and remained so till the Cadhinorians conquered them. The problem is compounded by the extreme distance between Monkhayu and Kebreni; only a few hundred cognates can be identified.
Our sources for Methaiun are as follows:
Methaiun may be taken as an idealized form of the Monkhayic language of Kebri and the littoral, some time before the Munkhâshi invasion. I say 'idealized' because none of our sources are completely satisfactory. The Cadhinorians were not linguists, and adapted the Monkhayic words to the sounds of Cadhinor in order to write them down; while the reconstructions are biased toward the eastern area. Still, the overlap of the two methods is large and reassuring, and where divergences are systematic they can be taken as belonging to western and eastern dialects of Methaiun.
|fricatives||f||th s||h' s'||h||e||o|
Kebreni is written using the Verdurian alphabet. The orthographic representations of the above sounds are as follows.
c is a true palatal stop /c/, and should not be confused with any sort of affricate.
s', though it's written using the Verdurian sh, is a dorso-prepalatal fricative [s;], the same as the Polish s' or Chinese x. One recipe for producing it is to start with a sh and adding more palatal friction to it-- say sh, think [ç]. z' is the voiced equivalent.
The h is pronounced as in English (and Old Verdurian), while h' is a palatal fricative /ç/, as in German ich.
k is pronounced like a Verdurian c /k/, not a k /q/. Kebreni has sensibly used Cadhinor's two back stop symbols for two points of articulation, but the points are moved up a stop.
ng, pronounced [ng], is a fairly marginal phoneme, occuring only between vowels. Some dialects lack it, saying [ngg] instead.
Long aa is often written ä, as in Verdurian.
Doubled consonants (as in linna 'lord') are drawn out, as in English pen knife, not penny.
Stress is placed on the last syllable if it ends in a consonant, otherwise on the second-to-last vowel: Kébri, Kebropól, pah'ár, Leléc, s'aída, nizy'ru, Raazám, my'gu, paús'te, kulséu, ingaréi. Since stress is completely predictable, it is never indicated orthographically.
Kebreni is a syllable-timed language-- one where each syllable takes up an equal amount of time-- rather than a stress-timed one like English, where stresses occur at roughly equal intervals. Unstressed syllables in Kebreni retain their clear vowel sounds.
The sounds of Methaiun are reconstructed as follows:
This schema should be viewed as our best guess; it is certainly wrong in spots, and phonetic interpretations are quite uncertain.
We really have no idea how ch was pronounced. The Kebreni reflex is s'. We use ch because this is its reflex in Verdurian names inherited from Methaiun. In Cadhinor it was usually written t, tr, or ts, suggesting a palatal stop or affricate.
In addition, inflection is accomplished by vowel interchange, vowel change, and infixing, not by affixation.
The citation form of the verb is the imperfective:
kanu I see, you see, he was seeing...
diru I work, you work, he was working...
sudy I am called, you are called...
The final -u is not part of the root; it's a grammatical ending. It dissimilates to -y when the last vowel of the root is u, as in sudy.
To form the perfective you switch the last two vowels. (This relationship holds for all the other forms described below, as well.)
kuna I have seen, I saw...
duri I have worked, you worked...
sydu I was once called...
Perfective forms are used for completed actions, no matter what time they occur. Thus you'd use the imperfect diru for "I was working", because you weren't done yet; and the perfective kuna for "I will read it", if you mean you'll read it and finish.
An explicit time may always be indicated with adverbs:
Note that Kebreni transitive or ditransitive verbs, used with one less noun phrase, express a passive meaning. Thus
Pah'ar kanu pol.
Tomorrow you will see the city.
Pah'ar kuna pol.
Tomorrow you will have seen (everything in) the city.
Melah' kuna neku.
The king saw the cat.
The cat was seen.
Nyne h'ouz'i aisel. The girl lost the key.
Aisel h'ouzi. The key is lost.
Gymu sudy kulseu 'H'ulo'.
We call the commander 'Idiot'.
Kulseu sudy 'H'ulo'.
The commander is called 'Idiot'.
NP Vo NP = S V O
NP Vo = O V
NP Voo NP NP = S V O O
NP Voo NP = O V O
Some English verbs work this way as well; but all Kebreni verbs do.
Falte s'enen trus'e lyh'. Your boy broke the window.
Lyh' trus'e. The window broke.
To form the volitional, add an initial e, voice the initial consonant (if any), then switch the first two vowels (that is, the added e- plus what was the first vowel of the root). A final -y returns to -u.
agenu I intend to see, I will see, see! (volitional, uncompleted action)
agune I intended to see, I will have seen (volitional, completed action)
ideru I intend to work, I will see, work!
idure I intended to work, I will have worked...
uzedu I intend to call, I intend to be called...
uzude I intended to call / no longer be called...
The volitional forms emphasize that the agent consciously intends the action (imperfective) or the result (perfective).
I kicked the dog (perhaps accidentally).
I kicked the dog (on purpose).
It is frequently used for a future event (lahu 'come' --> alehu 'I will come'), and by extension as an imperative: alehu 'come!' Neither of these extensions is permitted with nonhuman subjects.
There is no word for 'want' as an independent lexical item; some volitional expression must be substituted. Often in fact this is agenu 'want to see', but other verbs are used as appropriate:
If the verb begins with a vowel, insert an h before the vowel switch: adnedu 'I added it' --> ahednedu 'I added it on purpose'. (Es'u 'to not be', discussed later, inserts v instead, for historical reasons.)
Impuz'eu agenu bonnezi!
The publisher wants (lit. wants-to-see) the story!
Linna ezeh'epu gembadi?
Does His Lordship want (lit. want-to-eat) breakfast?
karynu I see, you see, he sees (uncompleted action)
kurina I have seen, you've seen, he's seen (completed action)
agerynu I intend to see, I will see, see! (volitional, uncompleted action)
agurine I intended to see, I will have seen (volitional, completed action)
Polite forms express deference toward a superior, or politeness to an equal. They are used with nobles and royalty, employers, military superiors, parents, in-laws, teachers, and so on. In addition the middle and upper classes use it with each other; but man and wife, siblings or cousins, or very close friends do not.
H'em cyryru? Do I know you, sir?
Alerihu! Please come!
Note that the politeness applies to the listener, not to the referent.
Kulseu, falaute mabu furina; neh'at obucrise.
Commander, your dog is dead; a man kicked (it).
Polite forms are made by inserting -ri- within the verb root, before the last consonant; -ry- if the vowel in the next syllable is a u. The infix may divide a consonant cluster: kulsu 'command' --> kulrysu.
In addition there are a few suppletive forms; e.g. badu 'eat' has the polite form sehepu; tasu 'do' has the polite form soru, and so on. (Do not add -ri- to the suppletive forms; they are already polite.)
The benefactive implies that the given action benefits the speaker in some way:
keni someone sees, to my benefit
deri someone works for me
sidi someone is called, and it helps or flatters me
sythi someone provides to me
It is formed by fronting the stem vowel (a --> e, o -->e; u --> y, y --> i, i --> e, e unchanged) and changing the final -u to -i. The perfective, volitional, and polite forms are formed according to the usual rules.
The stem vowel is the last vowel of the root; e.g. pansyru 'someone kisses' --> pansiri 'someone kisses me'. (Verbs with stem y, like this one, have identical perfective and imperfective.)
To indicate that the action was performed for the benefit of the listener, the infix -ni- is added before the final consonant of the root:
kenini someone sees, to your benefit
deniri someone works for you
H'azum diru keda. Hazum is working on the house.
H'azum deri keda. Hazum is working on my house.
H'azum deniri keda. Hazum is working on your house.
Kulseu nuzi melah'. The commander spoke to the King. (from nizu, speak)
Kulseu nize melah'. The commander spoke to the King on my behalf.
Kulseu ninize melah'. The commander spoke to the King on your behalf.
The antibenefactive implies that the given action harmed the speaker in some way. It's very common in the mouths of Kebrenis and essential for mastering colloquial speech.
kona someone sees, to my loss
dyra someone works against me
soda someone is called, and it harms or insults me
sutha someone provides at my expense
kano someone saw, has seen, to my loss
dary someone worked against me
adery someone purposely worked against me
oseda they purposely call him that to spite me
loriha someone is coming to harm me (polite form)
It is formed by backing the stem vowel (a --> o, e --> o, i --> y; y --> u, u --> o, o unchanged) and changing the final -u to -a. The perfective, volitional, and polite forms are formed according to the usual rules.
Mabu fano. The dog went and died on me.
H'em dyra. I'm killing myself by working.
Kona hem. He watched me (in order to hurt me); he's spied on me.
Obeka. Oh, fuck me.
Again, -ni- can be infixed to indicate that the action was performed to the harm of the listener.
Kulseu nyniza. The commander is speaking against you.
Lelec pocnisa? Is Lelec kicking you?
The subordinating form is used when there is another verb in the sentence. It's formed by moving the final vowel of the verb before the final consonant and adding -te. A labial stop becomes dental and a voiced stop becomes unvoiced before the -te (so m --> n, p/b/d --> t, g --> c, z --> s, etc.).
kanu 'say' --> kaunte 'saying'
diru 'work' --> diurte 'working'
kulsy 'command' --> kulyste 'commanding'
mimu 'deal' --> miunte 'dealing'
cih'cu 'praise' --> cih'ucte 'praising'
This form has several uses. One is with auxiliary verbs, or any verb which takes another verb as a possible object. The -te form appears before the main verb, and after its objects:
Melah' kaunte elecu. The king is able to see you.
Kulseu gorkreha kaunte maru. The commander is probably reading the ledger.
Tarautte hilu? Do you like to dance?
H'em diurte luha. I came (in order) to work.
The negative in Kebreni is an auxiliary verb, es'u (polite natu):
H'em H'azum cyurte es'u.
I don't know Hazum.
H'azum kulseu kriuh'te us'e.
Hazum won't kill the commander tomorrow.
Pah'ar lauhte natu?
Aren't you coming tomorrow? (polite)
Note that volitional, politeness, and aspect inflections normally apply only to the main verb. One can make such finicky distinctions as the following--
diurte lahu was/is coming to be working
diurte luha came to be working
duirte lahu was/is coming to work (and finish)
duirte luha came to work (and finish)
diurte alehu is intending to come to work
iderute lahu is coming intending to work
--but these are rare even in writing; normally only the base form (i.e. diurte) is used, and inflections are applied only to the auxiliary. Semantically, they are considered to apply to the auxiliary + verb combination-- e.g. for diurte alehu the intention is taken to apply to both the coming and the working; while for diurte luha the entire action-- coming to work-- is taken as being completed.
