Modern Hanying •

Introduction - History - Mars, improved - Language diversity - APAF
Phonology - Stress - Writing system
Morphology - Verbs - Pronouns - Nouns - Numbers - Adpositions - Derivations - Gender
Syntax - Arguments - Questions - Interrogatives - Negatives - NP order - Copula - Possession - Conjunctions - Double verbs - Subordination - Passive - Datives - Naming - Relativization - Time and place - Comparatives - Conditionals - Interjections
Sample texts - Diamond Sutra - About Earth - Mars Exchange
Note: The map above shows the major cities of Mars as of 4901. The map shows elevation, which is relevant to terraforming status. Cities are color-coded by language: white = Hanying, yellow = Portunhol, blue = Mars Swahili, light green = Marindi.

—Mark Rosenfelder, Jan. 2019


Modern Hanying (MH, Hæyeŋ) is the descendant of Hanying Creole (HC), and the native language of more than half of Mars. By AD 4901, when Against Peace and Freedom opens, it has 2.5 billion native speakers, more than any Douane language besides Bèwà, the language of northern China.

It is the language of Areopolis (Ugéheni), the capital and largest city on Mars. Areopolis is also the seat of the Incatena, whose official languages are Hanying and Sihorian Franca. Both facts give MH a huge number of second language speakers, at least a billion more.

In this document, ancestral HC words are written in green, MH words in black.


See Hanying Creole for the origins of Hanying as an English-Chinese pidgin by 2100, and its development as a creole over the next century.

In the 22C the largest influx of settlers was Brazilian, and they relexified (most of) Hanying. The linguistic question of the day was whether decreolization would proceed, perhaps leading to replacement by standard Portuguese. But Brazilians, though powerful, were a minority, and there was solid resistance to using Portuguese. Instead Hanying itself was standardized, and was more and more taken as the ‘language of Mars’. Over the centuries it even took over in the cities that once spoke Martian Mandarin (ugéheŋ).

(One reason for this may be the striking loss of phonetic distinctions in ugéheŋ: tones and distinctions between fricatives were lost, and as Chinese characters were no longer used, this resulted in extreme levels of ambiguity. Though this was alleviated by compounding, it was easier to just use Hanying instead.)

A simple sentence will show the dramatic evolution of Hanying:

Old Hanying Olayu fainkam bai Hwokoni!
Hanying Creole Bẽvĩdu bai Wokoni!
Later Hanying Bevĩru bəi Uwehöni lenye!
Modern Hanying Beiru Ugéheni leye!
Welcome to Areopolis!
Let’s trace the evolution of two words in more detail. The word for ‘Areopolis’ originates from Mandarin Huǒxīng ‘Mars’ + English colony.
‘Areopolis’ ‘city’ sound change period date
Hwokoni koni Old Hanying 2100
Wokoni hw → w Hanying Creole 2200
Woköni köni o → ö / _Ci Mature Hanying Creole 2500
kwöni ö → wö /k_
Wohöni k → h / V_V
Uwéhöni o → we / #C_ Later Hanying 2700
pöni kw → p
Ugéhöni w → g / V_V Early Modern Hanying 3000
Ugéheni peni ö → e Modern Hanying 4500
The history of MH extends over 2700 years; but the most dramatic changes all occurred in the first 700 years, before 3000. The reason is simple: the extension of human lifetimes. By 3000, lifetimes were over 250 years; by 4900 they approach a thousand years. Where there were once three generations per century, there are now three per millennium, and the young people who drive change are a tiny fraction of the population. Sound change has therefore slowed down significantly.

The period names are of course those used by linguists; the language has always been called by its speakers something cognate to Hanying.

The major changes from HC can be summarized:

These changes particularly affected the verb complex, which was treated as a single phonological word and acquired quite a bit of inflectional complexity. It’s also seen with nouns, however— compare the path of koni in the two words above.

Note that these sound changes are no longer productive, so (for instance) consonant clusters have re-arisen, and newer borrowings like Okurə don’t have the k → h change.

Mars, improved

The population of Mars grew slowly, through settlement and internal growth, while Earth recovered from the Collapse. It joined the Douane (Loyæn) in the 2500s, before most of the nations of Eurasia. Mars received a boost from the exploitation of asteroid, gas giant, and cometary resources, since it was the nearest habitable world, and from its cheap energy: with its large empty spaces, it was far easier to install mega-sized solar panels than on Earth.

When the Incatena (Ikazen) was founded, in the early 2700s, Novorossiya and Euko insisted that it not be based on Earth. Luna was not a Douane member, so that left Mars. This was not at first greatly consequential, but as the Incatena grew, it was a major factor in Mars’s growth. Mars became the financial and legal center of the Incatena, and the Mars Exchange (Nægeh) the premier trading venue in the solar system.

From the 2800s, terraforming (mehveži)— pioneered on Earth to reverse the effects of global warming— was applied on large scale to Mars. The long-term project was to greatly increase the atmosphere and restore the planet’s magnetosphere. The technologies used were, for the most part, not predictable by 21C science. It can be said that early modern science relied on the mastery of electomagnetism, while Incatena science relied on the mastery of gravity and dark matter.

At the same time, the introduction of the Tajima energy screen (tæžim) allowed construction of domes (umeyušu) directly on the surface, as opposed to the largely underground building of previous centuries. Erecting and maintaining the Tajima superstructure was expensive, but less so than excavation. The domes protected against radiation and dust storms, and allowed more personal space as well as the first large-scale experiments in growing plants directly in Martian soil.

Early terraforming was devoted to the main impediments to settlement: the extreme cold and punishing radiation at the surface. It was not at first a goal to make the atmosphere breathable, and in fact during this stage it was highly toxic, as its composition was chosen for rapid warming.

The next stage could begin by 3200: making the atmosphere suitable for plants. This was as much a matter of botany as physics: the plants were modified to fit the atmosphere; the atmosphere was modified to fit the plants. By about 3500 lowlands such as the Valles Marineris, Isidis Planitia, and Hellas Planitia could be used as cropland, and Mars experienced a huge population boom.

Tajima screen technology also improved— screens could now extend over a kilometer. However, heating all that space was impractical; the main effect was to create a breathable but wintry ‘outside’ (wəimei) within Martian cities. This could be used for gardens, agriculture, industry, sports, or storage, but not directly for living or working space.

By 4900, as it was commonly said, Mars was able to uncomfortably support a population of four billion. You still couldn’t walk in the ‘real outside’ without an oxygen tank and special protection, even in the lowest areas of Mars. On the other hand, the protections needed were minimal compared to Luna, or Antarctica, or outer space. The atmosphere was about a tenth of Earth’s density, and no longer corrosive. In the lowlands, there were now forests, lakes, and animals, and they were dignified with the name ogəi ‘ecosphere’, as opposed to the forbidding highlands (wəiheni).

Politically, Mars retained the political progressiveness of the post-Collapse era long after Earth became more divided and difficult. An Earth state can regress into plutocracy or war, because its failure state is depression and chaos, but people can still scramble for a living and not harm the rich too much. The failure state of a space colony, even after Mars’s level of terraforming, is habitat collapse and genocide.

Nonetheless, as it’s grown more populous and wealthy, it became more ‘human-normal’. There is an actual market sector; there are rich people and poor people; there were some epochs of colossal corruption or stupidity. Still, modern socionomics (weninomi) ensures that things don’t regress too far.

It’s hard to be more specific about ideology, because packages of policies are a thing of the past, a relic of voters electing a single person to represent them. The populace is now consulted more often and more directly, and each issue is decided separately. At the same time, socionomic experience and AI modeling raise the bar for novelties. “Politician” is a word like “alchemist”, someone who takes their sociological fantasies as realities. Under socionomics, it’s very hard to invent a new system; you simply choose from the solutions that have been worked out over the last two millennia.

Language diversity in the Incatena

In our international society, the major standard languages spread and spread, endangering even languages with millions of speakers. This does not (always) happen in the Incatena, for several reasons.

One is technology: machine translation is so good that you can readily communicate, in speech or writing, with speakers of other languages. You can even have the translator in your neurimplant (nəumo), so it’s always available.

There are still a few drawbacks— delays, problems with puns or poetry, a worry that nuances are being left out. You get the best results if you wait for a sentence to be completed; as this is psychologically difficult, most people turn on the partial results option, which in effect produces a medium-level gloss as someone speaks, followed by a full or partial edit as the sentence is completed.

The next level is to get a language-specific implant. This in effect gives you an entire dictionary and inflecting app in your brain. With a little training— not so much learning the language as learning the neurimplant— you can both speak and understand without delays. The implant will even helpfully point out puns and wordplay.

Or, you know, you can just learn the language. When lifetimes approach a thousand years, you have plenty of time. Plus, during that time, you’re likely to live in different countries (or habitats or planets), for work, study, or fun.

On the other hand, language encroachment is something that socionomics has studied over millennia, and knows how to address if people want it addressed. As a typical instance, the Martian cities that speak Marindi (Ogirušo, native Lohiddi) wish to preserve their language, and take steps such as these:

None of this prevents MH speakers from visiting or working in the Marindi cities, or Marindi speakers from learning and using MH. But it provides just enough friction to prevent MH from taking over.

All these measures, by the way, have robust public support. A characteristic of Incatena society is a fierce but friendly attachment to local or chosen identities (šunso). The ideal is not a melting pot where everyone lives the same way and speaks the same language and listens to the same music. It’s a riot of diversity where people can embrace local fashion— or a non-local fashion that appeals to them more— without fighting with everyone else about it.

The language of APAF

Against Peace and Freedom is not a translation from a particular text; it’s a story set in the 50C written in 21C English. Nonetheless Morgan’s native language is Modern Hanying, and the story as we have it is largely based on Morgan’s notes and memoirs. The language of these sources is mostly MH, but there is quite a bit in Okurinese and New Bharati.

It will be evident, to those who read both this grammar and the novel, that almost none of the terms are direct representations of MH, or even HC. This is intentional: the intention was to emphasize the continuity of human civilization and not exoticize aspects of its core in the solar system. It would be jarring to refer to Ugéheni rather than Areopolis, or šeɣoš rather than volant. Or for that matter Weragən rather than Morgan.

Thus most cultural and technological terms are based on what is to us the next few centuries— to Morgan, the far past. For example:

For Okurinese words, I’ve made some attempt to represent future sound changes— e.g. Haikoa derives from Hayakawa, and sainara ‘goodbye’ from sayonara, ewa ‘peace’ from heiwa, shome ‘neighborhood’ from chomei. Some words directly reflect Okurinese: Okura, Kumari, o-san, oji. But quite a few names or terms are just 21C Japanese (e.g. Goro, Yukio, Atami, Tarō).

Similarly, 20C Mandarin is used for Chinese-derived words: Zhou, Ba, pigu. The planet Qeng is a later form of qīng ‘green’. The name Shr represents Mandarin shì ‘strength’, altered to better suggest the pronunciation and make puns with ‘sure’. The 50C word is actually Rr, that is, a vocalic [r:], and the pun is on Okurinese (ə)r ‘huh?’ from Japanese are.

New Bharati derives from Hindī, but is as much changed as MH is from HC; for approachability, names are either Hindī or approximated to it.



Labial DentalAlveolarVelarGlottal
Plosivep b t d k g ʔ
Fricativef v s z š ž ɣ h
Nasalsm n ŋ
Liquidsl r
Semivowelsw y


Highi u
Closee ə o
Lowæ a
New sounds ɣ ʔ æ ə have developed, and č j ñ have disappeared. But quite a few sound changes have simply rearranged the phonology. E.g. initial d changed to l, but a new initial d developed from j. Nasalization has been lost, but it protected vowels from the dramatic changes that affected the other vowels.

HC’s x is here written š. HC was written in an alphabet we would find readable, so continuity was a virtue. MH’s alphabet is different enough that we’re dealing with a romanization, and š is clearer.


Stress is predictable in MH, though difficult. It’s not actually indicated in the writing system, but I’ve indicated stress (with acute accents) for clarity.

With verbs, stress follows the pattern found below, which is mostly predictable from the idea that the root is stressed—unless there are two non-personal prefixes, in which case one of those is stressed, usually the second one.

In nominal morphology, the prefix never takes stress, so whatever syllable is stressed in the citation form stays stressed.

Other than that, the first syllable of a root is stressed— unless it was added by sound change. So Ugéheni < Wokoni ‘Areopolis’, Təyéh < Texa ‘Earth’.

Writing system

The Hanying alphabet, in the same format as the phonological tables:
For more information see this page.

The Hanying alphabet is about a thousand years out of date. That is, it was reformed in the 39C, and that was after a two-century-long debate. In terms of the words above, we’re talking about people who said Ugéhöni and spelled it <Wohöni>, and considered any change barbaric. The problem with making any change in a long-lived society is that the vast majority of people are old, and if you wait a century the same people are in charge and haven’t changed their minds. Fortunately most don’t stay in their jobs more than two centuries, so eventually reform was accepted. But it was such a hassle that it hasn’t been tried again.