Another usage of the -te form is as a gerund or modifier. The subordinated verb suggests the manner in which the main action was performed, or simply names a following or resulting action.
Kulseu kaunte nuzi.
The commander spoke watchfully (or, while watching).
Nyne pabautte taradu.
The girl was laughing and dancing.
Thazu mabu krih'ute pucso.
They kicked the dog to death.
H'ulo cih'ucte diurte es'u.
The fool works without praising (God).
Finally -te is used to form relative clauses. In this usage volitional, aspect, and effect inflections (but not politeness infixes) can be applied to the subordinating form. Note that the clause precedes the modified noun.
Neh'at duri keda.
The man worked on the house -->
[Diurte keda] neh'at alehu pahar.
[work-SUB house] man come-VOL tomorrow
The man [who worked on the house] will come tomorrow.
Kulseu nazy neh'at.
The commander spoke against me to the man -->
[Kulseu nayste] neh'at sudy Kalum.
[commander spoke-ANTIB-SUB] man name Kalum
The man [the commander spoke to against me] is named Kalum.
Melah' baku nyne.
The king is fucking the girl -->
[Melah' baukte] nyne h'ilu h'ente mabu.
[king fuck-SUB] girl likes my dog
The girl [the king is fucking] is fond of my dog.
There is no relativizing pronoun. Note that if the subordinated verb is preceded by a subject, as in the last two sentences, the head of the clause must be taken as a direct or indirect object; if the verb begins the clause, as in the first example, the head must be the subject of the clause. Schematically:
NP Vte NP = [S V] O
Vte NP NP = [V O] S
If the head noun refers to a place or time, the phrase is equivalent to a when or where clause in English-- again, these pronouns do not appear in Kebreni:
[vaac mygu moiutte] hah'c
the valley [where the blue ox was found]
[pocuste melah'] re
the day [when I kicked the King]
Ellipses indicate that variations (the imperfective and the two volitional forms) are being left out.
|vol. pol. imp.||agerynu||ideryru||uzerydu||abebarydu||obecrysu||ugelrysu||anetu|
|vol. pol. perf.||agurine||idurire||uzuride||abeburida||obucrise||ugulrise||anute|
|vol. ben. imp.||egeni||ederi||yzedi||abebedi||ebecsi||ygelsi||eves'i|
|vol. ben. perf.||egine||edire||yzide||abebide||ebicse||ygilse||evis'e|
|vol. antib. imp.||ogena||ydera||ozeda||abeboda||obecsa||ogelsa||oves'a|
|vol. antib. perf.||ogane||ydare||ozade||abebado||obacse||ogalse||ovas'e|
|sub. vol. imp.||ageunte||ideurte||uzeytte||abebautte||obecuste||ugeluste||eveus'te|
|sub. vol. perf.||aguente||iduerte||uzyette||abebuatte||obuceste||uguleste||evues'te|
|Deriv.||one who does||kaneu||direu||sudeu||pabadeu||pocseu||kulseu|
|1 (I, we)||cin||z'um||h'em||gymu|
|3 (he, she, it, they)||thah'
There are three sets of pronouns in Kebreni, which imply contempt, neutrality, or deference toward the referent.
The pejorative first person forms (cin, z'um) are humilifics, used to refer to oneself when speaking with a superior; the remaining pejorative forms (kuh' and vuh'-- one does not bother with any number distinction) are used to refer to those of lower classes (or, of course, to insult someone by referring to them as inferiors).
The deferential second person form falau is an honorific, used to refer to a listener or listeners who are social superiors; its use roughly correlates with the use of the polite forms of verbs. Note that the third person forms (vep, vybu) express deference to the person referred to, not (unlike polite verbs) to the listener. There are no deferential first-person pronouns.
For all of these pronouns, possessive forms can be made by adding -te (which forces a preceding labial stop to assimilate): h'ente 'my (ordinary)', falaute 'your (deferential)', vuh'te 'his/her/its/theirs (pejorative)'.
It must be emphasized that pronouns are optional, and indeed to be avoided, in Kebreni. They are used only when necessary for clarity. For direct address, in fact, it's preferable to use honorifics and titles:
Linna, agenu gembadi?
Lord, [do you] want [your] breakfast?
'This' and 'that', as adjectives, are gem and kuri (the relation to 'one' and 'two' is obvious, but the direction of semantic borrowing is not!): gem nyne 'this woman', kuri palaz'nu 'that thorn-bush'.
As standalone pronouns these become gente 'this one' and kurite 'that one'. (This is actually a standard nominalizing use of the clitic -te with adjectives.)
Myra 'here', tomo 'there', z'ada 'now' and bada 'then' function as adverbs.
The standard interrogative anaphora are:
s'ava who, what
s'ete which (of what quality)
as'eve why (a volitional form of s'ava: i.e., 'wanting what?')
ciz'e how, in what way
s'anu where (locative verb)
bigynte how much, how many
Unlike in English, the interrogative anaphora cannot be used in relative clauses. Subordinated clauses usually have no explicit subordinator at all. See Complex sentences below for examples.
Quantifiers are ordinary adjectives, and like any adjectives are nominalized with -te.
fynte nothing, no one
biha some, any
bihate something, someone, anything, anyone
kum many, much
kunte many things, many people
orat all, every
oratte everything, everyone
There are no words meaning "everywhere", "sometime", and so on; instead one uses expressions like biha re 'some day', orat hami 'every land', fyn hah'cte zani 'in every valley', etc.
1 grem (related to 'this') 2 kuri (related to 'that') 3 dama 4 ghakakh ('almost (a hand)') 5 amua ('hand') 6 migrem amua ('with-one hand')... 9 ghakakh kuri ('almost two (hands)') 10 kuramua ('two hands') 11 poc pinakh ('down to the feet') 12 mikuri kuramua ('two hands with two') 14 mipoc kuramua ('two hands with a foot') 15 migrem mipoc kuramua ('two hands with a foot with one') 18 oranda nekhad ('entire man') 324 dikumi (related to kumi 'many') 5832 theleth
Under the influence of Cuêzi and Cadhinor, a decimal system was adopted; but the Kebreni numbers from 1 to 19 still show their origins in the Methaiun system:
The numbers from 21 to 99 are formed on the model [tens] kram [digits]-ai: 21 = kur kram gemai, 37 = dam kram migurai. In fast counting, kram is omitted.
1 gem 11 pinah' 2 kur 12 migram 3 dam 13 midakram 4 hak 14 mipoc 5 amma 15 mipokemai 6 migem 16 mipokurai 7 migur 17 hakraida 8 midam 18 raida 9 hakur 19 raigemai 10 kram 20 kur kram
It's still possible to count by 18s: raida, kuraida, dam raida...
dygum (from dikumi) has become the word for 100, while myga '1000' was borrowed from Cuêzi. The same basic model is followed: 487 = hak dygum midam kram migurai, 3480 = dam myga hak dygum midam kramai.
There are two ways of numbering noun phrases: by inserting the number before the noun, or by subordinating the noun and following it with the number:
dam kyr lah' or kyr lah'te dam
three green fields
The subordinated form is more formal, and is preferred in writing, or with very long numbers.
The suffix -eh' (-h' after vowel) forms ordinal numbers: gemeh' 'first', raidah' 'eighteenth'.
With adjectives, nominalizations with -gu name the abstract quality; with nouns and verbs, they generally name a countable action, result, or associated entity.
kanu 'see' --> kangu 'vista'
bothynu 'fight' --> bothengu 'battle'
syh 'strong' --> sygu 'strength'
s'en 'honorable' --> s'engu 'honor'
With nouns and verbs, -au (Meth. -adio) is an abstract nominalizer, comparable to our -tion; with adjectives it names an object with the given quality.
adnedu 'add' --> adnedau 'addition'
kanu 'see' --> kanau 'vision'
maru 'be probable' --> marau 'probability'
melah' 'king' --> melah'au 'royalty, kingship'
ty 'round' --> tyau 'tube, pipe'
For simple actions, a name for an instance of the action can be formed by lowering the last root vowel (i, y --> e; e, o --> a; u --> o, a unchanged) and adding -i:
rih'u 'count' --> reh'i 'count, counting'
pocsu 'kick' --> pacsi'kick'
taradu 'dance' --> taradi 'dance'
z'ynu 'go' --> z'eni 'departure'
kulsy 'command' --> kolsi 'command'
The suffix -nu, usually accompanied by raising of the last root vowel (a --> e, e --> i, o --> u, others unchanged) names a concrete thing related to the root object or action.
gyru (Meth. ger-) 'rise' --> hernu (Meth. gerno) 'stair'
kam 'oak' --> kamnu 'acorn'
muk 'new' --> muhnu 'news'
To pluralize a noun, you follow the formula (X)V1C(V2) --> (X)V1C[+vcd]V1. The status of pluralization in Kebreni is quite different from languages such as Verdurian and English, where it is obligatory and grammaticalized. It is an optional derivation in Kebreni; it can be thought of as forming a collective noun-- 'a unit formed by more than one X.'
hami 'land' --> hama 'lands, large area, nation'
neh'at 'man' --> neh'ada 'people'
cai (Meth. kiodi) 'mountain' --> cadu (Meth. kiodo) 'mountain range'
bez' 'grape' --> bez'e 'bunch of grapes'
lore 'horse' --> loro 'team of horses'
-na is an augmentative; -ih' is a diminutive.
h'ir 'long' --> h'irna 'very long'
siva 'sand' --> sivana 'desert'
lezu 'forest' --> Lezyna 'Leziunea = big forest'
zeveu 'friend' --> zevih' 'little friend'
tada 'father' --> tadih' 'dad'
nyne 'maiden' --> nynih' 'little girl'
-eu names a person who does the action, comes from a place, or has a certain quality:
kulsy 'command' --> kulseu 'commander'
taradu 'dance' --> taradeu 'dancer'
Verdura 'Verduria' --> Verdureu 'Verdurian'
zev 'loyal' --> zeveu 'friend'
The Methaiun equivalent was formed by replacing the final root vowel of the verb with -u- and suffixing -i. This formation is found in a few old words:
ghis- 'cure' --> ghusi (hus) 'doctor'
brin- 'watch' --> bruni (brun) 'shepherd'
-ec has about the same meaning, but specifically names a feminine referent. Kebreni is usually not concerned to do so (e.g. melah' means both king and queen), but may use -ec in a few cases where the occupation is chiefly female (e.g. mah'ec 'prostitute') or where it's desired to refer to a couple without awkwardness-- e.g. a dance manual describing a duet may refer to the taradeu and taradec. The suffix is most commonly used to form girls' names.