In practical terms this means:

The ʔ issue is actually a failure of the 39C reform: people said yeʔ but insisted they didn’t, partly because there was a highly stigmatized pronunciation ye as well. The reformers capitulated, reasoning that final k was not used anyway.

This grammar ‘corrects’ the above issues to reflect actual pronunciation, which is well documented.


MH has developed a strong morphology, relying almost entirely on prefixing.


A fairly complex verb has developed from the late HC verbal complex, as independent words have been reinterpreted as prefixes.

The general order is:

person + negative + tense + irrealis + root

In addition there are special forms (progressive and imperative) that don’t match this model.

The stress accent is movable, but always follows the same patterns.

This section will concentrate on morphology rather than usage, to serve better as a reference for word-building.

Lexical forms

The lexicon lists the main root of the verb— e.g. han ‘see’. This is the form used as a basis for most verb-building.

However the lexicon will give 2 or 3 other forms. These are:

These are largely predictable from the HC form, but of course MH speakers don’t learn HC! So the lexicon will give two of these forms, and the imperative if it’s irregular.

Personal prefixes

The prefixes derive from the HC pronouns.
s pl
1 me we
Note that number is distinguished only in the first person.

So the basic conjugation of e.g. han ‘see’ is

mehán I see
wehán we see
səhán you see
ləhán he/she/it sees, they see


The past tense prefix is ze:
mezehán I saw
wezehán we saw
səzehán you saw
ləzehán he/she/it/they saw
The future tense prefix is u for 1st person, yo for the others:
meuhán I will see
weuhán we will see
səyohán you will see
ləyohán he/she/it/they will see


The negative prefix is n when it precedes the root, but when other prefixes occur after it.
menhán I don’t see
wenhan we don’t see
sənhán you don’t see
lənhán he/she/it doesn’t see, they don’t see
menázehan I didn’t see
wenázehan we didn’t see
sənázehan you didn’t see
lənázehan he/she/it/they didn’t see


The passive prefix is gəi, which is stressed if it precedes the root, and becomes after a stressed .
megəihán I am seen
wegəihan we are seen
səgəihán you are seen
ləgəihán he/she/it/they are seen
mezegə́ihan I was seen
wezegə́ihan we were seen
səzegə́ihan you were seen
ləzegə́ihan he/she/it/they were seen
menágəhan I am not seen
wenágəhan we aren’t seen
sənágəhan you aren’t seen
lənágəhan he/she/it/they aren’t seen
menázegəhan I was not seen…


The progressive alters the root. This always involves adding -iye (from limyẽ ‘inside’), but the root changes in various ways. The progressive root is listed in the lexicon.
meháiye I am seeing
mezeháiye I was seeing
meuháiye I will be seeing
menháiye I am not seeing
menázehaiye I was not seeing
megəiháiye I am being seen
mezegə́ihaiye I was being seen
menágəhaiye I am not being seen
menázegəhaiye I was not being seen


The irrealis is formed by adding me before the root. Other prefixes are somewhat simplified in the irrealis.
meméhan I see
mezméhan I saw
meuméhan I will have seen
menámehan I don’t see
menázmehan I didn’t see
menáumehan I won’t see
megəiméhan I am seen
mezegə́imehan I was seen
menágmehan I am not seen
menázgəmehan I was not seen
meméhaiye I am seeing


The simple imperative is formed from the infinitive plus -al. However, if the infinitive ends in a vowel, just add -l; and if it ends in -n or ŋ, change that consonant to l.
əi əil love!
ašal think!
šəyéɣo šəyéɣol drive!
šef šefal eat!
lo ləgél clean!
gær gæaral keep!
gen genal give
dai dail stand!
kæʔ kægal stop!
kæn kæl see!
pehə pehəl go!
ləyen ləyel study!
yoŋ yol use!
There are a few irregular imperatives, such as ləgél above; these are indicated in the lexicon.

Use nagan to tell someone not to do something (nagan pehəl! ‘don’t go!’), or wemo to tell them to stop doing it (wemo šəyéɣol ‘stop driving!’). The negatives can be used on their own if the idea is clear (nagan! ‘don’t!’; wemo! ‘stop!’).

To make first- or third-person imperatives, just add a pronoun or NP: wem pehəl! ‘we should go!’; pez šefal! ‘father should eat!’



HC’s personal pronouns have become MH’s personal prefixes. New emphatic pronouns were formed, most of them using memu ‘self’.

In these tables, where a plural form is not given, use the singular.

s pl
1 yem wem
2 sem
3 ləyém urə
3 ob leór
3 m légəl urégəl
3 f légi urégi
These are used with adpositions, or when the gender and number of a third person subject is needed, or for emphasis (“I talked to the alien”).

Gender should be used sparingly. If you’re mostly talking about one person, or if a person’s gender is unknown or uncertain, just use ləyém.

If you’re talking about a male and a female, you can use légəl and légi. This can be useful since the verb doesn’t indicate gender. It’s so useful, in fact, that an obviative form was innovated to allow two different pronouns even if the referents’ gender is the same or unknown: ləyém and leór.

The possessive forms, though based on the same roots, have significantly diverged:

s pl
1 læmi lægi
2 læsə
3 lærə
3 ob læór
3 m lærég ləúrəgəl
3 f lærégi ləúrəgi
The first four forms are stressed on the prefix. This is unusual for MH, but regular: the da- prefix in HC dami etc. was stressed, while the da preposition was not.

Demonstratives and quantifiers

this lesəd
that nær
none nagəl
some wegəl
many wezu
all oagəl
Almost all of these derive from compounds, as many simple forms were co-opted for other purposes, e.g. na ‘that’ for the definite pronoun, ũ ‘some’ for the plural.

Indefinite pronouns

These can be extended into a table of correlatives:
person thing place time
this lesəgəl lešit lesəi lestai
that nægəl næšit næi næzai
none nagəl našit nai nazai
some wegəl wešit wei wezai
all oagəl owašit owai owazai
question he wæt oži wi
As in English, the adjective and person forms (e.g. nagəl) often coincide.

Be sure to pronounce the negative na- distinctly from demonstrative næ-!


Nouns inflect by definiteness and number, using prefixes.

The base form is the indefinite singular. The oblique forms generally modify the root; this again is predictable from the HC but not regular, so it is indicated in the lexicon.

péni a city
uhéni cities
næhéni the city
nəuhéni the cities
læhéni the city’s, the cities’
The accent is shown here for clarity, but since it never varies, I will not indicate it below.

Proper names, in general, cannot have plurals, and are inherently definite, so the only allowed prefix is -. They are marked ndef in the lexicon. Note that some of them have lexically incorporated the article, e.g. Nau ‘the moon’, Naə ‘the Vee’. The word næa ‘law’ is notable not only for including two definite articles (MH and Portuguese a), but for losing the original root (le).


The numbers from 0 to 10:
x 10x xth 10x x/10
0 seru waʔ
1 waʔ ləyé wakad ləyé pugáʔ
2 toʔ toye tokad wenər puzú?
3 təré šyéye tərér heo putəré
4 fəgér fəgéle fəgérəd wæn pufór
5 fəiʔ fəiye fəikad læʔ pufə́iʔ
6 seʔ seye sekad yeɣ pusíʔ
7 səyéʔ səyéye səyéger rəgér puség
8 ešiʔ ešiye ešikad ig puéšiʔ
9 naiʔ naiye naikad geɣ punáiʔ
10 ləyé ləyésəd læg
The ordinals were regular in HC, but sound change has rendered them unpredictable. It also merged them with the tens, which acquired reanalyzed but shortened forms based on ləyé ‘ten’.

Other multiples of ten have been regularized, but the -ʔ found in many numbers is lost: towenər ‘200’.

Numbers below 100 could be formed by concatenation: toye seʔ ‘26’. And round numbers were formed by giving a power of ten and a multiplier: fəiʔ yeɣ ‘5 million’. But in general you just named the digits: 4901 = fəgér naiʔ zeru waʔ.

The decimal point is a puzu, but note the special terms for .1, .2, .3 etc. So 2.6 is pronounced toʔ pusíʔ. There is no word for .0, so 5.07 is fəiʔ puzu seru səyéʔ. Rather than use percentages, you use the x/10 terms, with optional extra digits: 40% = pufór; 42% = pufór toʔ. (These terms, the deciles, are called upunomə— ‘pu numbers’.)

Basic arithmetic is almost unchanged from HC.

jirə toʔ -2
fəyén tri 1/3
toʔ fəyén təré 2/3
pəi pəu toʔ π2
lot toʔ √2
tuk yə təré ləméh fəiʔ 2 + 3 = 5
fəiʔ jirə təré ləméh toʔ 5 – 3 = 2
tuk bəi təré ləméh sik 2 × 3 = 6
ləyé fəyén fəiʔ ləméh toʔ 10 ÷ 5 = 2
toʔ pəu təré ləméh ešiʔ 23 = 8
trida lot ešiʔ ləméh toʔ ∛8 = 2
toʔ yə toʔ lənméh fəiʔ 2 + 2 ≠ 5


In HC, locative expressions were normally bai + NP, with an increasing tendency to add precision with an adverb: bai meza xamẽ ‘under the table’. In MH, the adverb has become a required postposition, and bai was omitted. Thus ‘under the table’ is næmez šæme.

At the same time, a set of coverbs developed, which are now best analyzed as prepositions: yuŋ mænu ‘by hand’, etmologically ‘use hand’. So MH has a mixture of prepositions and postpostions.

The generic locative is now formed with næi ‘there’: næi næhéni ‘in the city’, næi igərežə ‘at church’. Still, there are some ancient idioms that retain bəi, e.g. bəi dweži ‘at home’.

bəi + NP at (archaic)
bəume NP + on, on top of, over, above
doʔ + NP to, for, toward
fəuz + NP without, lacking
həgé NP + in back of
deye NP + in front of
dome NP + amid, among, in the middle of, between
leye NP + in, inside
ləun NP + down
našo + NP except, excluding
šæ + NP less than
šæme NP + under, below, underneath
šo + NP about, on the subject of
sugé NP + left of
suyəgé NP + next to
te + NP since, after
vwe + NP until, before, ago
wəi + NP than (comparatives)
wəigé NP + out of, outside, away from
wi + NP at (time), while
+ NP with (comitative), as well as
yəgé NP + to the right of
yuŋ + NP with (instrumental), using
žezu NP + like, as

Derivational morphology

Some common derivations:
-ɣ, -go country Ayeɣ Germany, Hægo China
-gal, -gi, fəl person augal Luna resident, gogi worker
læ-, -šo language Læyáyeɣ German, Ógirušo Marindi
-r, -d adjectivizer penir urban, mæšid mechanical
-ži -ology ameži biology
object šeɣoš volant
na- not, un- nawemor non-human
-d action, state fəežəd happiness
-so abstract N-izer faiso goodness
šə- diminutive šəmau kitty
we(z)- augmentative wenaʔ big-money = expensive
-mo mod, implant yenmo eye-mod = camera
-(h)əž place yeʔež mec room
Inherited compounds are often distorted by sound change. In general the second word uses the plural root: e.g. nofə ‘barefoot’, which echoes ufə ‘feet’ not ‘foot’. On the other hand təréəru ‘triangle’ does not match læru/uaru ‘side(s)’, and the second morpheme is unrecognizable in fəgéru ‘square’.

When new compounds are made, they tend to imitate this and use the plural root:

On the other hand, pævəsen ‘word-scene = dictionary’ uses the singular sen.

Gender in the Incatena

I’ve noted the use of male/female pronouns légəl and légi, and proximative/obviative forms ləyém and leór. This may suggest an incorrect picture of Incatena social mores, so it’s worth considering gender and sex in more detail.

Person nominalizations use -gal (including variants like - fəl) or -gi; these derive from HC wala/wali, but are gender-free. There are no titles or professional names which give gender, even if the etymological form did (e.g. ‘king, queen’, ultimately from Pt rei).

This even goes for most kinship terms: bai ‘sibling’, nær ‘grandparent’, fai ‘child’. There are still terms pez ‘father, mæz ‘mother’, but ‘parent’ is more common. In fact, on the analogy of leór, a term mæor or mor ‘other parent’ has been innovated.

Mæz is conventionally used for the person who carried you in her womb— but she generally only did so for three months, letting a mechawomb (yehætəri) take over at that point. Note that there’s no guarantee that that same person provided the egg, or had a vagina, or was called a woman.

The reason for all this is simple: your sex can be easily changed by genofixing, a process that takes about a month, is covered by your universal health care, fully modifies your DNA, and doesn’t even require surgery. (If you’re in a hurry, you can graft on lab-grown genitals and get it done in a week.) So, whatever sex a person or family member has, it may be different in a year, and is almost certain to be different in a few centuries. (When people can live a thousand years, you need to change things up periodically: change professions, loosen up your neurons, change sex.)

MH speakers almost all conceptualize the process as sex change (rəužeru). To those of us in the 21C, this may sound like a step backwards— we insist that e.g. trans women are women and always have been, that gender is not sex. But these attitudes are due to the difficulty of the process, and the fierce opposition to it— things that disappeared long ago in the Incatena. You want to be one sex or the other? You go do it; it’s a lot less stressful than remodeling your kitchen, and no one will bat an eye, except for a few people living on retrohabitats that you’ll never meet. There’s no need to insist that you are “really X” when you can be X with a minimum of effort.