lele 'cute, pretty' --> Lelec
lezu 'forest' --> Lezec
Methaiun -(gh)umi, whose Kebreni reflex is -um, named someone who lives in a particular place; it's related to ghami 'land': thus limighumi 'highlander'. As a productive prefix, it has been replaced by -eu in Kebreni; but -um is still found in personal names and in inhabitant-names of very old cities:
kal 'bee' --> Kalum
s'ogu 'ridge' --> S'ogum
Laadau --> Laadum 'person from Laadau'
Kathinah' 'Cadhinas' --> Kathynum 'Cadhinorian'
A manufacturer of something is named with -teu (a reduced form of taseu 'maker'):
nabira 'ship' --> nabirateu 'shipwright'
Given a verbal root CVXn, the formula VC[+vcd]VXne names a tool which accomplishes the action, or a substance which exemplifies it (contrast -eu, which is always a person):
paz'u 'cut' --> abaz'e 'knife'
thanu 'harm' --> athane 'weapon'
treh' 'black' --> etreh'e 'ink'
The suffix -es'a creates a concrete nominalization of an adjective: an object having the quality named by the adjective:
gem 'one' --> genes'a 'primacy (among interested parties), lien'
h'ir 'long' --> h'ires'a 'street'
-arei names a place:
suthy 'provide' --> sutharei 'store'
lore 'horse' --> lodarei 'stable' (with dissimilation)
nizu 'speak' --> nizarei 'forum'
The proprietor or manager of such a place is named with the suffix -areu (unless there already exists a simple form with -eu, e.g. sutheu 'provider, storekeeper'):
ingarei 'tavern' --> ingareu 'tavernkeeper'
From toponyms and nobles' names we learn of a vowel-harmonizing honorific prefix me- in Methaiun: Monkhado (Monkhayu), Michiaghama (Mishicama), meNeula (Menla), melekh 'king', myvun 'leader'. It's also seen in Methaiu, Meuna, Mevost, Meto:re. The prefix is not seen in modern Kebreni, and usually disappears in cognates: S'ahama 'Mishicama', neh'ada 'the people'.
The subordinator -te, attached to a single word, in effect turns it into an adjective.
keda 'house' --> kedate 'domestic'
neh'ada 'people' --> neh'adate 'popular'
diru 'work' --> dirte 'relating to work'
Attached to expressions referring to people, including pronouns, it serves as a genitive:
falau 'you' --> falaute 'your'
nyne 'maiden' --> nynete 'maiden's'
Verdureu 'Verdurian' --> Verdureute 'Verdurian's'
An adjective related to a geographic expression is formed with -en:
Kebri 'Kebreni' --> kebren 'Kebreni'
Ernaituh' 'Érenat' --> ernaituhen 'Érenati'
The infix -n- + final -(y)r gives an adjective meaning 'having the quality of X' or 'liable to X':
boh'tu 'water' --> bontur 'wet'
men 'hill' --> mennyr 'hilly'
h'ulo 'idiot' --> h'unlor 'idiotic'
zeveu 'friend' --> zevenur 'friendly'
krih'u 'kill' --> krinh'yr 'murderous'
pabadu 'laugh' --> pabandyr 'amusing'
The infix -su- gives an adjective meaning 'made of X':
siva 'sand' --> sisuva 'sandy'
h'eda 'stone' --> h'esuda 'stony'
kam 'oak' --> kasum 'oaken'
The meaning of an adjective may be intensified by infixing -u- before the last consonant, or diminished by infixing -i-:
h'ir 'long' --> h'iur 'very long', h'iir 'not long'
s'aida 'beautiful' --> s'aiuda 'breathtakingly beautiful'
s'e 'small' --> s'ei 'tiny'
A similar process can be seen in Meth. nauni 'young man', niune 'young woman' (but it's obscured by sound change in Kebreni: nen, nyne).
-iCa where -C is the final consonant of the root, or -eCa after -i-, means 'that has been Xed'. This sounds like a past participle, but it is never a verbal form, nor can it even be used predicatively; it can only be used to modify a noun, or as a nominalization.
nizu 'say' --> nieza 'spoken'
suthy 'provide' --> suitha 'provisions'
kulsy 'command' --> kulisa 'what is commanded', lexicalized as 'fleet'
nabru 'sail' --> nabira 'what is sailed', i.e. a ship
The suffix -lecsu (from lecu 'can'), added to a verb, means equally 'that can be verbed' or 'that can verb'; context generally indicates which.
badu 'eat' --> badlecsu 'edible'
z'aiz'igu 'marry' --> z'aiz'iglecsu 'marriageable, nubile'
tres'u 'break' --> tres'lecsu 'breakable'
The infix -at-, used to produce antonyms in Methaiun, is no longer productive:
zewi 'loyal' --> zatewi 'disloyal, treasonous'
chiam- 'aproach' --> chatiam- 'move away from'
An adjective can be negated with bu- (borrowed from Cadhinor):
doh't 'correct' --> budoh't 'incorrect'
gauryr 'pure' --> bugauryr 'impure'
Nouns can be fairly freely converted into verbs by adding -u (replacing a final vowel):
dyrh'i 'credit (entry)' --> dyrh'u '(enter as a) credit'
nabra 'sail' --> nabru 'sail'
alat 'silver coin' --> aladu 'spend money'
A syntactic alternative, to use the verb tasu 'do', is extremely productive, especially for vague nonce forms:
sutharei 'store' --> sutharei tasu 'shop'
zeveu 'friend' --> zeveu tasu 'be friendly'
thiron 'market' --> thiron tasu 'go to market'
The suffix -s- forms verbs with the meaning 'to use X (in the obvious way)' or 'to act like X':
poc 'foot' --> pocsu 'kick'
bry 'eye' --> brysu 'keep an eye on'
s'emu 'fish' --> s'emsu 'swim'
mygu 'ox' --> mycsu 'haul'
The infix -ma- means 'to make X' or 'to acquire X':
syl 'dark' --> symalu 'darken'
hazik 'proud' --> hazimaku 'make proud'
kur 'two' --> kumaru 'split'
s'emu 'fish' --> s'emamu 'fish'
alat 'silver' --> alamatu 'scrounge up cash'
Locative verbs can be prefixed to verbs, often with the effect of specifying a direction or purpose for the action. Often an abbreviated form of the locative is used.
ebu 'be away from' + diru 'work' --> ebdiru 'take off work'
dynu 'be above' + rih'u 'count' --> dyrh'u 'count as a credit'
These expressions derive from a subordinated verb: eupte diru --> ebdiru.
Linna Kalum, gente botheneu az'eiz'irygu falaute nynih'.
Lord Kalum, this soldier wants to marry your daughter.
H'azum, linna agenu hus.
H'azum, the Lord needs a doctor.
To mark focus, a constituent is moved to the front of the sentence. With compound sentences, the constituent in focus may serve as subject and object both in the the sentence; context usually serves to keep the meaning clear, without any unusual syntax or the insertion of pronouns.
Muk botheneu sudy Kamum, eh'c kulseu h'ilu.
The young soldier, [he] is named Kamum, and the commander likes [him].
Linnate nyne gegeu miz'ynu gembadu.
As for the lord's daughter, the servants are bringing breakfast [to her].
Note that when there are two noun phrases before the verb and no object after it, the first must be the object. If there's just one noun phrase before the verb, it's both subject and focus.
Hus nynete baba agenu z'e.
As for the doctor, the girl's mother wants to see him too.
Nynete baba agenu hus z'e.
As for the girl's mother, she wants to see the doctor too.
Neh'at guma mabu.
Man bites dog. (focus unmarked or on 'man')
Mabu guma neh'at.
Dog bites man. (focus unmarked or on 'dog')
Neh'at mabu guma.
As for the man, the dog bit him. (focus on 'man')
Mabu neh'at guma.
As for the dog, the man bit him. (focus on 'dog')
NP V = S V
V NP = V O
NP V NP = S V O
NP NP V = O S V
Kebreni makes no morphological distinction between direct and indirect objects. One or both can appear after the verb, or be fronted for emphasis. The indirect object follows the direct object if both are given.
Kulseu h'uvy vez'a taradeu.
The commander gave the bottle to the dancer.
Nyne mugeu h'uvy s'emu.
The girl was given a fish by the young man.
S'emu nyne muh'a.
As for the fish, the girl sold it.
Another way of putting this is that verbs like h'yvu 'give' are ditransitive in Kebreni, like sudy 'call (someone) (something)'.
NP V NP = S V O
NP NP V = O S V
NP V NP NP = S V O O
NP NP V NP = O S V O
The destination of a verb of movement is not morphologically marked in Kebreni; it's treated as a second object.
Linna, z'yrynu Laadau.
Lord, we're going to Laadau.
Kuri thanih'te neh'at lahu z'umte keda?
Is that annoying man coming to our house?
Imez'ynu s'emu tada.
Bring a fish to your father.
However, the source of a movement is indicated using a locative verb (discussed below):
Laaven eupte lahu eh'c bohru.
They're coming from Laaven and they stink.
Modifiers-- including adjectives, numbers, relative clauses and locative expressions-- always precede the noun:
kur mabu two dogs
gem s'aida hazigai nyne that beautiful and proud maiden
thanih'te neh'at an annoying man
kaunte melah' mabu a dog that looks at a king
sivana s'aunte turgul the battalion near the desert
Kebreni's strong modifier-modified order would lead a linguist to suspect that it was once an OV language, which has changed, perhaps, under the influence of Verdurian. The evidence is equivocal; we do not have many actual texts in Methaiun. However, they do seem to be predominantly SOV.
The root meaning of -te is to reduce an expression to an attribute. It reduces a noun or noun phrase to an adjectival expression, a verbal expression to a subordinate clause.
With a single noun (or pronoun), a -te expression has an adjectival or possessive quality:
falaute gem one of you
tadate zevu father's friend
neh'adate nizarei the people's forum
kedate zivan the inside of the house (lit. the house's inside)
The same can be said of longer expressions that are themselves -te expressions:
falaute gente mygu the ox belonging to one of you
Kalunte tadate zevu Kalum's father's friend
neh'adate nizareite dirau the work of the people's forum
With more complex expressions -te functions like a relative clause:
dama rete ebdiru a three-day holiday; a holiday that's three days long
h'ulo tauste melah' a king who acts like an idiot
keda ziunte te mygu the ox that's in the house
Finally, a -te clause can stand on its own, meaning 'the one(s) which...':
Fal buda Kazumte bez'e eh'c h'em buda Lelecte.