Does this mean people have binary conceptions of gender? No, not in a world where you can invent new sexes, mixing and matching from our biological heritage— including nonhumans. Your žeru, your sexual identity— who you think you are and who you want to sleep with— is more complicated than ever.


Arguments and topics

The simplest MH sentences consist of a verb alone. As can be seen in the Verbal Morphology section, quite a lot can be communicated with one word.
I fell.
He won’t go.
I may not be seen.
If there is a single argument, subject or verb, its unmarked order is before the verb:
Mæri ləzehán.
Mary 3-past-see
Mary read.
Mæri mezehán.
Mary 1s-past-see
I saw Mary.
Mary is the subject in the first example, the object in the second. There is no trouble in understanding, because the subject ‘I’ is given by the verb. Compare:
Sen mezehán.
book 1s-past-see
I read the book.
Sen ləzehán.
book 3-past-see
She read the book.
As books don’t read themselves, the - in the second sentence must refer to a person, presumably obvious from the context.

If there are two NPs, the object normally follows the verb:

Mæri ləzehán Yæme.
Mary 3-past-see Yanmei
Mary saw Yanmei.
Nænuy ləyén šweži.
def-woman 3-study linguistics
The woman studies linguistics.
There is a convention that newly introduced referents (comments) follow the verb:
Ləzehán Mæri.
3-past-see Mary
She saw Mary.
This sentence would be used when Mary was not previously referenced.

Now, more precisely, this sentence is ambiguous— Mary could be the subject or object:

Mæri ləzehán.
Mary 3-past-see
Mary read / She saw Mary
From the comment rule, the reading She saw Mary can only occur if Mary has already been referred to. If it’s clear in context– e.g. we’ve been focussing on Yanmei and what she was doing— you can leave it at that. Otherwise, this would be a good use of a pronoun:
Ləyém ləzehán Mæri.
3 3-past-see Mary
She saw Mary.
A topic may be given even if it isn’t the precise subject or object of the verb:
Tæži weunáš.
evening 1p-fut-dance
In the evening, we’ll dance.
Næsin mešeu.
def-scene 1s-tire
The book, I’m tired of it.
If there’s a topic and subject, following the 2-NP rule, the subject follows the verb:
Næsin mešeu Mæri.
def-scene 1s-tire Mary
The book, Mary is tired of it.
Tæži ləyonáš nəumai.
evening 3-fut-dance def-pl-girl 3In the evening, the girls will dance.
Note that the placement rules are only for whole NPs, not PPs. Normally a PP occurs after all arguments.

Yes/no questions

Questions are formed using the irrealis:
Mæri ləzméhan?
Mary 3-past-irr-see
Did she see Mary?
Tæži weuménaš?
evening 1p-fut-irr-dance
In the evening, will we dance?
The answer is sil ‘yes’ or nal ‘no’.

In formal language, negative questions use the negative irrealis; but colloquially, just the negative:

Mæri lənázmehan?
Mary 3-not-past-irr-see
Didn’t she see Mary? [formal]
Mæri lənázehan?
Mary 3-not-past-see
Did she see Mary? [colloquial]
These have different answers. Sin agrees with the negative—correct, she didn’t see Mary. Segat disagrees— on the contrary, she did see Mary.

A colloquial alternative is to state something (in the realis), then add the tag question Ləfíh?

Mæri ləzehán, ləfíh?
Mary 3-past-irr-see, 3-be
She saw Mary, didn’t she?
Answers are unchanged: sil/nal for positive statements, sin/segat for negative ones.

You can question a specific element by fronting it and adding wæt:

Nætæži wæt ləyoménaš nəumai?
def-evening what 3-fut-dance def-pl-girl
Is it In the evening, the girls will dance?
Nəumai wæt ləyoménaš nætæži?
def-pl-girl what 3-fut-dance evening
Is it the girls who will dance in the evening?


Interrogatives, as new information, are placed as far right as possible within the clause. They aren’t placed in the irrealis, unless the event is considered to be unlikely or hypothetical.
Mezeɣán he?
1-past-kiss who
Who did I kiss?
Næzeléšar ləzešó wæt?
def-AI 3-past-say what
What did the AI say?
Næyorogi ləzegə́iyagəi oži?
def-alien 3-past-find-pass-find where
Where was the alien found?
Ayeš ləzeméyez Eroheni wi?
Ayesha 3-past-irr-reach Euko when
When might Aisha have reached Euko?
Næhubag ləgəigə́ufor yuŋ arehə sæyas wægat?
def-boss 3-pass-cover with herring dip why
Why is the boss covered in herring dip?
If a sentence is ambiguous, perhaps because there’s a single or no argument, use the passive to make it clear what you’re asking:
Ləzeɣán he?
3-past-kiss who
Who did he/she kiss?
Ləzegə́iɣan he?
3-past-pass-kiss who
Who kissed him/her?
The interrogative pəu ‘which’ must precede its object, but that must move to the right:
Ləzeháʔ izaf pəu sen?
3-past-end show which scene
Which scene stopped showing?
It’s barely possible to leave an interrogative in its logical spot in the sentence, but it sounds like you’re trying to reproduce ancient speech. In that case you might as well go all the way and leave out the personal endings, which MH speakers do to sound archaic, much as we throw in -eth whether it’s correct or not:
zehán næʔə?
who past-see def-king
Who saw-eth the king?
You can subordinate time or place expressions with the interrogatives wi/oži respectively, but you can’t use he/wæt this way; see Relative Clauses.


Negation is marked on the verb. Note that it may change the stress.
Mæri mezehan.
Mary 1s-not-past-see
I didn’t see Mary.
If there’s another negative NP in the sentence, you still negate the verb:
Našit mezehan.
nothing 1s-not-past-see
I didn’t see anything.
You can negate an argument with nagəl ‘none’; now you don’t negate the verb.
Nagəl yeʔ mezehán.
none robot 1s-past-see
I saw no robot.
This includes adverbs and adpositional phrases:
Ləžái uʔiu, læn nagəl bəi Ugéše.
3-stand pl-river / but none at Mars
There are rivers, but not on Mars.

NP order

The noun appears at the end of its NP. Note that the definite article always affixes directly to the noun.
toʔ fai two children
nær fai that child
yei fai a beautiful child
yei næfai the beautiful child
lærégi fai her child
læmæri fai Mary’s child
Naturally, modifiers for the possessor or the possessee precede them:
læmeri yei fai Mary’s beautiful child
yei læmæri fai beautiful Mary’s child
The order is straightforward in a complex NP, but different from English:
nobagə owair lærəuso sazu næsətát.
most widespread gen-religion holy def-origin
the sacred origin of humanity’s most widespread religions

The copula

The copula is fih:
Næmau ləfíh mæšin.
def-cat 3-be machine
The cat is a machine.
Mæri ləzefíh yei.
Mary 3-past-be beautiful
Mary was beautiful.
As with any other verbs, if there’s no subject (because it’s expressed on the verb), you place the other argument before the verb.
Mæšin səfíh.
machine 2-be
You are a machine.
Yei ləzefíh.
beautiful 3-past-be
She was beautiful.
Adjectives do not behave like verbs, as they could in HC. A remnant of that practice, however, is that in the present tense only, ləfíh ‘is’ can be omitted:
Yænme yei.
Yanmei beautiful
Yanmei is beautiful.
To introduce tense or the irrealis, you’ll have to include a form of fih. But you can negate the sentence with nagəl ‘none’:
Pæram nagəl yei.
Padma none beautiful
Padma isn’t beautiful.
The ancient copula gi has now specialized to the meaning ‘exist’:
Fogo air ləgí.
soccer still 3-exist
Soccer still exists.


The verb indicates possession:
Yænme ləzə́ fai nəumo.
Yanmei 3-hve good neurimplant
Yanmei has a good neurimplant.
As with all verbs, if there’s a single argument it goes before the verb.
Təin menzə́.
spaceship 1s-not-have
I don’t have a spaceship.
But as with other verbs, new information goes at the end. So you could also say:
Menzə́ təin.
1s-not-have spaceship
I don’t have a spaceship.
If there was a previous discussion of spaceships, use the first sentence; if you’re introducing the idea, use the second.

Existentials use žai (also the word for ‘stand’) rather than . As these by definition introduce a topic, the argument goes to the right:

Ləžai təin nækərǽz leye.
3-stand spaceship def-crater in
There’s a spaceship inside the crater.
Possessive NPs use the læ prefix, and precede the head noun:
heni næzəin
poss-city def-spaceship
the city’s spaceship
mai nəuyen
poss-girl def-pl-eye
the girl’s eyes
Note that definiteness and plurality can be indicated on the head noun, but not the possessor. However, possessors can be modified:
ləu lænuy uyen
old poss-woman pl-eye
the old woman’s eyes


Conjunctions normally come after the conjoints:
Mæri Yæme kæš
Mary Yanmei and
Mary or Yanmei
Ugéheni Vaeš wegəl
Areopolis Valles or
Areopolis or Valles
Iliš Hæšo kæš mešo.
English Chinese and 1s-speak
I speak English and Chinese.
If the conjoints are long (e.g. entire sentences), you use X yə Y kæš or X o Y wegəl:
Səmǽt yei mai pəgéʔ ləu pwæl kæš ləmóh næšar leye.
smart beautiful girl and ugly old man and 3-live def-house in
A smart, beautiful girl and an ugly old man live in the house.
If you’re conjoining entire sentences, one of these connectors is preferred:
and, moreover
o or
eto therefore
læn but, however
kædu then (after an if statement)
faina although
hæzau because

Double verbs

There are quite a few two-verb sequences in MH. These require a special verb form, the infinitive.
Completive meháʔ kæn I finished reading
Inceptive mesətát kæn I started reading
Desiderative megán kæn I want to read
Obligative megíšur kæn I must read, I should read
Abilitative mežéru kæn I can read
Volitive memín kæn I intend to read
Continuative mefíh kæn I still read, I continue to read
Permissive meyén kæn I am allowed to read
These can be combined, but rarely more than two at a time.
Megán žəyeru kæn.
1s-want can-inf see-inf
I want to be able to read.
A peculiarity of these expressions is that the object, if any, comes before the infinitive:
Mæri ləžéru Hæšo kæn.
Mary 3-can Chinese see-inf
Mary can read Chinese.
The ‘may’ of uncertainty is not expressed with a separate verb, but with the irrealis. This can of course be combined with infinitives:
Lənámežeru kæn.
3-not-irr-can see
She may not be able to read.


Pivot constructions are no longer possible in MH— you must use a subordinate phrase instead.
Ləgán nə meuhóʔ doʔ Okurə.
3-want sub 1s-fut-go to Okura
They want me to go to Okura.
The subordinator is , etymologically the demonstrative ‘that’. In Later Hanying, in effect you’d say “They want that: me going to Okura.”

The same construction is used for verbs of thought or belief:

Næhubag ləyáš nə megíšur pehə doʔ Okurə.
def-boss 3-think sub 1s-must go-inf to Okura
The boss thinks I should go to Okura.
Indirect speech works the same way:
Næhubag ləzešó nə megíšur pehə doʔ Okurə.
def-boss 3-past-say sub 1s-must go-inf to Okura
The boss said I should go to Okura.
But direct speech leaves out the subordinator:
Næhubag ləzešó, “Səgíšur pehə doʔ Okurə.”
def-boss 3-past-say / 2-must go-inf to Okura
The boss said, “You should go to Okura.”
The “X said” part can be backed, but the order should be retained. That is, don’t change it to “said X”.
“Səgíšur pehə doʔ Okurə,” næhubag ləzešó.
2-must go-inf to Okura / def-boss 3-past-say
“You should go to Okura,” the boss said.

The passive

Before covering the passive, it’s worth repeating that it’s often not needed. E.g.:
Mæri mezehán.
Mary 1s-past-see
I saw Mary.
Næsin səzméhan?
def-book 2-pst-irr-see
Did you read the book?
The object comes first, which effectively topicalizes it. You could translate these as Mary was seen by me and Was the book read by you?, though that makes the MH sentences sound far more cumbersome than they are.

Note the true passive forms of these sentences:

Mæri ləzegə́ihan.
Mary 3-past-pass-see
Mary was seen.
Næsin ləzegə́imehan?
def-book 3-past-pass-irr-see
Was the book read?
Note that the verb now agrees with ‘Mary’ and ‘the book’, and there is no reference to the underlying subject. If you want to include the agent, use the preposition yuŋ ‘using’:
Mæri ləzegə́ihan yuŋ yem.
Mary 3-past-pass-see with 1s
Mary was seen by me.