You ate Kazum's grapes and I ate Lelec's.
Ruh'i Avelah' eupte lauhte? Thah' miry.
Did you count the one who comes from Avéla? He's rich.
There is no verb 'to be' in Kebreni; the closest equivalent is zaru 'exist, be there'.
Dama gegeu zaru, eh'c dama vez'a zaurte es'u.
(Lit.) Three servants exist, and three bottles do not exist.
There's three servants and three missing bottles.
Bothengu ziunte cih'ica ingarei zura.
In Boggola there used to be a praiseworthy tavern.
There is no verb 'have' either; zaru with effect inflections serves for this.
Keda, kur gegeu, eh'c s'emu zeri.
I have a house, two servants, and a fish. (Lit, they exist for my benefit.)
Lelena lelena nyne zeniri.
You have a very, very cute daughter. (Lit., she exists for your benefit.)
Negative effect inflections are used when the possession is disadvantageous.
Keda eupte symanlur kangu zora.
I have a boring view from my house.
Paru ziunte cuka zonira.
You have a pimple on your lip.
Third-person possession can only be indicated by possessive expressions, e.g.:
Kulseute pabandyr lore zaru.
(Lit.) The commander's amusing horse exists.
The commander has an amusing horse.
There is no attributive 'be' at all; to say that X is Y you normally simply adjoin the two noun phrases.
H'ente tada bez'arei eh'c baba taradeu.
My father is a vintner and my mother is a dancer.
To say that X belongs to the class Y, you can use sudy 'be called':
Ebrankrah' sudy krah'.
Cinnabar is (lit. is called) a mineral.
To reveal that X is actually Y, one can use the expression X Yai gensu 'X and Y are one'; the opposite can be indicated with kursu 'be two, differ':
Linna, krih'u loreai genrysu.
My lords, the killer is-- the horse. (Lit., the killer and the horse are one.)
Falte tada eh'c taradeu kursu.
Your father is no dancer. (Lit., your father and a dancer differ.)
Adjectives used attributively appear before the noun, without modification: s'aida seth 'a beautiful jewel'; thanih'te z'em h'ulo 'an annoying old idiot'.
As predicates they are a bit more complicated; in effect they are partially converted into verbs. No copula is used. In the simplest form, the adjective simply appears after the noun, in verbal position:
Krih'eu z'em. The killer is old.
The politeness infix -ri- must be used in the same situations it would be used on a verb:
Falte nyne s'aida.
Your daughter is beautiful. (ordinary)
Falaute nyne s'airida.
Your daughter is beautiful. (polite)
The predication is negated using the auxiliary es'u and the subordinator -te, as with verbs, and other auxiliaries may be used as well:
Gem mabu z'ente es'u.
This dog is not old.
Melah' miryte maru.
The king is probably rich.
Adjectives which already end in -te do not add it again:
Falau thanih'te erys'u!
You are not annoying, sir!
A perfective can be formed by appending -u (replacing a final vowel if any) and interchanging it with the previous vowel. Use -y instead if the latter is also a -u-.
The killer is no longer beautiful. (Cf. s'aida 'beautiful')
Falte nyne mycu.
Your daughter is no longer young. (Cf. muc 'young']
Predicate adjectives are not inflected for volition or effect.
An adjective can be used as a substantive by suffixing -te: syhte 'the strong (ones)', kyrte 'the green (ones).'
The subordinated form may also appear attributively; in this form and position it can be interpreted as a one-word relative clause.
Note the difference between:
nyyl nabira a slow ship
nyylte nabira a ship that is slow
nyylte a slow one
There is no morphological comparative. A comparative "X is more Q than Y" is formed using an expression that literally means "As opposed to Y, X is very Q."
Cadec ceuste polte nyne leule.
hill-girl opposing city-SUB girl cute-AUG
A city girl is cuter than a hillbilly girl.
Bodu ceuste s'emu bontuurte es'u.
frog opposing fish wet-AUG-SUB not
A fish is not wetter than a frog.
Instead of bontuurte es'u 'not very wet' we could say bontuir 'little wet'; but the negative expression is preferred in speech, where the difference from bontuur 'very wet' is not marked.
Note that where we use comparative forms Kebreni often uses the augmentative or diminutive forms: nyul lore 'slower horses', literally 'very slow horses'. Reduplication is also found, especially in speech: kasus kasus re 'a windy, windy day'.
Before a verb, the -te form of an adjective serves as an adverb:
Nyne nyylte taradu. The girl was dancing slowly.
Linna hazikte nuzi. The lord spoke proudly.
This form can follow the verb if it would not be confused with an object: nuzi hazikte is all right, but taradu nyylte would mean 'danced a slow one'. It can be fronted for emphasis, but only by placing it in its own subclause with tasu/soru 'do':
Hazikte tauste linna nuzi.
Proudly the lord spoke. (Lit., Doing proudly, the lord spoke.)
Applied to two (or more) modifiers, -ai forms an intersection, eh'c a union, of the meaning of the modifiers. For instance, muk syhai neh'at and muk eh'c syh neh'at both mean "the young and strong men"; but muk syhai neh'at means the men who are both young and strong (the intersection of 'young men' and 'strong men'), while muk eh'c syh neh'at means the young men and the strong men (the union of 'young men' with 'strong men').
The third logical possibility is a disjunction-- the men that are young or strong but not both-- and this corresponds to ga 'or': muk ga syh neh'at 'the old or the young men (but not both)'.
Similarly, applied to separate words, -ai implies that both conjoints describe the same referent(s) or action, eh'c that they are separate, and ga that only one applies:
(Here the referents are not the same. When the conjoints are obviously distinct, the meaning is that they form an indissoluble team, acting together.)
H'em falaai inezu.
You and I (as a unit or team) will speak.
H'em eh'c falau inezu.
You will speak, and I will speak.
H'em ga falau inezu.
Either you will speak, or I will speak.
the girl and the dancer (who are the same), the girl dancer
nyne eh'c taradeu
the girl and the dancer (who are two separate people)
nyne ga taradeu
the girl or the dancer (but not both)
Palec symalu thanih'uai.
Palec bores and she annoys (all at once, simultaneously).
Palec symalu eh'c thanih'u.
Palec bores and she also annoys (two different attributes).
Palec symalu ga thanih'u.
Either Palec bores, or she annoys (not at the same time).
Ga is thus an exclusive or. There is no conjunction that has the meaning of inclusive or (X or Y or both, X and/or Y), but, as in English, one can add the 'and' case explicitly:
Melah' pabadu ga fanu ga kur soru.
The king will laugh or die or both (lit. "or do the two (of them)").
There is no conjunction 'but'-- which, linguistically, is an 'and' with a built-in implication of surprise or contrast. These connotations must be explicitly indicated in Kebreni.
Mygu zinu keda!
The ox is inside the house!
Raazam neryvu hah'c.
Raizumi is in the middle of the valley (polite).
Most of them in fact are regular verbs-- e.g. foru 'follow', used as a locative verb with the meaning 'be behind', mitu 'use' or 'be with'. The others were also once regular verbs, but are no longer used in their original meanings.
More frequently a locative expression is used as a modifier or an adverbial; these are subordinate clauses in Kebreni. The locative verb conventionally ends the expression, although its parameter is technically a direct object (more evidence, perhaps, for Methaiun's OV nature):
ingarei ziunte inside the tavern
re neuvte in the middle of the day
[h'ir zeveu eupte] lyr muhnu
sad news [from an old friend]
[lim men fourte] keda
the high hill [in back of the house]
[melah' miutte] linna
the lords who support the king
[[kaldu ziunte] gem bakte kal ] h'ulo
an idiot [without one fucking bee [in his hive]]
These expressions are so frequent that they are phonetically degraded. The -u- is often lost, or combines with a preceding -i- or -e- to form -y-, and the final -e may be lost as well, yielding such forms as zynt' 'inside' or fort' 'in back of'.
English has at least one verb that acts like a locative verb-- 'contain'. Kebreni locative verbs all act like 'contain'. Compare:
Kona zinu cih'ta cih'ta ziunte The money is in the box in the box Cih'ta zadinu kona kona zadiunte The box contains money containing money
The most common locative verbs, and the abbreviations used in derivations from them, are shown below, with some examples:
|brynu||bry||facing, before, about||keda bryunte 'in front of the house', kriidi bryunte about books'|
|dynu||dy||up, on top of, over||cadu dyunte 'over the mountains'|
|ebu||eb||out (of), off, (away) from||Kebri eupte 'outside Kebri'|
|cezu||cez||against, despite||z'aiz'ega ceuste 'against the marriage'|
|foru||for||behind, in back of||keda fourte 'behind the house'|
|fuzu||fu||without||s'emu fuuste 'without a fish'|
|mitu||mi||with, using; supporting||abaz'e miutte 'with a knife'|
|nevu||ne||in the middle of, among, through, during||nabira neufte 'in the middle of the ship', mur neufte 'for an hour'|
|ponu||po||below, under||broga pounte 'under the table'|
|s'adamu||s'ada||far (from)||pol s'adaunte 'far from the city'|
|s'amu||s'a||around, surrounding, near||turgul s'aunte 'surrounding the battalion'|
|vekru||vek||as, like||gauryr vekurte 'like a virgin'|
|zinu||zi||in, inside, at, on(general locative)||lah' ziunte 'in the field', men ziunte 'on top of the hill', thiron ziunte 'at market'|
|zadinu||zadi||containing, including||seth zadiunte 'containing a jewel'|
mur dyunte an hour ago (lit., up an hour)
mur pounte an hour later, after one hour (lit., down an hour)
One can flow with a river or against it; expressions of support work the same way.
Tama miutte with (down) the Serea
Tama ceuste against (up) the Serea
melah' miutte/ceuste for/against the king
Finally, note that interrogative 'where' is a locative verb:
Where is the waterfall?
Yes-no questions are indicated with intonation alone:
Lahu? Are you coming?
H'ulo, miz'yunte h'ithane es'u?
Idiot, you didn't bring your sword?
A positive question is answered by repeating the verb or by contradicting it with the negative auxiliary es'u; there are no words for 'yes' or 'no'.
Lahu. Yes, I'm coming.
Es'u. No, I'm not coming.
To agree with a negative question, you again repeat the verb, which of course is the negative auxiliary es'u; to disagree with it you use the main verb:
Es'u. Yes, I didn't bring it.
Miz'ynu. No, I did bring it.
Tag-questions are formed with es'u (polite natu), without subordinating the main verb:
Laadum s'emuste lecu, es'u?
Someone from Laadau knows how to swim, doesn't he?
Melah' karynu h'em, natu?
The King will see me, won't he?
It should come as no surprise that a negative tag-question is formed by appending the non-negative main verb:
Fal fuuste kona es'u, fuzu?
You don't have any money, do you?
Unlike in English, question words are not fronted; they remain in the syntactically appropriate spot:
Fal cyru s'ava?
Who do you know? (Lit., you know who?)
Mah'u s'ava loreai?
You sold the horse and what else? (Lit., you sold what and the horse?)
Oteurte lore zeveu s'anu?
Where's this friend of yours who wants a horse?
Kuna s'ete s'emu?
What kind of a fish did you see? (Lit., you saw what-kind-of fish?)
Kylsu bigynte ladu?
How many olives did you order?
Verbs such as say or know can take sentences as objects. If the object is in its usual place, after the verb, no special syntactic marking is employed:
Cyru [Verdureu ameh'u baba].
We know [that Verdurians would sell their mothers.]
Kulseu nizu [turgul zinu kuri s'ogu].
The commander says [the battalion is on that ridge.]
If it's desired to front the sentential object, it should be followed by gente 'this one' or kurite 'that one':
[Verdureu ameh'u baba] gente cyru?
[Verdurian sell-VOL mother] this-one know?
That Verdurians would sell their mothers, do we know this?
The conjunctions eh'c and ga can be used for entire sentences:
Melah' zinu ingarei eh'c ingareu zinu h'yr.
The king is in the tavern, and the tavernkeeper is in the castle.
H'ilu inga ga ingarei ziunte s'aida nyne diru.
Either he likes the wine, or a beautiful girl works in the tavern.
Other relations between sentences are expressed by more specialized conjunctions. These are often expressed by adverbial clauses in English. Thus English adverb X (adverb) Y becomes X (conj) Y in Kebreni:
Melah' kaaryru pema falau yh'eryvu h'ithane.
When the king returns, you will give him your sword.
Melah' kaurte natu hez' falau oteryru h'iitiru.
If the king does not return, (then) you will take his sash.
H'em h'ouz'i kriida immi konarei mengu.
Because I lost the mortgage document, the bank is whining.
The conjunction is considered to modify the first (X) clause. To second clause can however be fronted if a demonstrative is left in its place:
Konarei mengu, h'em h'ouz'i gemes'ate kriida immi kurite.
The bank is whining, because I lost the mortgage document.
"To do X in order to Y" is expressed by placing X in the volitional and subordinating Y:
In order to get money, you must spend money.
Z'yunte Kebropol h'em oteru lore.
go-SUB Kebropol I acquire-VOL horse
I want to get a horse in order to get to Kebropol.
As noted under Pronouns, interrogative pronouns cannot be used as relative clauses (that is, to form subordinate clauses).
Where English would use 'what', 'who' 'where', or 'when', Kebreni uses the subordinating form of the verb:
[Z'aiz'iute kulseu] taradeu h'iulte es'u.
The dancer [who married a commander] doesn't like him.
[Cuka miute] gente eves'u.
I don't want to see the one [who has a pimple].
Yz'enu [hamaida nyne tarautte] ingarei.
I want to go to the tavern where the naked girls dance.
An English sentence with relative 'why' will be expressed using immi 'because' in Kebreni:
[Z'yunte Laadau immi] cyurte es'u.
I don't know [why he's going to Laadau].
(Lit., I don't know because he's going to Laadau.)
In the interlinear translation, for brevity, I've used the English possessive or gerundive to represent subordinating forms of nouns and verbs, respectively. However, I've used verbal forms to translate locative verbs; prepositions would misrepresent the structure of Kebreni.
Writing addressed to the world in general (stories, essays, textbooks, news articles) generally does not use the polite forms. When the writer has a specific audience in mind (speeches, petitions, personal letters, sermons), polite forms are used. They are not used in religious language or in legal documents--not signs of disrespect for gods or negotiation partners, but of the age of such language, predating the grammaticalization of politeness.
Uneitsu Kebri. Nuutsi s'ava?
think-VOL Kebri. think-PERF what?
Hah'c ziunte sylgu, luda kuguynte men, boh'tunate geira thaupte yvyre.
valley being-in shadow, olive-tree filling hill, sea's sound lapping boats.
Nuitu ziunte kanu hazik pol, nabirateu eh'c konarei eh'c ingarei miutte,
mind being-in see proud city, shipbuilder and bank and tavern using,
geru kebrite ceirate lyyr zauguai, ansu s'aida kebren nynete h'ir mova,
hear kebri's song's sadness glory-and, feel beautiful kebreni girl's long hair,
debru falte hah'c ga falte noh'a ziunte tauste iz'ele, Kebri ziunte dynyr.
taste your valley or your island being-in making cheese, kebri being-in top.
Fal kebren immi nuitsu orat kurite.
you kebreni because think all that-NOM.
Verdureu nuitsu, kebri zikanu gente: ingu, ladute gezu, nabira eh'c zateuguai.
verdurian think, kebri mean this-NOM: wine, olive's oil, ship, and enmity.
Gymu h'ih'unte Ruh'tyrte rema hami, toryuvte Theh'nam hami, moreo as'caite melah' bryunte ledeu.
we burning arcaln's bridge land, trading dhekhnam land, moreo ashcai's king facing rival.
Oratte ceuste, nana miutte, tasu oradam ziunte dynyr ingu,
all-NOM opposing, methods using, make world being-in top wine,
Kelenor Luis'orai ceuste h'auv miuryai.
celenor luyshor-and opposing good-AUG rich-AUG-and.
Gensi eh'c gennisi. Kanu gymu oradam vekurte:
same-for-me and same-to-you. see us world seeming:
bucuelecsu cynaute kumbehsu meclau.
irreducible experience's miscellaneous mixture.
Ebaneu kanu bemas' miutte-- gente ceuste, gymu kaunte eus'te z'aite thaza kanu.
outsider see caricature with-- this-NOM opposing, we seeing not-SUB things they see.
Bobabeu nuituste es'u h'ymu kunnar.
drunkard thinking not-PRES drinks too-much.
Kanarei gemeh' doh'tte es'u, kureh' doh'tte es'u:
viewpoint first right-SUB not, second right-SUB not-PRES :
neh'atte z'aite miutte, nenkanyr kanarei zaurte es'u.
man's thing having, objective viewpoint existing not.
Think of Kebri. What do you think of? You think of the shadows on the valleys, the hills carpeted by olive trees, the sound of the sea lapping against boats. You see in your mind the proud cities, with their shipbuilders and banks and taverns, hear the sadness and glory of Kebreni songs, feel the long hair of beautiful Kebreni girls, taste the particular cheese made in your own valley or island--the best on Kebri. You think all this because you are Kebreni.
To the Verdurians, Kebri means these things: wine, olive oil, ships-- and enmity. We are the land which burned the Arcaln Bridge, the land that trades with Dhekhnam, the rival before the king of Moreo Ashcai. And at the same time, somehow, we make the finest wine in the world, better and richer than that that of Célenor or Luyshor.
It is the same way with each one of us. We see ourselves as a world-- a jumbled mixture of irreducible experience. Outsiders see us in caricature-- but may also see what we do not see: the drunkard never thinks he drinks too much. Neither point of view is the correct one; with human things, there is no objective viewpoint.
|CC --> C||treggeur --> treh'yr|
|[+fric] --> [-fric]||/ _[+liquid]||Davrio --> Dabru, khras --> krah'|
|e --> y||/ C,#_Cu||keruna --> kyruna|
|i --> y||/ C,#_Cnu||kijur --> kyz'ur|
|g --> x||/ _F||geilas --> h'ilah'|
|g --> gh||/ _C||mogdo --> moghdo --> mohdu|
|r --> i||/ g_||grem --> giem --> gem|
|s, z --> [+velar]||/ _[+stop], _#||ghask --> hah'c, girilas --> h'irilah'|
|k --> c||/ _i||vaiki --> vaac, kiodi --> cai|
|ai --> aa||Laita --> Lädau|
|oi --> e||Awoilas --> Avelah'|
|au --> e||saumi --> sem|
|Fu --> y||briu --> bry, neuli --> nyl|
|io --> a||/ _C||kiodi --> cai|
|o --> u||/ _(Cn)#||mog --> muk, arosd --> ruh't|
|w --> v||Newor --> Nevur, Awoilas --> Avelah'|
|kh --> h'||kham --> h'am|
|[+vcd+stop] --> 0||/ V_F||kiodi --> cai, Dobauron --> Doerun|
|i --> 0||/ _V||lesio --> lezu|
|[-vcd+obs] --> [+vcd]||/ V_V||sifa --> siva, Gutein --> Gudin, Laita --> Lädau|
|e --> 0||/ _ i, a||geilas --> h'ilah', Leziunea --> Lezyna|
|i --> 0||/ C_#||raisi --> raas|
|r --> 0||/ C_#||godri --> godr --> god --> got|
|ch --> s'||Chengo --> S'engu|
|j --> z'||/_||jindor --> z'indur|
|gh -->h||ghask --> hah'c, mogdo --> moghdo --> mohdu|
|k --> c||/ by x, s'||ghask --> hah'k --> hah'c|
|n --> i||/ _[+dental]||chanda --> s'aida|
|m --> n||/ by [+dental]||admettan --> adnedan, khamsifa --> h'ansiva|
|h --> 0||/ _x||moggeur --> moghxyr --> mohxyr --> moxyr|
|n --> 0||/ _s||tanso --> tasu|
|[+stop] --> [-vcd]||/ _#||vaiki --> vaaci --> vaac, mog --> muk|
Kebreni and its ancestor Methaiun have been in close contact with Cuêzi and the Cadhinorian languages for close to four milennia, and there has been extensive borrowing in both directions.
Methaiun borrowings into Cuêzi include geo:re 'castle', nîdo 'wheel', nêsei 'parley', auo:ni 'treaty', navera 'sail', ancua 'sea serpent', girin 'ibis', sêori 'octopus', crinu 'papyrus', execu 'lentil', ladu 'olive', mexera 'type of herb', cioti:ro 'type of flower', tala:uas 'orange', xariu 'luck', trîgo 'soot'.