Datives and benefactives use the coverb doʔ:
Mæri ləzeɣén næsin doʔ Yæme.
Mary 3-past-give def-book to Yanmei
Mary gave the book to Yanmei.
However, if either of the other two arguments is missing (because it’s indicated on the verb, or because of passivization), the indirect object can be treated as an argument:
Næsin ləzeɣén Yæme.
def-book 3-past-give Yanmei
She gave the book to Yanmei.
Næsin ləzegə́iɣen Yæme.
def-book 3-past-pass-give Yanmei
The book was given to Yanmei.
Yæme ləzegə́iɣen.
Yanmei def-book 3-past-pass-give
It was given to Yanmei.

Verbs of naming

Verbs of naming are true ditransitives, with two objects.
Uma ləzešám fai Šəumə.
pl-parent 3-past-name child Xiaomei
Her parents called the child Xiaomei.
The usual rules apply if one or more arguments is left out:
Uma ləzešám Šəumə.
pl-parent 3-past-name Xiaomei
Her parents called her Xiaomei.
Šəumə ləzešám.
Xiaomei 3-past-name
She was called Xiaomei.
Fai ləzegə́išam Šəumə.
child 3-past-pass-name Xiaomei
The child was called Xiaomei.

Relative clauses

The simplest way to form a relative clause is to add -ar to the tensed verb, or -r after a vowel. This forms an adjective which occurs, like all adjectives, before the noun:
Næsin mezehán.
def-book 1s-past-see
I read the book.
mezehánar næsin
1s-past-see-adj def-book
the book I read

Pwæl səyə́i.
man 2-love
You love a man.

səyə́ir pwæl
2-love man
a man you love
If the relative clause is third-person, use the passive to be clear whether the head noun did something, or had something done to it:
səyə́ir næyug
3-love-adj def-dog
the dog who loves
səgəiyə́ir næyug
3-pass-love-adj def-dog
the dog who is loved
A relative clause can have a single argument, which precedes it:
nəumai səyə́ir næyug
def-girl 3-love-adj def-dog
the dog who loves the girl
nəumai səgəiyə́ir næyug
def-girl 3-pass-love-adj def-dog
the dog who is loved by the girl
šweži ləyénar nænuy
linguistics 3-study-adj def-woman
the woman who studies linguistics
(Theoretically this could be the woman who is studied by linguistics; but pragmatically this is unlikely, so we wouldn’t bother to use the passive.)

Remove the person prefix and optionally add the passive, and you have in effect a participle, e.g. zegəyə́ir ‘loved’.

A relative clause can be headless:

Mæri sənyébar səzehánar.
Mary 3-not-remember 3-past-read-adj
Mary doesn’t remember what she read.
Səgəižérur næraš.
3-pass-know-adj def-dog
What is known is not important.
This construction becomes cumbersome with long relative clauses; besides, it doesn’t allow multiple embedding. There is an alternative construction: subordination with . These are placed after their NP.
Vežay so ləɣosat nəumai nə ləzefíh žəyéru te bæšiso.
Vijay only 3-like def-pl-girl sub 3-past-be know-inf since childhood
Vijay only likes the girls that he has known since childhood.

Time and place

Time and place expressions normally occur at the end of the sentence, but can be fronted.
Nækərǽz wezehán wi fəiži.
def-crater 1p-past-see when Thursday
We saw the crater on Thursday.
Wi fəiži nækərǽz wezehán.
when Thursday def-crater 1p-past-see
On Thursday we saw the crater.
Žæn ləzeyágəi næyašo Nægibəi leye.
John 3-past-find def-idea bible in
John found the idea in the Bible.
Nægibəi leye Žæn ləzeyágəi næyašo.
bible in John 3-past-find def-idea
In the Bible John found the idea.
A time or place expession can be used as a topic, without an adposition. In this case it can only be fronted, and counts as a verb argument, forcing the subject (if any) after the verb. A singular expression is read “at this time/place”; a plural one, “every time/place”.
Tæži ləzenáš Mæri Yæme kæš.
evening 3-past-dance Mary Yanmei and
In the evening, Mary and Yanmei danced.
Uzaži ləzenáš Mæri Yæme kæš.
pl-evening 3-past-dance Mary Yanmei and
Every evening, Mary and Yanmei danced.
A sentence can be subordinated as a place expression with oži nə, and as a time expression with wi nə:
Earo ləfíh oži nə læmi pəyéyu ləmóh.
Helladópolis 3-be where sub gen-1s friend 3-live
Helladópolis is where my friend lives.
Læmi nəu ləzéŋ wi nə šærə mədoɣ.
gen-1s brain 3-hurt when sub chess 1s-play
My brain hurts when I play chess.


The formula for comparatives is X wəi Y:
Mæri yei wəi Yæme.
Mary beautiful than Yanmei
Mary is more beautiful than Yanmei.
A ‘less than’ comparative is no longer simply the negative of this, but uses the preposition šæ:
Hoš nənə́isu šæ Weiresi.
Russia interesting less.than Novorossiya
Russia is less interesting than Novorossiya.
To say “as X as Y” you use žezu:
Ormat lænak žezu bəyé.
Ormant rich like devil
Ormant is as rich as Satan.
Superlatives use the adverb nobagə. The comparison class does not use the preposition wəi, but the postposition dome ‘among’:
Mæri nobagə yei (nəumai dome).
Mary most beautiful (def-pl-girl among)
Mary is the most beautiful (of the girls).


Conditional (if-then) statements take the form S kædu S. Both clauses should be irrealis.
Næhubag ləméhagəi, kædu səmégišur nahad.
boss 3-irr-come / then 2-irr-must hide-inf
If the boss is coming, you must hide.
Næšəuyoro səzméšif, kædu səyomézeŋ.
def-veal 2-past-irr-eat / then 2-fut-irr-hurt
If you ate the veal, you will suffer.
Don’t imitate the tense usage of English— e.g. if you’re referring to the boss arriving in the future, we might say If the boss came, but in MH you must use lezméhagəi (future irrealis).

Implants and Interjections

In the Incatena era, the Vee (Naə)— the photonic world— is where most of life takes place, and most of the economy. It’s so basic that everyone has the neurimplants (nəumo) to access it.

Moreover, physical objects all have a photonic interface (izaf), and are controlled not by buttons or keyboards but by UI gestures (uɣoso) sent directly from the brain. These gestures are not vague or difficult; they’re quite specific, like typing a particular word.

You can in fact hold a conversation entirely using uɣoso. It’s not much different from texting, and far easier, since it’s word-based. But despite centuries of improvements, it’s not as nuanced or as personal as talking, and privacy settings are a morass, so most people prefer to talk in the ordinary way with people in the same room.

Nonetheless, when a goso is literally as easy as thought, it permeates conversation. You use them to share pictures or Vee scenes, to give instructions, to give contact information. Scientists use them to talk about equations, coders to talk about code. They’re directly used to control machines. The emoji uɣoso are ubiquitous.

There are four classes of uɣoso:

So an actual conversation all too often looks something like this (ugoso in orange):
Hožab ləgád ❤️❤️! səméžeru Nel? url Sem ləyém kæš səyə́i 🐱😊😊! Wem feɣol doʔ šefəž, nagan pəyérəl— 🏢url 😛
hello darling / 2-irr-know Neil / 2 3 and 2-love •• / 1p walk-imper to restaurant / neg.imper lose-imper •••
Hello darling hearts! Have you met Neil contact info? You both love cat-picture LOL! Let’s walk to the restaurant, don’t get lost directions 😛
There is a whole grammar of uɣoso, which I won’t get into. Some of it is obvious— you use the LOL gesture exactly as you’d expect— while some relates to details of future technology that only make sense to its users. Plus there is enormous variation across social contexts, cultures, and time.

It should be noted that uɣoso, unlike chat emoticons, can be transmitted while you’re speaking. The speaker above is probably emoting the hearts simultaneously with the words Hožab ləgád.

Uɣoso are mostly language-independent— you do the same thing in your brain to send LOL whether you speak Hanying or Marindi or English or Bèwà. But of course you name it differently, and usage may be different. Plus, uɣoso often originate in language. E.g. there’s a goso named la which derives from the HC solidarity particle la.

In general you can say the name of a goso as an interjection— e.g. LOL is pronounced kəyéh, while heart is šen. There’s a delicate pragmatics to this, too: sometimes it means the same, sometimes it adds intensity or irony, sometimes it’s awkward or clunky; sometimes it’s done to avoid triggering a nearby device. E.g. a breathy whispered šen may be a very moving way of expressing love; but in a casual conversation an interjected šen sounds kind of dumb.

(You can entirely communicate in uɣoso, since they include words. The range of available emoji is far wider than ours. But it’s never been a goal of the system to eliminate language— why bother, when you have machine translation? The time when people were most fascinated with emoji is our own.)

Spoken interjections

The most longstanding swear words are byegət ‘fuck, damn’, byemer ‘shit’, and degažig ‘fuckup’, šešum ‘shithole’. You’ll also find byegi ‘fucker’ and degəl ‘asshole’. Only byemer is used literally. These are strong words but won’t blow the roof off the joint— for real invective you want the slang of the moment, usually borrowed from other languages.

(There are no uɣoso for profanity. It’s been tried, but it’s like dipping the word in a vat of irony: it inevitably becomes cute and loses all rhetorical force.)

Ugoso have largely displaced spoken interjections, but note əi ‘hey! ow!’, ao ‘yo!’, hožab ‘hello’, terzai ‘goodbye’, ‘well’, kəyéh ‘LOL’, and ə ‘um’.

Sample texts

Diamond Sutra

This is the same passage from the Diamond Sutra shown in the Hanying Creole document. It does not have any great cultural resonance in the 50C, but I’ve translated it so all three versions of Hanying can be compared.
Læšuge Næsutar • Sekad læfəi
gen-diamond def-sutra / sixth def-part
The Diamond Sutra • Part 6
Subuti ləzešó soʔ Boz, “Orad, ləyoméžai uyeʔ lesəd šeso ləyozíŋar derə ləyokrér kæš?
Subhūti 3-past-say to Buddha / honored / 3-fut-irr-exist pl-person this teaching 3-fut-hear-sub true 3-fut-believe-sub and
Subhūti said to the Buddha, “Lord, will there be people who, hearing these teachings, have real faith in them?”
Boz ləzešó, “Wemo šol næžezu.
Buddha say / stop speak-imper thus
The Buddha said, “Don’t talk that way.
Te læmi ləyetso fəiʔ wenər uyen, ləyožái uyeʔ lesəd ufav ləyozíŋar ləyokrér kæš.
after gen-1s death five hundred pl-year / 3-fut-exist pl-person this pl-word 3-fut-hear-sub true 3-fut-believe-sub and
Five hundred years after my death, there will be those who observe the rules, who hear these words and have faith in them.
Lesəd uyeʔ ləfór uduš, nagəl waʔ Boz deye, o toʔ Uguz, o təré fəgér fəiʔ wegəl, læn nanumər Uguz deye.
this pl-person 3-put pl-seed / none one Buddha in.front / or two pl-Buddha / or 3 4 5 or / but countless pl-Buddha in.front
These people have sown seeds not before one Buddha, or two, or three, four, five; but before countless Buddhas.
Wegəl faiɣet ləméɣemem lesəd ufav, so waʔ mezu, kædu ləyoméyež næmirəd fəežəd.”
some clear 3-irr-trust this pl-word / only one moment / then 3-fut-irr-get unmeasured happiness
Anyone who gives clear confidence to these words, even for a moment, they will attain immeasurable happiness.”