Methaiun borrowings from Cuêzi include aviza 'university', numygur 'hermit', kriida 'paper', eri 'map', ris 'pen', gunah' 'hero', eklura 'sensual abandon, kelun 'bronze', mardah' 'iron', lidah' 'steel', fadora 'fountain', myga 'thousand', pery 'flaid', yra 'type of flower'
Methaiun borrowings into Cadhinor include Agireis 'the sea goddess', evrankhras 'realgar', khamsifa 'sulfur', laitondos 'brass', patheta 'calomine', baita 'barrel', cora 'riverboat', tindigeda 'anchor', theiba 'bow', pinda 'stern', siobostos 'brine', burasos'sponge', dauris 'seagull', akulua 'shark', raikh 'crab', moreia 'tuna', nothonis 'salmon', busmitrio 'pearl', citro 'lemon', bidno 'grapevine', vinos 'wine', palaznos 'gorse', setha 'silk', vidhora 'type of flower', mapola 'poppy', suber 'cork', peida 'type of vine', kariu 'happiness', and dozens of toponyms.
Methaiun borrowings from Cadhinor include adnedu 'add', demedu 'subtract', bina 'list', lerah' 'understanding', aken 'clear', h'iitiru 'sash', aladah' 'grammar', preh'tura 'history', kaadau 'magic', ygunit 'knights-and-kings', kraze 'rose', kridu 'write', ledu 'compete', lureh' 'beautiful', lyh' 'glass', cih'ta 'box'.
Kebreni borrowings into Verdurian include
Kebreni borrowings from Verdurian include
There are also many calques (loan-translations) from Cadhinor or Verdurian, such as babate namar for 'galena', from mira plomei 'mother of lead'; or zibis'u for 'entail', from imfayir, both formed from 'in' + 'be necessary'; or miebeu for 'disciple', 'one who leaves in support of (his beliefs)', based on profäsec; or mitecau for 'company', based on cumbutát 'those with a common goal'.
For borrowings into Ismaîn see the Ismaîn lexicon.
|-bu||-bo||n water (in toponyms)|
|-du||-do||n town (in toponyms)|
|abaz'e||apache||n knife ['cutter']|
|adnedau||n addition; profit|
|adnedu||v add [Cadh. admettan]|
|Ah'imba||Agibna||n an ancient kingdom centered on the lower Serea; V. Azhimbea. [the name of the Methaiun sea goddess; with augm. -na; cf. Cadh. calque Agireis]|
|ah'nu||asnu||n donkey, ass|
|aisel||n key [Verd. ansel]|
|aken||akni||a clear, evident [Cadh. iacnis]|
|aladah'||n grammar [Cadh. aluatas]|
|aladu||v spend money|
|alamatu||v scrounge up cash, get a little money|
|alath||alathi||n a silver coin [Cadh. alathis]|
|amma||amua||n hand; num five|
|ankuva||ankuva||n sea snake, eel|
|ansu||ams-||v touch or feel (with the hands) ['hand' + -s-]|
|as'eve||pron why, what for [volitional form of s'ava 'what': thus 'wanting what?']|
|athana||athana||n army [collective of 'weapon']|
|athane||athane||n weapon ['harmer']|
|Avelah'||Awoilas||n An ancient kingdom opposite Kebri; also its capital, the modern Avéla ['treaty field']|
|aviza||avisa(r)||n university, academy [Cuêzi avissa:r]|
|avon||awoni||n agreement, treaty|
|az'cita||n monastery [Ver. azhcita]|
|bada||bata||adv then, at that time|
|badu||bat-||v eat (polite = seh'epu)|
|batronu||batron-||v relax [ant. of bronu 'tire']|
|beh||n essence; (alchemy) spirit [Old Verd. beh']|
|bemas'||n caricature, cartoon [Verd. bemásh]|
|bez'arei||n vineyards, wine maker|
|bez'e||beje||n bunch of grapes|
|biha||beikha||a some, few, any|
|bihate||pron something, someone, anything, anyone|
|bigynte||beihakumi||pron how many, how much|
|biisu||bins-||v list, register, record|
|bis'u||bich-||v (with sub. verb) must, have to; (alone) be necessary|
|bina||bina||n list, register, record [Cadh. bineia]|
|biz'nu||bijno||n grapevine ['grape' + nom.]|
|bobabu||v wobble, stagger [synaesthetic]|
|boguida||bokunda||a tomb [from bokud- 'bury']|
|boh'tum||bostumi||n iliu ['sea-inhabitant']|
|boh'tuna||n sea ['great water']|
|bomiz'iru||bostomichiro||n pearl ['water silver', or perhaps 'iliu silver']|
|bongryr||a stinking, stinky|
|bonnezi||n story ['thing-say']|
|bonu||bono||n thing, object|
|broida||bronda||n storm [imitative]|
|bronu||bron<-||v tire, fatigue; be tired|
|brun||bruni||n shepherd ['watcher']|
|brynu||brinu||v look at, watch; face; loc v facing, in front of, before, about|
|brynizu||v describe, talk about [bryunte 'about' + nizu 'speak']
bryniunte [nezi] adjective
|brysu||v (slang) eye, keep an eye on|
|bucuelecsu||a irreducible, unalloyed, essential [cf. cuelu]|
|bucy||bukiu||a nasty, horrible ['vomitous']|
|budoh't||dokhti||a wrong, incorrect|
|bugauryr||a impure, no longer virginal|
|cadeu||n mountain man, hillbilly|
|cadu||kiodo||n mountain range|
|caiz'iru||kiodichiro||n a type of flower ['mountain-white']|
|ceh'nu||kiesn-||v defend [formation from kies- 'oppose']|
|celu||n tea [from Belesaowa chae lu 'tea beverage', chae from Uytain tsai]|
|cezu||kies-||v oppose; loc v be against, despite
kurite ceuste despite that; however, but
|cih'ta||kista||n small box [Cadh. cista 'box, trunk']|
|cin||pron I, me (humble) [weakening of h'em?]|
|cirnu||n platform, deck ['thing for standing on']|
|cuelu||v (chem.) calcine; reduce to its elements [Verd. chuelan]|
|cuka||n dot (esp. on clothing); pimple [Verd. chuca 'spot']|
|cynau||n experience, perception|
|cynu||kin-||v feel, perceive, experience [from kanu 'see']|
|cyru||kiur-||v know (person, thing, or fact)|
|Dabru||Davrio||n the ancient name for Kebri [from Davr]|
|das'i||n fall, drop|
|demedau||n subtraction; loss|
|demedu||v subtract [Cadh. demettan]|
|Doerun||Dobauron||n founder of Methaiu, the first kingdom of the Plain. [meaning unknown, and suspiciously Cadhinor in form.]|
|doh't||dosti||a right, correct|
|dos'u||doch-||v fall, drop|
|dygum||dikumi||num hundred (in Methaiun, 324 = 18 * 18)|
|dynu||diun-||loc v be up, on top of, over|
|dynyr||a upper; the best or finest|
|dyrih'a||n asset, advantage ['what is credited']|
|dyrh'i||n credit ['up-count']|
|dyrh'u||v count as a credit, add to the credit ledger|
|dyvan||diuwan||n top, upper part|
|eban||epwan||n outside, outer part|
|ebaneu||n outsider, foreigner|
|Ebdicai||n a city on Kernoia ['off Snow Mountain']|
|ebdiru||v leave off working, take a holiday ['off work']|
|ebrankrah'||evrankhras||n cinnabar ['red mineral', which is the meaning in Meth.]|
|ebu||ep-||v leave, avoid; loc v be out (of), off, (away) from|
|eklura||ekhlura||n perversion, sensual abandon, hedonism [Cuêzi exlûra 'sin'-- a preoccupation of Cuzeians outside their country]|
|eklurei||n place of sensual pleasures (wine, food, plays, music, nude dancing, gambling, etc.)|
|Ektezivun||Ektesifon||n Ctésifon, Zhésifo [Cadh.]|
|eri||aurisonda||n map [Cuêzi]|
|Erivilah'||n Ervëa, Cadhinorian emperor [Cadh Aerivileas]|
|Ernaituh'||Erenantos||n Érenat [Cadh.]|
|Ernaituh'en||a of Érenat|
|es'u||wech-||v to not be (negative auxiliary verb; polite form is natu)|
|etreh'e||etrege||n ink ['blackening tool']|
|fadora||fatora||n fountain [Cuêzi fato:urrâ]|
|falau||pron you (deferential) [fal + nominalizer]|
|faus'u||v cram (for a test) [Ver. fálshuec]|
|fes'u||n soirée, fancy party [Ver. fësho 'ball']|
|firu||feiro||n bathfiru tasu take a bath|
|foru||foru||v follow; loc v be behind or in back of|
|Fugaaz'i||Fukai khaichei||n Fugäzhi lake in Kebri ['deep lake']|
|fuzu||fus-||v lack, miss; loc v be without|
|fyn||funi||a no, none|
|fynte||pron nothing, no one|
|fyru||feuro||n baths; spa, resort; also a city in Kebri [augmentive of feiro]|
|gauryr||a pure; virginal; n virgin [intensive of 'clean' + adjectivizer]|
Egenirigi! At your service!
|geira||n sound ['(something) heard']|
|gem||grem||num one; pron this (needs following noun)|
|gembadi||n breakfast ['first meal']|
|gemes'a||n lien; primacy among heirs or interested parties|
|gente||pron this one|
|gensu||gremsu||v be united; be one; be the same, not differ|
|geru||gaur-||v hear, listen|
|Gethmene||Gauthmene||n the Ctelm mountains ['hills of dawn']|
|gonarei||n habitation, settlement, colony|
|gonu||gonu||v cultivate; settle, inhabit|
|gorkreha||n weighing; balance sheet ['heavy-test']|
|gorkrege||n ledger, accounts book [plural of gorkreha]|
|got||godri||a thick, dense [alteration of gori]|
|Gudin||Gutein||n the greatest of the kings of ancient Davr (c. -600)|
|gunah'||ekunas||n hero [Cuêzi ecu:nas]|
|gymu||gemu||pron we, us|
|gyru||ger-||v raise, rise|
|habut||ghabuti||n bear ['honey-eater']|
|hadargu||ghatarigo||n bad luck|
|haiknu||num one fourth, a quarter|
|hak||ghakakh||num four ['almost (a hand)']|
|hakraida||ghakakh oranda||num seventeen ['almost the whole (man)']|
|hakte||adv almost, nearly|
|hakur||ghakakh kuri||num nine ['almost two (hands)']|
|hamadu||v strip (clothes, bark, husks, peels); to be bare|
|hamaida||a stripped, peeled; naked|
|hamauda||a barren [intensive of hamaida]|
|Hazigami||Ghasikami||n Azgami ['land of the proud']|
|hez'||ghauchi||conj X hez' Y = if X, then Y|
|hus||ghusi||n doctor ['healer']|
|hyzu||ghis-||v heal, cure|
|h'am||kham||n hot springs, baths|
|h'amavu||v bless ['make good']|
|h'ansiva||khamsifa||n sulfur ['spring-sand']|
|h'avigu||khawigo||n goodness, virtue|
|H'azum||Khaskumi||n Kebreni name ['valley-man']|
|h'em||gem||pron I, me|
|h'iitiru||gintiro||n sash (esp. as emblem of legitimacy) [Cadh. guintro]|
|h'ilu||kheilu||v like, be fond of (the archaic meaning is 'desire')|
|h'ir||giri||a long, longstanding|
|H'irem||Mikhirem||a the planet Khírumor [Elkarîl Ñokhrem, with the initial syllable reinterpreted as the honorific]|
|h'irin||girein||n ibis ['longish']|
|H'iraaz'i||Giri khaichei||n Hiräzhi lake in Kebri ['long lake']|
|h'ithane||girathane||n sword ['long weapon']|
|h'oizu||khonj-||v lose, be lost|
|h'ymvur||a generous ['giving']|
|ibih'te||n bed ['sleeper']|
|immi||inwei||conj because; the reason why|
|impuz'eu||n printer, publisher|
|impuz'u||v print [Verdurian impuyan]|
|iz'ele||ichaule||n cheese [related to chiul 'milk' either by an obscure derivational process, or by borrowing from another dialect]|
|iz'icse||n cushion (used in place of chairs in traditional Kebreni culture) [nominalization of sit]|
|kaadau||n magic [Cadh. aletes caedel 'high discipline']|
|kaam||kaimi||n spirit, godling [dim. of kaumi 'god']|
|kaaru||kair-||v return, come back|
Kum kadrigu A general salutation
|kahaba||n coffee [Moreo Ashcai kahawa]|
|kahabarei||n coffeehouse, café|
|kaldu||kaledo||n hive ['bee town']|
|Kalum||Kalumi||n Kebreni name ['bee-lander']|
|kanarei||n viewpoint; watchtower ['see-place']|
|kanau||kanadio||n vision, observation|
|kangu||kango||n vista, view; a reading (of a book)|
|kanu||kan-||v see, watch, read|
|kas||kazi||n wind, breeze|
|kasum||a oaken; also a Kebreni personal name|
|Kathinah'||Kathinas||n Cadhinas; the Cadhinorian empire [Cadh.]|
|kathynum||kathinumi||n Cadhinorian (person)|
|kau||koadu||n riverboat ['fast thing']|
kebren nizgu the Kebreni language
kebrente nizu to speak Kebreni
|Kebropol||n the capital of Kebri ['Kebri metropolis']|
|kelun||kelon||n bronze [Cuêzi celôn]|
|kemu||kaumu||n the gods; the Divine, God|
|Kemucai||Kaumu kiodi||n the highest mountain on Kebri ['gods mountain']|
|kente||a holy, sacred|
|Kernoh'a||Kernogha||n the island of Kernoia west of Kebri, and its main city. (The Verdurian name derives from Cadh. Kernokha, from the Methaiun.) ['green island']|
|kethnai||n factory [Ver. kedhnáe]|
|kodu||koto||n snail; Koto island|
|kima||n madness ['godded', i.e. possession by a god]|
|kimate||a crazy, mad; (slang) cool|
|Komuh||Komugh||n lake Como in Svetla [prob. 'god-place' in a southern Monkhayic language; cf. kem]|
|kona||n money [Old Verd. konna]|
|konarei||n bank ['money place']|
|kram||kuramua||num ten ['two hands']|
|kramah'||n mine [back-formation from kramah'u]|
|kramah'u||v mine, seek minerals ['acquire minerals']|
|kraze||krase||n rose [Cadh.]|
|kriida||krinda||n paper, document [Cuêzi crindas, from crinu 'papyrus, from Meth.]|
|kriidi||n book [plural of 'paper']|
|kridnu||n desk ['writing object']|
|kridu||kriv-||v write [Cadh crivan; but Keb. altered to match kriidi]|
|krynu||krinu||n papyrus plant|
|kugumy||kukum-||v fill, throng(out); loc v throughout, everywhere within [reduplication of 'many']|
|kuirnu||num one half
kuirnu suithum a coin worth 1/2 suithum
kuirnu (alath) a coin worth 12 alath
|kuh'||kokh||pron you (pejorative)|
|kulisa||n fleet ['what is commanded']|
|kulseu||n commander of a fleet|
|kulsy||v command; order|
|kum||kumi||a many, much|
|kumaru||v split ['make two']|
|kumbehsu||a miscellaneous, compound ['made of many essences']|
|kun||kun||a hawk, falcon (Ver. sokol)|
|kunnar||adv too much ['much' + augmentative + -yr]|
|kunte||pron many things or people|
|kuraida||kurioranda||num thirty-six ['two eighteens']|
|kuraiyr||n logic; essay, treatment [Ver. curayora]|
|kursu||kursu||v differ, not be the same|
|kuri||kuridi||pron that (must be followed by a noun)|
|kurite||pron that one|
|kusi||kusi||a merry, joyful|
|Kuveza||Kuwezea||n Cuzei [Cuêzi Cuêzaye]|
|kuvezum||kuwezigo||n Cuzeian [Cuêzi Cuêzigo]|
|Laadau||Laita||n city in Kebri|
|Laadum||Laitumi||n person from Laadau|
|Laaven||Laiwen||n a town in Kebri (a city in ancient times)|
|lahau||n arrival, coming|
|lahgu||n income [concrete nominalization of 'come']|
|lecu||leki-||v can, is able to, knows how to|
|ledeu||n rival, competitor|
|ledu||laut-||v compete with [Cadh. lautan]|
|leidi||n lens; glasses|
|leisuta||a woody, wooden|
|lele||laule||a cute (Meth. 'pretty')|
|Lelec||Lauleki||n Kebreni woman's name ['pretty' + fem.]|
|lerah'||lerias||n understanding, perception [Cadh. lerias]|
|lerah'u||v understand, perceive|
|Lezec||Lesieki||n Kebreni woman's name ['forest' + fem.]|
|Lezyna||Lesiunea||n an ancient kingdom in the littoral ['big forest']|
|lic||n lawsuit, trial [Ver. lichy]|
|lidah'||lidas||n steel [Cuêzi ulidas]|
|linna||limina||n lord, lady ['high' + augmentative]|
|linnar||a noble, lordly|
|lorez'ir||lorajeiri||n a mythological horse with wings and eagle's head; later extended to other monsters ['horse-eagle']|
|loro||n team of horses|
|luda||luda||n olive tree|
|lureh'||a fair, attractive (of things) [Cadh. lures 'beautiful']|
|lyh'||n glass, window [Cadh. leus]|
|lyr||liur||a sad, nsadness|
|mamu||mam-||v suckle, give suck [interpretation of baby talk]|
|mardah'||mavardas||n iron [Cuêzi mavordas]|
|Mardah'yr||n Kebreni king of 20th century; chased out Cadhinorians ['ironish']|
|maru||mar-||v be probable, be likely|
|maz'eu||n trustee, steward; (grammar) pronoun|
|maz'gu||n trust, responsibility|
|maz'u||mach-||v trust, count on|
|meclu||v mix [Verd. meclir]|
|Megemeh'||Megemekh||n the first man; the mythical founder of the Methaiun people [hon. + 'first']|
|mehru||megr-||v lean, totter
mehurte [nezi] relativizer (Cadh. grammatical term for numbers, conjunctions, locatives)
|meika||n school (of artists), genre [Ver. menca]|
|melah'au||melahadio||n royalty, kingship|
|melah'||melakh||n king (or queen)|
|memu||meim-||v nourish, grow [dim. of mamu 'suckle']|
|melim||meilim||a nourishing; fertile; also Kebri's principal river [from meim-]|
|mera||meghra||n merha, a slightly bitter herb|
|Methaahu||Methaigho||n Methaiu, the first kingdom of the Plain. Cadh. Methaiu (V. Metau) probably comes from a southern language which had lost the gh. [Of unknown meaning, except that the me- is an honorific.]|
|Metheru||Methauro||n Lake Bérunor [honorific + 'gold']|
|Mez'ena||Mechena||n a personal name (and an ancient king) [hon. + 'honor']|
|miebeu||n disciple ['leaves in support'; calque on Ver. profäsec]|
|midam||midama amua||num eight ['hand with three']|
|midakram||midama kuramua||num thirteen ['two hands with three']|
|migem||migrem amua||num six ['hand with one']|
|migram||mikuri kuramua||num twelve ['two hands with two']|
|migur||mikuri amua||num seven ['hand with two']|
|mimaru||v make rich, become rich [miry + -ma-]|
|mimu||mim-||v make a deal, find a way out or around an obstacle|
|Minyne||Miniune||n the first woman, the wife of Megemeh' [hon. + 'maiden']|
|mipoc||mipoc kuramua||num fourteen ['two hands with a foot']|
|mipokemai||num fifteen ['fourteen and one']|
|mipokurai||num sixteen ['fourteen and two']|
|mirigu||mirigo||n riches, wealth|
|miry||miriu||a rich, prosperous|
|mitecau||n company, corporation [calque on Ver. cumbutát]|
|mitu||meit-||v use; loc v with, using, having|
|miz'iru||michiro||n silver [hon. + 'white']|
|miz'iruna||n platinum ['silver' + augm.]|
|miz'ynu||meijen-||v bring, take (with) ['go with']|
|moitu||mont-||v find, be found|
|Monkhado||n the Monkhayic people. A southern dialect form Monkharo was borrowed into Cadhinor as Mokhnaru (V. muhnar), and itself became modern Monkhayu.|
|mugeu||n young man|
|muh'u||mug-||v buy [rel. to mah'u 'sell']|
|muhnu||mogno||n news, tidings ['new thing']|
|muk||mog||a new, young|
|Munh'as'||Munkhach||n Munkhâsh [Munkhâshi]|
|myga||mekua||num thousand [Cuêzi me:cua]|
|mycsu||v lug, haul|
|myvun||meuwuni||n leader, governor [from 'lead', with honorific]|
|nabira||n ship ['what is sailed']|
|nabirateu||n shipbuilder ['ship-maker']|
|nabreu||n ship captain|
|nahra||nagra||n shrine, holy place|
|nan||nani||n path, way|
|nana||n route, method(s), procedure [collective of nan 'path']
nana miutte somehow or another
|nadani||natani||n obstacle [antonym of 'path']|
|namar||namari||n lead (metal)
babate namar galena ['mother of lead'; calque from Ver.]