About Earth

This is the description of 50C Earth from my Incatena Planets page.
Təyéh ləyozə́ dešizu daiso, hæzau omoso ləzesətát næi, yə Təyéh ləzeɣén læfadər næyašo doʔ omoso; bəi kædu ræraži, per, ko, ite, wæš kæš.
earth 3-fut-have special status / because humanity 3-past-originate there / and Earth 3-past-give gen-standard def-idea to humanity / pl-example gravity color temperature weather danger and
Earth will always have a special status, because humanity originated there, and Earth has given humanity its very definition of normality (e.g. in gravity, color, temperature, weather, even levels of danger).
Faina wešeu (læg uyeʔ) zegə́ibætyuŋ ləfíh, air yei nasipeš sif kæš læšiŋ ləfihəiye.
though crowded 1010 person abused and 3-be / still beautiful diverse pleasant and planet 3-be-prog
Though crowded (10 billion) and abused, it is still a beautiful, diverse, and hospitable planet.
Oagəl wəizaygi ləsóy næi vyæžə waʔ de.
every outsystem-person 3-dream there visit-inf one day
Every colonial dreams of one day visiting it.
Ləyém uyeʔ nasipeš soyə lorugir.
gen-3 def-people complex and even arrogant
Its people are sophisticated, indeed arrogant.
So šəyeyu meháʔ wəihoš pehə našo wəizay.
only minority 3-finish offworld go-inf no-say outsystem
Only a minority have been offworld, much less outsystem.
Tomat ganləu ləfíh, wəihoš uyašo lənɣémem, yə owašit nə ləu heo uyen šæme.
very conservative 3-be / offworld pl-idea 3-not-trust, also everything sub old 1000 pl-year below
They are highly conservative, distrusting not only offworlder ideas but anything less than a thousand years old.
Wezu ləur, hæzau Təyéh ləfíh nobagə owair lærəuso næsətát našo toʔ.
many religious / because Earth 3-be most ubiquitous gen-religion def-origin except two
Many are religious, since Earth is the seat of all but two of humanity’s most widespread religions.
Sopəresar punomə ləfíh uweiwehgi wer urašiŋ wəigé.
surprising decile 3-be pl-migrant other pl-planet away
A surprising percentage are immigrants from other planets.
Faina ləyém næwezite lestai yemufih, yə ləyém læyeyən ləyénso yoŋso kæš ləfíh læyaš ehemir fəyén, Təyéh ləzə́ doʔ uyogəi tohemeži.
although gen-3 def-climate now 3-stable / and gen-3 gen-genome study usage 3-be important economic sector / Earth 3-have nature to ambivalent
Though its climate has been stabilized, and study and exploitation of its genome is an important economic sector, Earth still has an ambivalent attitude toward nature.
Weyeyu ləyém uyeʔ ləmóh wegəra wešeu uiteheni leye nə zelæɣuŋar ləfíh žezu ložiši agiza.
gen-3 most people 3-reside huge dense pl-arcology in sub artificial 3-be like distant-star habitat
Much of the population lives in immense ultra-dense arcologies that are as artificial an environment as a deep-space colony.
Təyéh ləfíh lædágən užeŋ, læn lənágəžeru šæm nobagə lænak swesi wegəl læwomoso nælæšiŋ.
earth 3-be gen-Douane def-capital / however 3-not-pass-can call-inf most rich progressive or gen-humanity def-planet
Earth is the seat of administration of the Douane; however, it cannot be called humankind’s richest or most progressive planet.
Ehemi leye Təyéh ləlǽɣuŋ læyaši lægiši læyeməd kæš wegəra yəməhso.
economy in Earth 3-produce gen-art gen-data gen-luxury and huge addition
Economically Earth produces massive amounts of art, data, and luxury goods.
Lænso leye ləzə́ fəiʔ wenər bəume læmed unaso.
government in 3-has five hundred above autonomous pl-country
Politically it counts over 500 sovereign states.

Morgan at the Mars Exchange

This is a portion of my interactive exploration of AD 4901 Areopolis.

It features part of a conversation between Morgan, the Incatena Agent (ažesigi) who’s the hero of my novel Against Peace and Freedom, and an old friend, financial analyst Antonia Chang-Nkruda. Morgan’s native language, of course, is MH.

I’ve included emoji here, as a conversation would seem incomplete without them. They should be taken as only rough equivalents of the Incatena uɣoso. As the whole intent here is to show off the language, I haven’t made use of possibilities such as the greeting and thanks being expressed entirely with emoji.

Compare it to the same passage translated, anachronistically, into HC.

Səsít næi læyazoy næmez.
2-sit there gen-Antonia def-table
You sit down at Antonia’s table.
Šarfaɣ næʔ səzə́, eto səgén šəyéd ugeŋmašəi.
firm-pay money 2-have / therefore 2-ask Qengese slap-fish
You’re on an expense account, so you order the Qengese slamfish.
Ləyém lænak, eto ləgén yuŋ diži zəgəyə́ir næšəuyoro.
3 rich / therefore 2-ask with antimatter past-pass-cook-adj def-veal
She’s rich, so she orders the antimatter-cooked veal.
Nægazi ləyúŋ šəu ižidiži ubeguso nə ko kərés; nagəl fai wəi mekor, læn asokur lænak.
oven 3-use small matter-antimatter pl-explosion sub heat produce / none good than microwave / but disgustingly rich
The oven uses little matter/antimatter explosions to generate heat; it’s no better than microwaving but it’s frightfully expensive.
Azoy ləseʔi sem. “Hožab, Weragən. ❤️ Səyizafəiye ləgád owazai žetu.”
Antonia smile 2 / hello Morgan / 2s-interface-progr darling always way
Antonia smiles at you. “Hello, Morgan. You’re looking as darling as ever.”
“Yoɣo, Zoy. 😘 Wæt səžéru šo Žul Ormat?”
thanks Toña / what 2-know about Jules Ormant
“Thank you, Toña. What do you know about Jules Ormant?”
Ləšəúmuh. “Našit səfih mæhet wəigé. ☹️ Yə wæ légəl.
she 3-pout / nothing 2-be business outside / also well 3.m
She pouts. “You’re all business. And, well, so is he.
Monəu giso ləfíh næi Nægeh, læneibarət putəré ləzə́, yə wežu Læyokurə Pæšufaši ləowadoɣ.
huge presences 3-be there Exchange / of-New-Bharat point-3 3-have / and somehow of-Okura peace-party 3-mess.with
He’s a huge presence on the Exchange, he owns a third of New Bharat, and he’s carrying on somehow with the Okura Peace Party.”
Lešit wei. “Næi Okurə ləfíh? ‼️Næšit yogat? Ləméfih fonəʔgi wæt wegəl?
this.thing new / there Okura tag.Q/ how that.thing / 3-irr-be investor what or
This is news. "With Okura? How so? Is he an investor or something?”
“Wegəl unaʔ ləzə́ næi, læn gərá wəi næšit. 👀
some pl-credit 3-have there / but big than that.thing
“He has some credits there, but it’s more than that.
Okurə ləzezógal Pæšufaši kærvəu vwe toʔ uyen, yə orad yažegi ləzefíh.
Okura 3-past-run peace-party festival before two pl-year / and honored visitor 3-past-be
Okura organized a Peace Party festival here a couple years back, and he was the guest of honor.”
“Læn urə ləfíh wakasir… ləmékrer oagəl næšit?”
but they 3-be totalitarian-person PT / 3-irr-believe all that.thing
“But they’re totalitarians... does he believe that stuff?”
“Pæšur ləfor pešihud lesəi, našo wegəl lækumari šəu faišo. 😐
quiet 3-put politics here / except some gen-Kumari small praise
“They downplay the politics here, beyond a little praise of Kumari.
Lələuso bəráži ləyizaf.
gen-religion kind 3-present
They present it as a kind of spirituality.
Lesəd ləžái bəi əum, hæzau nagəl lənšó nær pæv šo Ormat. So ræsi ləžéru.
that 3-stand at soul / because none 3-not-say that word about Ormant / only power 3-know
It stuck in my mind because nobody ever associates that word with Ormant. He’s all about power.
Næšit ləméfih derə næšaŋire urə dome.”
that-thing 3-irr-be real def-connection 3p amid
Maybe that’s the real link between them.”
“Yoɣo, Zoy, 😘 nær nənə́isu.”
thanks / Toña PT / that interesting
“Thank you, Toña, that’s interesting.”
“Meyésapə na yem sənázeyaže boʔ ugiši šo nær toʔ ulorugi,” ləšo, wi mænu ləforəiye læsə bəume yuŋ menso.
1s-hope sub 1s 2-not-past-visit pump pl-data about that two pl-rogue / 3-say / when hand 3-put-progr your on with meaning
“I hope you didn’t come by just to pump me for data on those two rogues," she says, putting her hand on yours meaningfully.
“Lesəd tedoji vyæžəl bəi dweži… ❤️ səyonákrerar wegəl gebəpo mezə́, yə meréš læmi wei fehomo izaf.”
visit sub-1s home this afternoon OK / 2-fut-not-believe-sub some Ngembe-dust 1s-have / and 1s-die gen-1s new skin-body-mod present-inf
"Come back to my place this afternoon... I have some Ngembe dust that you won’t believe, and I would adore to show off my new skin implants.”


The second column gives parts of speech: n noun, ndef definite noun (no plural), v verb, a adjective, adv adverb, post postposition, prep preposition, pron pronoun, conj conjunction, intj interjection, # number.

For nouns, the third column gives the plural, or if there is no plural, the genitive. In either case the prefix is unstressed, so stress is not explicitly indicated.

For verbs, the third column gives the infinitive and progressive forms, plus the imperative if it’s irregular. If no infinitive is given, it’s the same as the verbal root.

Roots often change when prefixed. When looking up words, note the following common patterns. The citation form of verbs is prefixed; that of nouns is non-prefixed.

non-prefixed prefixed
b g
d ž
g ɣ
k h
h ʔ
l r, y
p f
t z
v y, -
w g
y m
ž d
I sort æ after a, ə after e, ɣ after g.

The etymology is HC unless otherwise noted. If it’s just glosses, the compound is post-HC.