|natu||v negative auxiliary (polite)|
|nega||nauka||n ancient times|
|negi||nauki||n pioneer, ancient (person)|
|neisi||nensei||n council, delegation; ancient meaning 'parley' [from nis-]|
|neh'at||nekhad||n man, person|
|neh'ada||nekhada||n people [cf. Monkhayu, which adds the honorific, and suggests that the -e- here is epenthetic]|
|neh'adate||n popular, people's|
|nemanec||n homosexual ['acquirer of boys']|
|nen||nauni||n young man [cf. nyne, related by vowel alternation]|
|nengar||a ancient [from neka]|
|nenkanyr||a objective ['clear-seeing']|
|nenyne||a lesbian ['boy-maiden']|
|nieron||a holy, sainted (in Eledhe contexts). Often spelled nëron, Verdurian style. Before women's names, nierona or nërona. [Verd. nëron]|
|neva||newa||n middle, center|
|nevu||new-||loc v be in the middle of, be among [from neva]|
|Nevur||Newor||n an ancient country which once occupied the Mishicama littoral; Cadh/V Neuor. ['middlish']|
|nevurum||Neworghumi||n an inhabitant of Neuor|
|nezi||n word; phrase, expression, saying [nom. of nizgu 'speech']
e-nezi, i-nezi, a-nezi, ri-nezi, ni-nezi, te-nezi the volitional, benefactive, antibenefactive, polite forms, listener forms, subordinators, in general
|nitnu||nidno||n wheel ['roll-thing']|
|nizgu||nisgo||n speech, language|
|nizu||nis-||v say, speak
Forms of this verb are also used to name verb forms; e.g. nuzi 'perfective', nyriza 'polite antibenefactive'
nuzu the perfective in general
Nirize! Thank you (for your words)!
|nori||n cleaning, washing|
|nuitu||nunto||n mind, brain|
|nuitukanu||nuntokan-||v imagine ['mind-see']|
|numygur||numikuri||n hermit; schismatic, usually isolated religious fanatic [Cuêzi numi:curas 'prophet'; this was Meth. meaning too]|
|nuru||nur-||v wash, clean|
|nyne||niune||n maiden, girl, young woman; daughter [cf. nen]|
|nynih'||n young girl; (young) daughter|
|nyvu||nuw-||n throw, toss; (slang) fire|
|oradam||orandami||n world; Almea ['all-land']|
|orat||orand||a entire, whole, all, every|
|oratte||a everything, everyone|
|otedit||n pocket watch [Ver. ontedidha]|
|Palec||Paleki||n Kebreni woman's name|
|pansyr||a dear, lovable|
|patheda||patheta||n calamine, zinc carbonate, used in making brass|
|pema||pauma||conj when, while, during|
|pery||pauriu||n flaid [Cuêzi]|
|pida||peida||n a vine whose flowers yield a bitter oil used to flavor beer|
|pinah'||poc pinakh||num eleven ['down to the feet']|
|pol||poli||n city, metropolis|
|ponu||pon-||loc v be below, under, or on the bottom of|
|ponyr||a lower; the worst or shoddiest|
|porye||n liability, disadvantage|
|porh'i||n debit ['down-count']|
|povan||powan||n bottom, lower part|
|preh'tura||prestura||n history [Cadh. plestura]|
|pris||preisi||a healthy, good for you|
|pruso||n inn, guest-house; resort [Verd. 'inn']|
|raas||raisi||n pine tree|
|Raazam||Raisami||n Raizumi, capital of Ismahi ['pine land']|
|rah'ta||riosta||n a type of flower (with small, blue petals)|
|raida||oranda nekhad||num eighteen ['entire man']|
|raigemai||num nineteen ['eighteen and one']|
|raline||n play, drama [Ver. ralinë]|
|razum||n mind [Ver.]|
|rih'i||n a counting or reckoning|
|rih'gu||n cost, price|
|ripriroda||n philosophy, science|
|rih'u||rikh-||n count, reckon
riuh'te [nezi] number, numeral
|ris||risi||n pen [Cuêzi]|
|ruh't||arosd||n river delta [cf. Arosd, ancient name of Eärdur delta]|
|Ruh'tyr||n Arcaln, Verduria's fortress ['Arosd castle']|
|saabau||n justice, jurisdiction|
|saabi||n judgment, sentence; punishment|
|saabu||saib-||v judge; (archaic) decide|
|sabarei||n court; also, name of a town in Kebri ['judgment place']|
|saboh'tu||siobosto||n brine; (figuratively) the sea ['salt water']|
|seh'epu||v eat (polite)|
|seheu||n apprentice sailor ['(rope) climber']|
|skalea||n gas [Ver. scaleia]|
|sobu||sop-||v extend, stretch, reach|
|soru||sor-||v do, make, become (polite)
Sire! Thank you (for your actions)!
|sudy||suti-||v name, be named|
|suh||sogh||n priest, monk|
|suir||suber||n cork (tree or substance)|
|suithum||n a gold coin ['provider', a king's name]|
|supnu||n point (of land), cape [nominalization of sobu]|
|sutharei||n grocery store
sutharei tasu go shopping
|suthy||suth-||v provide, furnish|
|sutnu||sutno||n name; noun [nominalization of sudy]|
|syh'ku||siusk-||v twist, turn|
|syh'kur||a twisty, crooked|
|symalu||v darken; bore|
|s'adamu||chatiam-||v retreat; loc v be far (from) ['approach' + ant. infix]|
|S'ahama||Michiaghama||n the Mishicama ocean ['around the lands']|
|s'amu||chiam-||v approach; loc v be around, surrounding; be near|
|s'anu||loc v to be where (anaphor)|
|s'ava||chawa||pron who, what|
|s'eks'e||n cocoa [Ver. shekshek]|
|s'en||cheni||a honorable, noble, praiseworthy|
|s'enen||n boy ['small young-man']|
|s'engu||chengo||n honor ['honor']|
|s'ere||chawa ribe||pron when, at what time|
|s'ete||pron which, of what quality [s'ava + -te]|
|s'eveh'ka||n stockings, leggings [Ver. shevesca]|
|s'iste||n guitar [Ismaîn çiste]|
|S'ogum||Chokumi||n Kebreni name ['ridgelander']|
|s'ylnu||ciulno||n breast ['milk' + -nu nominalizer]|
|Tama||(Me)tama||n the Serea river. In Kebreni also called the Sera. [from tamu 'open': i.e. the wide(-open) river]|
|tasu||tans-||v do, make, become (polite = soru)|
|tazgu||n act, action
tazugte [nezi] verb
|tec||teki||n target, goal|
|temnu||temno||n door; port, harbor ['opening']|
|tiidu||tind-||v stop, stay|
|tiih'eda||tindigeda||n anchor ['stay-stone']|
|tiga||tika||n spike, thorn|
|toru||tor-||v take (into one's possession), acquire|
|toryvau||n trade, commerce|
|toryvu||torkhuw-||v trade ['get-give']|
|tres'lecsu||a breakable, fragile|
|trihnu||trigno||n soot ['black object']|
|tuh'u||tukho||n fate, destiny|
|tuta||n newspaper [Ver. tutanél]|
|tyau||n tube, pipe ['round thing']|
|thah'||thas||pron he, she, him, her, it|
|thanih'u||v annoy, bother ['harm' + dim.]|
|thanu||than-||v hurt, harm|
|thap||n lap, plop [imitative]|
|thaza||thasa||pron they, them|
|theleth||theleth||num (rare) 5832 (= 183)|
|thesuru||a golden, made of gold|
|thiba||theiba||n head; bow (of ship)|
|uvere||-||n fashionable outfit; fashion [Ver. uverë 'clothes']|
|uveira||-||a fashionable, dressy [from uvere]|
|vaac||vaiki||a blue; n the name of the Vesi river (Cadh. Vaecis)|
|Vaacaz'i||Vaiki khaichei||n Väcazhi, a lake in Kebri ['blue lake']|
|vaar||waari||n edge, coast [dim. of 'end']|
|vanu||wan-||v lead, rule, govern|
|varu||war-||v end, finish|
|varyr||a last, final, ending|
|vekru||vekhr-||v seem, appear to be; loc v as, like|
|vep||web||pron he, she, it (deferential)|
|Verdura||Verduria||n Verduria [Cadh.]|
verduren nizgu the Verdurian language
|veru||waur-||v fly [extended form of wur- 'flow']|
|vithoda||vithota||n type of flower|
|voimatu||v deceive, fool ['make blind']|
|voiteu||n blind person|
|vuh'||pron he, she, it, they (pejorative)|
|vuh't||vosd||a flat; n plain|
|vucemu||n flounder ['flat fish']|
|vunau||n civilization [from vunu, on the model of Verd. rhusulát]|
|vunu||wunu||n government, leadership [collective of 'leader']|
|vur||wuri||n river ['flower']|
|vybu||webu||pron they (deferential)|
|vyreu||n sailor ['boat man']|
|vyru||wir-||v float [from wur- 'flow']|
|ygunit||ekunit||n game of knights-and-kings [Cadh., from Cuêzi]|
|yra||iura||n type of flower [Cuêzi yoreta]|
|yvyre||n boat ['floater']|
|zadinu||zatein-||v contain, include, comprise; loc v containing, including [zein- + antonymous infix]|
|zaru||zioru||v exist; (with effect inflections) is owned|
|zateugu||n enmity, disloyalty, rebelliousness|
|zatev||zatewi||a disloyal, rebellious [zev + antonymous infix]|
|zateveu||n enemy; rebel|
|zauv||a glorious [augmentative of 'shiny']|
|zav||zavi||a shiny, bright|
|zavu||v shine, be bright|
|zibis'u||n entail ['in' + 'be necessary'; calque on Ver. imfayir]|
|zikanu||v mean, imply ['say inside']|
|zinu||zein-||loc v be in, inside, at, on (general locative)|
|zivan||zeiwan||n inside, inner part|
|z'adana||adv already, yet [augmentive of 'now']|
|z'aite||jante||n thing; subject|
|z'aiz'iglecsu||a marriageable, nubile|
|z'e||je||adv too, also|
|z'ega||jeka||n knot; tie, link|
|z'emeu||n old man|
|z'igu||jik-||v link, knot, combine|
|z'ihnu||n wagon, carriage [from 'ride']|
|z'iman||jiman||n ground, soil; floor|
|z'um||pron we, us (humble) [weakening of gymu]|
|z'us'ni||n lace [Ver. zhusni]|
|z'ynau||n departure, going|
|z'yngu||n expenses, expenditures [concrete nominalization of 'go']|