1167 words
a ndef letter A [a]
Afih ndef læ- Africa [Afika]
agiza n uy- neighborhood; space habitat [abitasõ]
aguɣe n uy- sandwich [ãbuge ‘hamburger’]
aɣuh v aɣuhiye fall in love, be enamored with [ãguka ‘fall for’]
ai n uy- bird [avi]
aimə n uy- chart, display [anime ‘animation’]
aimi n uy- aluminum [Pt alumínio]
air adv still, until now [aĩda]
Alah ndef læy- Allah [Arabic]
amefəl n uy- American [amekwala]
Ameh ndef læmeh America [Ameka]
ameži n uy- biology [ãmožia]
amo n uy- animal [ãmo]
ao intj hi! yo! [Pt alô]
aragə n uy- Arab [arabe]
Aragi ndef uy- Arabia [Pt]
aram n uy- weapon [arma ‘gun’]
aranso n uy- relaxation [aransõ]
arehə n uy- herring [arẽke]
Arəsi ndef uy- Arsia [Arsia]
aromoy n uy- society, community [armoña]
as n uy- wing [asa]
aši n uy- art [ači]
ašigi n uy- artist [ačiwali]
ašo n uy- thought, idea
asoku n uy- disagreeable or disgusting thing; mess, crap [asku]
asokur a disgusting, crappy; exceedingly
asu a blue [asu]
augal n uy- resident of Luna [aluwala]
Ayeɣ n uy- Germany [Alengo]
Azeni ndef uy- Amazonia (city on Mars)
azomu n uy- atom [atomu]
ndef læyaž Asia [Aža]
ažesi n uy- agency, bureau [ažẽsia]
Læyikazen Ažesi the Incatena’s special ops bureau
ažesigi n uy- agent
ažimir v ažimirəiye wonder, marvel [ajimira]
ažimirso n uy- wonderment, astonishment [ajimirasõ]
æ ndef letter Æ
bagu n ugagu bamboo [bãbu]
bai n ugəi brother, sister, sibling [bãi ‘brother’]
bair a fraternal, brotherly [bãida]
bægi n ugagi bad guy, villain [baŋwali ‘bandit’]
bæŋ n ugaŋ faction, clique [baŋ ‘band’]
bærazi n ugarazi Hindī [early autonym Bharati]
bæši n ugaši heir; offspring; (legal) minor; prince, princess [bači ‘child’]
bæšiso n ugašiso childhood; (legal) minority
bæstat a paltry, mediocre [bastãč ‘enough’]
bæsu n ugasu arm [basu]
bæt a bad [bač]
bætyuŋ v batyoŋ batyuiye batyol abuse, mis-use [‘bad use’]
bæzi n ugazi oven [bati]
bæʔ n ugaʔ bug, insect [bag]
be n ugi Martian beer— made from grain but not barley [bia]
beguso n u- explosion [gobũ + sõ]
beiru intj welcome [bẽvĩdu]
beru a démodé, past its prime, out of style [godu ‘fat’]
beši n ugiši data, information [biči ‘byte’]
bešihi n ugišihi datanode, computer [‘data-node’]
beso n ugoso movement; transportation [gosõ]
bežənə n ugežənə scam, trick [bijne ‘business’]
ndef letter B [be]
bəgés n ugos head [bosa ‘lump’]
bəi prep times; (in fossilized expressions) at, by [bai]
bəiɣ n ugəiɣ stomach [baiga ‘belly’]
bəir n uəir life support [bauvida]
bəis a white [baise]
bəisin n ugəisin column, analysis; opinion [bausina ‘news site’]
bəišu a low, short [baixu]
bəiyu n ugəiyu baby, infant [short for baixiñu ‘kid’]
bəráži n u- type, kind [brãji ‘brand’]
Bərázu ndef lægərázu Brazil [Brazu]
bəréɣru n ubreɣru gratitude [brigadu]
bəriɣ v beriɣaiye fight [briga]
bəugəl n ugəugəl pundit, columnist [bauwala ‘journalist’]
bəuhan n ugəuhan petty tyrant, soup nazi [baukan ‘life support inspector’]
bəume post on, on top of, over, above [byaumẽ]
bəumeš n ugeumeš surface, exterior [‘surface thing’]
bəyé n uge devil, Satan [gwe]
bəyér a devilish [gweda]
bəyéri n ugeri berry [beri]
boro n uguro board, council, assembly [buro]
borogi n ugurogi board member, councillor
Boz ndef læguz Buddha [Buta]
bur n u- buttocks, posterior [bũda ‘butt’]
burəš n u- panties, underwear [‘butt thing’]
Buzarəu ndef læguzarəu Buddhism [Butadau]
byegət intj fuck! dammit! [gwe wat ‘wtf’]
byegi n ugyegi shithead, fuckhead [gwewali]
byemer n ugyemer shit [gwe + Portunhol meda ‘shit’]
byəi n ugyəi uninhabitable surfaces, e.g. Luna’s [byauli ‘surface’]
da ndef letter D
daiso n užaiso situation, status; stay, standing
de n uži (Martian) day [jia]
degai n užigai corrupt, shameless person [jiwali ‘whore’]
degažig n užegažig fuckup, shitstorm, cockup [jibajiba ‘cock-cock’]
degəl n užegəl bastard, shithead, asshole
deŋ n užeŋ capital, metropolis [jiŋ ]
derə a true, correct, real [jẽde]
dešizu a different, distinct, special [jičĩtu]
deye post in front of, before [jẽmyẽ]
dəyézu n užetu right, privilege [jetu]
dirə oper negative; minus [jĩde]
dirməhso n užirməhso subtraction
dite n užite today [jĩtyẽ]
diži n užiži antimatter [jĩuji]
dofah a fragile, breakable [žuŋfaka]
doɣ v žəgéɣ doɣaiye play (games); game [žoga]
doji n uduji noon [juŋjia]
dom n udum Islamic Friday [juma]
dome post amid, among, in the middle of [juŋmẽ]
doŋ n uduŋ middle, center, central; neutral [juŋ]
doreu a Jewish [žudeu]
doro n uduro pork [juro]
doso n uduso neutrality [juŋsõ]
dosotə fair, just, rightful [žustu]
dosotər fairess, justice
došə n udušə seed; neutron [juŋče]
doyeʔ n uduyeʔ midnight [juŋyewã]
doz n uduz shoe, boot [juta]
doʔ v doʔ dokaiye tap, hit, thump [imitative]
doʔ prep to, for, toward
dut v dəgét dutəiye lie, deceive [jut]
duzu adv together [žũtu]
duzuso n u- corporation, firm [‘togetherness’]
dweži n uweži home; house[jojiña]
bəi dweži at home
Earo ndef læy- Helladópolis [Elado]
efə ndef letter F [efe]
egiz n uy- shuttle (low-space vessel) [obita]
ehar a charming, alluring [ẽkãda]
ehazu n uy- charm, allure [ẽkãtu]
ehemi n uy- economy [ekomia]
ehemir a economic
ehemiži n uy- economics (e.g. old wrong ideas) [ekomižia]
Eišir ndef læy- Elisiograd [Elixu]
emeži n uy- mood, feeling; emoji [emoži ‘emoji’]
eneži n uy- energy [enežia]
ndef letter Ŋ [eŋ ]
er ndef letter R [er]
Erof ndef læy- Europe [Eropa]
Eroheni ndef læy- Euko [Erokoni ‘Europe colony’]
Esapəy n uy- Spain [España]
esə n uy- silicon [ese]
esəfər n uy- sphere, ball [esfera]
esi ndef letter S [esi]
eša ndef letter Š [exi]
eši western [oči]
ešiɣ n uwošiɣ west
ešikad a eighth
ešiye # eighty
ešiʔ # eight [ečik]
esu n uy- nitrogen [ẽsu]
eto adv thus, therefore, so [entõ]
eyə ndef letter Ñ [eñe]
ə intj uh, um…
ə ndef letter Ə
əi intj hey! oh! ow! [ai]
əigi n uy- lover [aiwali ‘spouse’]
əm ndef letter M [em]
ən ndef letter N [en]
əum n uy- mind; soul, spirit [auma] bəi əum in one’s mind
Əurun n uy- Aureum (city on Mars)
əyén n uyen sodium [ena]
əyéš n uyéš hydrogen [eče]
əyéši n uyeši helium [eči]
əyéši a eastern [eči]
əyéšiɣ n uyešiɣ east
fæhe a bad, wrong [fakẽ]
Færəɣ ndef læfarəɣo France [Farãgo]
fæsi n ufasi idiot, madman [fasi ‘reactionary’]
fæšu a easy [fasiu]
faɣ v pæɣ faɣaiye pay [paga]
fah v pæh fahəiye cook [paka]
fai a good [fãi]
fai n u- son, daughter, child [filya, made to match bai]
faiɣet a clear, obvious [fãigeč ]
faina conj though, although; even [‘good that’]
faišed a healthy; relating to health [fãixenda]
faišen n u- health [fãixen]
faišif a edible [fãičifã]
faiso n u- goodness; virtue [fãisõ]
faišo n u- praise [fãixo]
faizeŋ a audible [fãitiŋ ]
fas v pæs fasəiye pass; spend time [pasa]
fasəruži n u- history, archeology [‘past study’]
faʔ v fæh fahəiye mess up, get into trouble [faka ‘break’]
fegəu n u- storm; radiation peak [fẽbau]
feɣo v pəyéɣo feɣeiye walk [pego]
fehomo n u- skin mod (esp. for changing color) [‘skin-body-mod’]
feməh v fəyéməh feməhəiye divide [fenmeka]
ferə v pəyérə fereiye lose, be lost [pede]
feyu n ufiyu wire [fiyu]
fezikad a physical [fizikda]
feziʔ n læfiziʔ physics [fizik]
fezu n ufizu filter [fitu]
fəéž a happy [fliž ]
fəežəd n u- happiness [fližde]
fəgéɣu n ufoɣu fire [fogu]
fəgéle # forty
fəgér # four [for]
fəgéres n u- forest, woods [floresa]
fəgérəd a fourth [forda]
fəgéru n ufóreu square, rectangle [forladu]
fəges n ufos force [fosa]
fəgéy n ufoy leaf [folya]
fəgéži n u- Wednesday [forjia]
fəifai a lovely, pretty [redup. form of fãiai ‘cute’]
fəikad a fifth
fəiye # fifty
fəiži n u- Thursday [faijia]
fəiʔ # five [faik]
fərǽk n u- creole, lingua franca, esp. that of Sihor
fərǽsi n u- sentence, phrase [frasi]
fəreu a cold [friu]
fəu v pəu fēiye stun, shock
fəuz v fəuz fəuzaiye lack, go without [falta]
fəuz prep without, lacking
fəuzəteso a painless [‘without pain’]
fəuznaʔ a poor [‘without money’]
fəyéčə n ufečə molecule [fenče]
fəyehu n ufehu iron [fehu]
fəyén prep divided by [fen]
fəyén n ufen fraction; portion, sector
fih v feh fihəiye be; (with another verb) keep doing X [fika ‘stay’]
fogo n ufugo soccer [fubo]
fogogi soccer player [fubowali]
fomu n læfumu smoke [fumu]
fonəʔ v pəgénəʔ fonəhəiye invest [pornak]
fonəʔgi n uponəʔgi investor [pornakwali]
for v pəger forəiye place, set, put; sow [por]
forol n u- young man, young male [frudu ‘dude’]
foroz n uforuz fruit [fruta]
fošə n ufušə radiation [fuxe]
fozuru n u- the future [futuru]
fweši a strong [foči]
gæd a sexual [ganda]
gæm n ugam gram [gama]
gærahəž n ugarahəž storage, warehouse [gadakaža]
gæran n uɣaran neck [gadan]
gæri n ugari style (of art), fashion [garia]
gærso n uɣarso keeping, storage
gafal v wafal gafaliye judge, decide [wãkwala ‘a judge’]
gajəgə v wajəgə gajegeiye found, establish [wãjwe]
gan v wæn gaiye wæl want [wan]
ganləu a conservative, old-fashioned [‘want-old’]
gayo v wæyo gayeiye send for (someone), invoke [waño ‘order’]
Gebə ndef læ- Ngembe
gebəpo n u- Ngembe dust, an intoxicant, very expensive because it’s actually shipped in from δ Pavonis
gebər a Ngembean, from Ngembe
geɣ # billion [giga]
geɣu begu geɣiye explode [gobũ]
geh v wəyéh gehəiye wake, awaken [weka]
gen v wəyen geiye wəyel ask; order [wen]
géŋ n ugoŋ pound, slap [boŋ]
gəime v wəime gəimeiye exit, leave, depart [waimẽ used as a verb]
gəiməh v bəiməh gəiməhəiye multiply [baimeka]
gərá a big, large; (of people) fat [grã]
gəu v bəu gəiye support, maintain [bau]
gəufor v bəufor gəuforiye cover; immerse [byaupor]
gəyefəi n ugefəi prize, reward [gefãi]
gəyéh n uɣeh war [geha]
gəyér a, n uɣer gay, lesbian, homosexual [geda]
gəyetso m uɣetso understanding [gečsõ]
gi v be giye exist, be present [bi ‘be’]
giso v ubiso existence; presence
gišur v bešur gišurəiye must, have to; should, ought to [bixur]
god n uɣud thug, hooligan [gunda]
gogi n uɣugai worker [guŋwala]
gokəž n uɣukəž office, workplace [guŋkaža]
goŋ n uɣuŋ work
goso n uɣoso action; user interface gesture [from ‘act’]
gozu n uɣuzu bone [gutu]
goʔ v boʔ gogəiye pump [bõba]
ɣan v gæn ɣaiye genal kiss, make out [gan ‘have sex’]
ɣar v gær ɣaraiye store, keep [gada]
ɣeɣ v gəyéɣ ɣeɣaiye exchange, trade [gega]
ɣemem v gemem ɣememiye trust, give confidence to [‘give self’]
ɣen v gen ɣeiye give [gẽna]
ɣet v gəyet ɣečəiye understand, comprehend, grasp [geč]
ɣə ndef letter Ɣ
ɣo v go ɣeiye act, do; send a user interface gesture [go ‘go’]
ɣogəi v begəi ɣogəiye buy [gobai]
ɣosat v besat ɣosatiye like, enjoy, appreciate [Portunhol gosta]
ɣuŋ v goŋ ɣuiye gol work, work on; make [guŋ ]
hagal n u- Chinese person [Haŋwala]
hagəi v kagəi hagəiye come, arrive [kãbai]
han v kæn haiye kæl read, look, see [kan]
has v kæs kasiye hunt, seek out [kasa]
hav v kæv haiye dig [kava]
haz v kaz kaziye sing [kãta]
haʔ v kæʔ hagiye kægal end, finish, stop [kaba]
hædəyo n uhadəyo radio [hadyo]
hæfiru a fast [hapidu]
Hægo ndef læhago China [Haŋgo]
hægu n uhagu tail [habu]
Hæšo ndef læhašo Chinese language [Haŋxo]
Hæyeŋ n uhayeŋ Hanying [Hañiŋ]
hæzau conj because; in order to [hazãu ‘reason’]
hæzi n hazi Hanzi, Chinese characters [Haŋči]
he pron who [kẽ]
heɣam n uhiɣam kilogram [kigama]
hehu a tacky, ostentatious [hiku ‘rich’]
hemir n uhimir kilometer [kimida]
heo # thousand [kilo]
hep v həyép hepəiye help, assist [hep]
her v kəyér herəiye fall; drop [keda]
heši a hot [kẽči]
heu n uʔiu river [hiu]
heži n uhiži chemistry [kinžia]
hežir a chemical
n uʔə king, queen [he]
Həgæn ndef læʔen Homeland (planet of 61 Cygni)
həgé post in back of [homẽ]
həgef n uʔof pressure suit, space suit [hopa ‘uniform’]
həgér n uhor wheel [hoda]
həgéš n uhoš stone, rock; (colloq.) world, planet [hoxa]
həi v kəi həiye open [kai]
həiš n u- root (of plant) [haix]
həkasi n uʔəkasi monarchy, kingdom [hekrasi]
həyégəd a legal, permitted [hegrada]
həyegəl n uʔegəl inspector, regulator [hegwala ‘guard’]
həyégər n uʔegər rule, regulation [hegra]
həyézu a straight, right-angled [hetu]
hidu v hidu hižiye kill, murder [kižu]
hiši v hišiye breathe [huxi]
hiži n uʔiži display; screen, monitor [huji ‘HUD’]
Hoš ndef læhuš Russia [Huxa]
hožab intj hello [Sw. hujambo]
hoʔ v pehə hoʔiye go, move [kohe ‘run’]
husə a red [hũse]
huyen a jealous [hũyen]
hwehi n uʔohi classical (pre-Collapse) music [hoki ‘rock’]
iay n uyay island [ilya]
ig # 100 million [iwã]
igərežə n uy- church [igreže]
Igo n England [Iŋgo]
Ikazen ndef læy- the Incatena [Pt pseudo-Latin Incátena]
iliš n uy- English language [from ‘English’]
imiɣo n uy- enemy, villain [imigo]
irəu n uy- vagina [ĩdau]
Iru ndef læy- India, Indian [ĩdu]
Irurəu ndef læy- Hinduism [Ĩdudau]
Isan ndef ləisan Islam [Islan]
isangi n uy- Muslim [Islanwali]
išə n uy- chair, seat [iče]
isoku n u- school [isku]
ite n u- sky; weather [tyẽ]
iteheni n u- arcology, massive city complex [‘sky city’]
iter a celestial [tyẽd]
itəres a interesting [ĩtresa]
iwal n uigal English speaker; English person [Iŋwala]
iyə v leyə yeiye enter, go inside; marry, begin a long relationship [‘inside’ used as a verb]
Iyo ndef læyazo Iyos [Iyos]
izaf n uy- user interface; looks, style, presentation [ĩtafas]
iži n uy- matter, mass [uji]
ižir a physical, made of matter [ujida]
ižiš n uy- proton [ujiče]
kædu n uhadu example, instance [kažu]
bəi kædu for example
kædu conj then; marks consequence [kažu]
kæf n uhaf coffee [kafe]
kæfizo n uhafizo captain [kapitõ]
kægar a final; last (in a series) [kabada]
kægi n uhagi reader, watcher [kanwala]
kæhu n uhahu rover, car, surface vehicle [kahu]
kæm n uham bed [kama]
kæmiš n uhamiš shirt, blouse, top [kamisa + -š]
kæpə n uhapə clothing, clothes [kaple]
kær n uhar face [kara]
kærvəu n uharvəu festival, celebration [karvau]
kæš conj and [kaj]
kæsi n uhasi diaper [kasiña ‘panties’]
kæši n uhaši card, note [kači]
kæyau n uhayau horse [kavalu]
kæž n uhaž place, building [kaža ‘house’]
kafu n uhafu (physics) field
kain adv somewhat, a little [kãina]
kaži n uhaži sugar [kãji ‘candy’]
kəiš n uhəiš box, crate [kaixa]
kəlæru a bright, shiny [klaru]
Kəresə ndef læ- Chryse [Krise]
kəus n uhəus pants, trousers [kausa]
kəyéh intj haha, LOL [Japanese etc. keke]
Kəyeši ndef læhəyeči Quente, a city on Mars [after Monisa founder]
ko n u- heat, temperature [klo]
ko ndef letter Q [ku]
kobag n uhubag boss, chief [Swahili kubwa]
koseyu n uhoseyu workers’ senate, faculty [kõseyu]
kosi n uhosi condensed carbon [kõsisu]
kov n uhuv breast [kuva ‘curve’]
koz n uhoz count, account [kõta]
koz n uhuz coat, jacket [kuta ‘shirt’]
kozagal n uhozagal accountant [kõtawal]
krér v rəyér kreriye believe [krer]
krés v res kréseiye grow; produce, generate [krese]
la ndef letter L [eli]
lai a homely, comfortable [dãuli ‘safe inside’]
lauzai n urauzai recession, depression [dãutãi ‘bummer’]
læfárəɣo n u- French language [da Farãgo]
læg # 10 billion [dawã]
lægərázu n u- Brazilian Portuguese [da Brazu]
lægi pron our, ours [dawi]
lægo n uago laboratory [labo]
læɣoŋ n uyæɣoŋ manufacturing, industry
læɣu a wide [lagu]
læɣuŋ v læɣuiye læɣol manufacture, produce, process [‘big make’]
læhúš n u- Russian language [da Huxa]
læmed self-governing, autonomous [lan-mem-da]
læmi pron my, mine [dami]
læn conj but, however [dan]
lænak a rich; expensive [danak ‘big money’]
længi n uyangi governor, leader [lanwala ‘manager’]
lænso n uyanso government, administration
lænwerə ndef læ- Martian Portunhol [da Novere]
læór pron his, her, its (obviative) [formed by analogy]
lærég pron his [da dewala]
lærégi pron her [da dewali]
lærə pron his, her, its, their [dade]
læru n uaru side [ladu]
læsə pron your, yours [dase]
læsə n uyasə laser [lase]
læšid a planetary, global [daxiŋda]
læšiŋ n urašiŋ planet [daxiŋ]
læt n urat point; decimal point; music dot [dač]
læyageɣ n German language [da Alenxo]
Læyáragə ndef læ- Arabic language [da arabe]
læyaš a important, significant [daaxa]
læyeišir a weird, strange [‘from Elisiograd’]
læyen n urayen age, epoch, times [dañen]
læyésapəy n u- Spanish language [da España]
læʔ # 100,000 [lak]
lehi n uyihi link, mode, tie [liki]
lemo n uyimo lemon; yellow [limõ]
leor n urior Earth hour [diora]
leór pron obviative 3rd person form [de oda ‘other he/she’]
lesəd pron this [dis + da]
lesəgəl pron this person, this one [diswala]
lesəi pron here [disli]
leši n uyeši tooth [dẽči]
leši n uriši sun (of the system we’re in) [dixĩ]
lešit pron this thing, this one [dixič]
lestai pron now [distãi]
lešu pron here [diču]
letor n uyitor liter [litru]
leu n uliu present, gift [liu]
ley n uyiy line; message (through neurimplant) [liña]
leye post in, inside [limyẽ]
leyen n uriyen Earth year [diñen]
leyəgi n uyəgi spouse, partner, husband, wife
leyən n uyeyən DNA, genome [de-en-a ‘DNA’]
lezai ndef læyezai Earth time [ditãi]
leži n uriži Earth day [dijia]
lezu a slow [lẽtu]
ləfíh adv isn’t that so? (tag question) [‘it is’]
ləgád a darling, adorbs [‘LOL’ + -da]
ləgéfu n urofu tofu [dofu]
Ləgégo ndef læogo Lowell [Lowo]
ləgéy n uroy hair; sprouts [Mandarin ‘bean sprouts’]
ləgeyu n uroyu bean [doñu]
ləikso n uyəikso fun, good times; party [laiksõ]
lənæi n uyinæi place, location [li + ‘there’]
ləšeu v ləyéšeu ləšeiye complete, fill
ləu a old [lau] ləu toʔ uyen two years old
ləun post down [daun]
ləur a religious, spiritual [dauda]
ləúrəgəl pron their (m) [da ũ dewala]
ləúrəgi pron their (f) [da ũ dewali]
ləuso n urəuso religion, spirituality [dausõ]
ləušu n uyəušu mouse (animal) [lauxu]
ləuz n urəuz change; (math) delta [deuta]
ləyé # ten [des]
ləyégi n uyégi student [lenwala]
ləyéɣəu a shady, suspicious [legau ‘cool’]
Ləyékeni ndef Deng City (on Mars)
ləyénso n uyenso learning, study
ləyéru n ureru finger [dedu]
ləyéšeu a complete; abundant [le xeu]
ləyésəd a tenth
ləyét a dead [deč]
ləyétso n u- death
ləyéz n urez database, data store, repository [deta ‘data’]
lig n uig tongue [lĩgwa]
livu n uyu novel, story [livu ‘book’]
lo n uwo road, street [lu]
loite n uruite winter [duntyẽ]
lom n uyum room [lum]
lon a notable, significant [luna ‘huge’]
loru a hard, rigid [duru]
loru še letter Č or C
lorugi n u- rascal, rogue [‘hard one’]
lorugir a mean, bullying; arrogant [‘roguish’]
lot n uyut root (of a number) [luč]
Loyæn ndef lædágən the Douane [dwana]
lož n uyuž light; lamp [luž]
loži a distant, far [lõži]
ložiši a deep space [‘distant star’]
lwesi n uresi candy, sweets [dosi]
lye n udye electricity [dyẽ]
lyer a electric, electrical [dyẽda]
lyešə n udyešə electron [dyẽče]
n uma parent (ordinary term)
mæfiz n umafiz parent (legal or formal term) [mapita]
mægor a thin [magru]
mæhet n umahet the market; business, commerce [maket]
mænu n umanu hand [manu]
mæor n umaor other parent (co-parent with mæ)
mær n umar sea, lake [mar]
mærer n umarer wood [madera]
Mærəi ndef læmarəi Maraille
mæšəi n umašəi fish [mačli]
mæšid a mechanical, automatic [maxinda]
mæšin n umašin machine [maxin]
mæy n umay morning [maña]
mæyo n umayo leotard, catsuit, body suit, swimsuit [Pt maiô]
mæz n umaz mother [mata]
mæzar a motherly, maternal [matada]
mæži n umaži magic [mažia]
mæžid n umažid mosque [mažid]
maɣ n u- comics [mãga]
mai n u- girl, young woman [mãuña ‘kitty’]
mau n u- cat [mãu]
meh v yeh maheiye do, become, act; (math) equals [meka ‘make’]
mehveži n uyehveži terraforming
mei a milli, 1/1000 [mili]
meimir n u- millimeter
meiš n u- a bit, a tiny amount [‘milli-thing’]
mekor a micro, 1/million [mikro]
mekor n umikor microwave [mikrõda]
menso n uminso meaning, intent
meóyu n umióyu corn (maize) [milyu]
mer n umir meter, gauge; measure; record [mida]
meši n u- sentience, consciousness [mẽči ‘mind’]
met n umit pepper [mič ]
mez n u- table [meza]
mež n umiž academia, science [mija ‘media’]
mežar a academic, scientific
méžerur adv please [irrealis participle of žeru]
mezu n u- moment [mẽtu]
mezur a quick, fast [‘momentary’]
mezutəin n u- quickship (near-C starship) [‘quick ship’]
min v men miye mil mean, intend, aim to [min]
misifəl n u- musician [musikwala]
misih n u- music [musika]
misihi n u- music node [‘music-node’]
misotu v mesotu misotiye mix [mistu]
misotur n u- mixture; fuel [mistuda]
mite n umite tomorrow [mĩtyẽ]
mo n umu tree [mu]
moh v weh mohəiye live, reside [moha]
moh n umuh mouth [muh]
monəu n umunəu (slang) huge, intense, a fuck of a [munau ‘idiotic’]
mor n u- other parent (short form of mæor)
morəgə n umúrəgə chicken [murge]
moru numuru outer wall, load-bearing wall [muru]
Muʔaməd ndef læ- Muħammad [Muhamad]
næd a male, masculine [nanda]
Nægeh ndef læɣeh Mars Exchange [Geka < Gegakaža ‘exchange house’]
nægəl pron that person, that one [nawala]
Nægibəi ndef lægibəi Bible [biblia]
Næhə ndef lænahə Nánhé, a planet of Procyon
Næhuən ndef læhuən Qurʾān [Kuran]
næi prep at (general locative) [‘there’]
næi pron there [nali]
næihan v næikæn næihaiye næikæl attend, watch (in person) [‘there see’]
næihangi n u- audience member, attendee
næmirəd a immeasurable [nã-mida-da]
nænəi n unanəi noob, beginner, novice [nanai ‘boy’]
nær pron that (demonstrative) [na + da]
nær n unar grandparent [da-na from paternal/maternal terms]
næraš a unimportant
næriž n unariž nose; smell [nariž]
næšagi n unašagi dancer [načawala]
næšər n unašər dance [nača]
næšit pron that thing, that one [naxič]
næso n unaso nation, country [nasõ]
næsogi n unasogi citizen, national, resident
næya ndef læ- law [na ale]
næyagi n u- lawyer
næyar a legal, legislative [aleda]
næyu n unayu boat, (sea) ship [navu]
næyur a naval [navuda]
næzai pron then, at that time [natãi]
næžezu adv that way, thus [‘that way’]
næʔ n unaʔ money, credits [nak]
Naə n ui the Vee, the photonic world [vi]
naər a on the Vee, photonic
nagan adv don’t do X! [nã wan]
nagəl pron none; no one, nobody [nãwala]
nahaši a free (of charge) [nãkači]
nahəd v nahad nahədaiye hide [nokanda]
nahišir a unbreathable [‘no-breathe-adj’]
nai pron nowhere [nãli]
naikad a ninth
naiye # ninety
naiʔ # nine [nãik]
nal ij no [na la]
nanesu a clever, cunning [nãnesu ‘not stupid’]
nanumər a countless, infinite [nã-nume-da]
Naræfah ndef læ- the Collapse [Dafaka]
naš v næš našiye dance [nača]
našap a dull, blunt [nãxap]
našež n u- dance studio
našifər a inedible [‘no-eat-adj’]
nasipeš a complex, complicated; diverse, sophisticated [‘not simple’]
našit pron nothing [nãxič]
našo adv much less, to say nothing of [‘not say’]
našo prep except, excluding [nãxo]
Nau ndef læyu Luna, Earth’s moon [Alua]
nawemor a inhuman, non-human (not used of actual aliens)
nazai pron never [nãtãi]
nazed n u- safety [nãteŋda]
nazeŋ a safe, secure [nãteŋ]
nažiŋi a difficult [‘not easy’]
neʔogo n u- Japanese language [autonym Nihongo]
conj that (subordinator)
Nəiho ndef læ- Naya Kolkata [Naiko]
nəisu a enough, sufficient [naisu ‘good job’]
nənə́isu a interesting [redup. of naisu]
nəu n u- brain [nau]
nəumo n u- neurimplant [‘brain mod’]
Nimudo ndef u- Nymundo (a planet of τ Ceti)
no a naked, nude [nu]
nobagə adv most, the most; best [nubwan]
noe n unue cloud [nuvẽ]
noer a cloudy [nuvẽda]
nofə a barefoot [nupe]
nohænə n unuhænə nuclear energy [nukaene]
nomeži n unumeži mathematics [numežia]
šəu nomeži arithmetic
nomə n unumə number, amount [nume]
nomər a numeric [numeda]
nomo v wemo nomeiye break, collapse, fall apart [nomo ‘stop’]
nošazi a macho, by brute force [nučati ‘bare-chest’]
noseyu a topless, bare-chested [nuseyu]
noso n unuso nakedness, nudity [nusõ]
noy n unuy woman [nuña ‘girl’]
noyar a female, feminine [nuñada]
nuh v noh nuhəiye nuke; destroy completely [nuka]
nuhar a nuclear
o conj or [o]
o ndef letter O [o]
oagəl pron every; everyone, everybody; we [olawala]
ogəi n uy- the outdoors; ecosphere; environment, world; (Mars) the lowlands, the most terraformed regions [olawai ‘exterior’]
ogəir a ecological, environmental
Ogiru ndef uy- the regions where Marindi is spoken [woĩdu]
ogirušo ndef lægirušo Marindi language [woĩduxo]
oɣuzu n uy- skeleton [olagutu]
Okurə ndef læy- Okura [Okurinese]
omoso n uw- humanity [omosõ]
or b uy- wave [õda]
or n uw- Martian hour [ora]
or n uw- honor [õra]
ora adv again [odatãi]
orad a honorable, honored; general term of respect
oragæši n uy- reinfancy— loosening of mind to allow life change [‘again child’]
oraɣo v oraɣeiye return, go back [odago]
oraɣuŋ v oraɣuiye oragol repair, fix [‘rework’]
oraɣuŋgi n uy- repair person, fixer
orayaš v orayašiye consider, ruminate; rethink [‘re-think’]
Orižai ndef læy- Orindzai, sister planet to Okura
orogəir a alien, from a different ecosphere [‘other world’]
orogi n uy- alien (non-human sentient) [orogəigi ‘different ecology person’]
ou n uwou egg [ovu]
owadoɣ v (see doɣ) mess with, hang out with, play with
owai pron everywhere [olali]
owair ubiquitous, widespread [‘everywhere-ish’]
owašit pron everything [olaxič ]
owazai pron always [olatãi]
oži pron where [õji]
ozu n uw- oxygen, air [otu]
oʔə ndef letter ʔ
oʔu n uwoʔu gold [ohu]
pazu n ufazu quantum [kwãtu]
pædər n ufadər norm, standard
pædər a standard [padrõ]
pæfə n ufafə paper [pape]
pæhgi n ufahgi cook, chef (person) [pakawali]
pæhi n ufahi quark [kwaki]
pæmezu n ufamezu parliament, legislature [Palamẽtu]
pæmezugi n ufamezugi member of parliament, legislator
pæn n ufan solar panel [pana]
pærəš n ufarəš partition, non-load-bearing interior wall [parej]
pæsəru n ufasəru the past [pasadu]
pæši n ufaši party [pači]
pæšu n ufašu peace [paxu]
pæšur a peaceful; quiet
pæv n ufav word [pava]
pævəsen n ufavəsen dictionary [‘word scene’]
pebar n uhobar snake, serpent [kobra]
pefu n uhofu body [kopu]
peh n uzoh leg [toka]
pei n uhei kale, cabbage [kovi]
Peiman n Uzeiman α Centauri [Toliman]
pemo n uhomo body mod [komo]
pemu a common; communal [komũ]
pemurə n uhomurə community [komũde]
peni n uheni city [koni]
penir a urban, of the city [konida]
peŋ n uzoŋ tank, bottle [toŋ ]
per n uhor instructions; algorithm [koda ‘program’]
per n uhor color [kor]
peraz n ufiraz pirate, gangster [pirata]
peš n ufiš pizza [piča]
pešihu a political [pličiku]
pešihud n u- politics (a bad thing, pre-socionomics) [pličikde]
pez n ufiz father [pita]
pezar a fatherly, paternal [pitada]
n ufə foot [pe]
ndef letter P [pe]
pəgébə a undeveloped, backwards [pobre ‘poor’]
pəgédəri a rotten, moldy, spoiled [podri]
pəgéš n ufeš message, text [posči ‘post’]
pəgešnau adv maybe [poxnãu ‘sure’]
pəgézu n ufozu spaceport, port [portu]
pəgéʔ a ugly [plok ‘awful’]
pəi n læfəi piece, part [kwai]
pəi n ufəi pi [pai]
pəišifəl n u- politician, political crank [pličikwala]
pərǽz n uparəz silver [prata]
pəréɣə n ufeɣə project [prože]
pərǽzu n ufəræzu plate, dish [pratu]
pəu pron which [kwau]
pəu oper to the power of; exponential [pau]
pəu n ufəu sonic exploder, shocker (non-destructive police weapon) [pau ‘rod’]
pəugi n ufəugi police, guard [‘stun’ + -wali]
pəur n ufəur plant [pauda]
pəurago n ufəurago greenhouse, growing area [paudalabo ‘hydroponics lab’]
pəurəži n ufəurəži hydroponics [paudažia]
pəyeə n ufeə skin [pele]
pəyefəd n uprefəd preparation; plan [prepade]
pəyégə n ufegə lead (metal) [pebe]
pəyén n ufen feather [pena]
pəyéru n uferu toe [pededu]
pəyés v pəyéseiye seem, appear [prese]
pəyeto n ufəyeto oil, petrol; gasoline [petro]
pəyeu n ufeu fur [pelu]
pəyéyu n ufeyu friend [peñu]
pəyéyur a friendly [peŋuda]
pəyézu a near [petu]
pəyézu a black [pretu]
po n ufo dust, powder [po]
porar a computational, algorithmic [pudada]
pref v pəyef prefəiye prepare; plan, design [prepa]
pres v pərés presəiye push, press [prẽsa]
punomə n u- decile (.1, .2, etc.) [‘pu- number’]
puzu n ufuzu decimal point [Portunhol pũtu]
pwæl n upágəl man (male) [pwala]
rasoʔ n ugrasoʔ university, college [grãsku]
rau n ugrau grain [grãu]
ræm n ugárəm grass, greenery [grama]
ræraži n u- gravity [Pt gravidade]
ræš n ukraš fail, crash [krax]
ræsi n ukrasi power [krasi]
ræzer n ukərǽz crater [kratera]
reš v ləyeš rešəiye die; urgently want [deč]
resəži n u- agriculture [‘growth study’]
režih v ləyéžih režihəiye dedicate [dejika]
rəgér # 10 million [kror]
rəgéz n ugrez person, individual [grotu ‘guy’]
rəuz v ləuz rəuzaiye change, become [deuta]
rəužeru n u- sex change
rəyéd n u- belief, believing [krede]
rohu v dohu rohiye join, participate [žuku ‘enter’]
ruéniʔ n ukroniʔ story; film, holo [kronik]
rurət v lorat rurəšiye obey; follow (procedures) [dudač ]
saɣi n u- blood [sãgi]
sazu a holy, sacred [sãtu]
sægaru n usagaru sabbath [sabadu]
sæl a rotten, nasty [sala ‘bastard’]
sæy n usay robe, formal outfit [saya ‘dress’]
sæyas n usayas sauce, dip, salsa [Portuhol]
sedo n u- neighbor [sẽjo]
segat intj no, on the contrary (answers negative question) [si wat]
sekad a sixth
sekou n usikou circle, disk [siklu]
sekour a circular, round
sem pron you (s. or pl.) [se memu ‘yourself (s.)’]
sen n usin Vee scene; book, source [sina]
seraži a archaic, outmoded [sidaji ‘chic’]
seru # zero [siru]
sesagəl n u- scientist [siẽswala]
seši v sešiye feel, sense, perceive [sẽči]
sešiso n u- sensation, feeling [sẽčisõ]
sesu n usisu carbon [sisu]
seumo n u- bug, recording device [‘phone mod’]
seye # sixty
seyes n u- science [siẽsa]
seyesar a scientific [siẽsada]
seži n u- Friday [sikjia]
seʔ # six [sik]
seʔi v sweʔi seʔiye smile [sohi]
Seʔor n usiʔor Sihor (large human planet in ε Indi system)
sezem n usizem system, organization; a stellar system [sitema]
səgéo n uso hero, protagonist [solo ‘rogue’]
səmǽn n usamæn week [smana]
səmæt a smart, intelligent [smat]
səpédar n uspedar choice [skolyede]
səpíu n u- Skweeoo (alien species) [skwiu]
sətát n u- start, beginning, origin
sətát v sətát sətášiye start, begin, originate [stač]
sətézu a narrow [stetu]
səu v səu səiye make love, have sex [sau ‘fuck’]
səgét n usoyet ice cream; (slang) cool, awesome [soveč ]
səgéyu n usoyu dream; sleep [sonyu]
səyéger a seventh
səyéɣo n useɣo second (of time) [segõ]
səyéhu a dry [seku]
səyéu n useu (medical) breast [seyu]
sif a pleasant [sĩpa ‘nice’]
səyéuš n useus bra
səyéži n u- Saturday [sebejia]
səyéʔ # seven [sebe]
səʔés v səʔésəiye forget [skese]
səyéye # seventy
siɣu a abnormal, eccentric [sĩgulau]
sil intj yes [sĩ la ‘OK’]
sin intj yes, correct (answers negative question) [sĩ na]
sini a Sunnī [suni]
sipeš a simple [sĩplex]
sis a ash; gray [sĩsa]
siši n usuši sushi [suxi]
sit v set sišəiye sit [sič ]
so adv only, solely [so]
so a southern [su]
Soameh n u- South America
sobar n u- shadow, shade [sõbra]
soɣo n usuɣo south
sokoru a dark [skuru]
solyəu n usulyəu plastic [sulyau]
Soʔəyel ndef South Hellas
suyəgé post next to [‘right or left’]
swæi a smooth, soft [swavi]
swesi a progressive, humanistic [sosi ‘socialist’]
sopəres n u- surprise
sopəresar a surprising
sotar n usutar sutra [Sanskrit]
soyə adv even [‘only also’]
soyu v səgéyu soyuiye dream; sleep [sonyu]
Soyunor ndef u- Soñonorte (city on Mars)
spey v səpéy speyiye choose [skolye]
sugé post left of [swomẽ]
šam v šæm šaməiye call, name [xama]
šaŋəi v šæŋəi šaŋəiye connect, relate to; draw in, suggest [čaŋai ‘marry’]
šar n ušár house; firm, organization [xãda ‘family’]
šarfaɣ a paid by an organization
šau n u- floor, ground [xãu]
šaži n u- god [xãji]
šažir a godly, divine [xãjid]
šæ prep less than [xa]
šæg n ušag rice [čawa]
šæg a stupid, dumb [xagwa ‘idiot’]
šæme post under, below, underneath [xamẽ]
šæmeš n ušamaš butt, ass [‘under-thing’]
šæŋ a long [čaŋ ]
šæŋirə n ušaŋire connection, relation; suggestion [čaŋaide]
šæp a sharp [xap]
šærə n ušarə chess [xade]
šæzi n ušazi chest (of body) [čati]
šef n ušif food [čifã]
šefal n ušifəl teacher [xikwala]
šefəž n ušiəz restaurant [‘eat place’]
šeɣo v šəyéɣo šeɣeiye drive (a vehicle) [čego]
šeɣogi n u- driver
šeɣoš n u- volant [‘drive-thing’]
šen n ušin heart [xin]
šep n ušip marbles, brains (slang for ‘mind’) [čip ‘chip’]
šer a airy, gaseous [čida]
šeso n ušiso teaching, education [xiksõ]
šešum n ušišum shithole, hellhole [xičum ‘toilet’]
šet n ušit clutter, hoard; loot [xič ‘stuff’]
šeu v šeu šeiye be full; be tired of
šeu a full [xeu]
šezaso n uzezaso experiment, trial [tẽtasõ]
šežeru n u- trick, skill [dim. ‘know’]
šə n uši air, gas [či]
šə v šə šeiye write [xe]
šəgéhot n ušohot chocolate [xokolač ]
šəgéite n ušoite autumn [čotyẽ]
šəgérə n ušorə statement; a speech [xode]
šəgo v šəgeo šegeiye laugh [xolo]
šəmau n u- kitty, kitten [dim. ‘cat’]
šənayu n u- airplane [‘air-ship’]
šəu n u- stir-fry [čau]
šəu a small, little [xau]
səugal n u- sex worker, prostitute
šəumuh v šəumuhəiye pout, sulk [xaumuh]
šəunad n u- boy, young male [‘little male’]
šəuši n u- asteroid [xauxĩ]
šəuyoro n u- veal [xauñoro]
šəyéd a Qengese
Šəyégit n ušegit Dzebyet (an alien species)
Šəyéŋ ndef læšeŋ Qeng [Qengese]
šəyéra n ušera nonsense [čedã]
šəyérar a nonsensical [čedãda]
šəyéš adv thank you [xexe]
šəyeyu n u- minority [dim. ‘half’]
šiʔ n šeʔ šikəiye teach [xik]
ši n u- star [xĩ]
šif v šef šifəiye eat [čifã]
šiɣa a Shīʿah [Arabic]
šo prep about, on the subject of
šo v šo šeiye speak, say, tell [xo]
šoge n ušuge diamond [čuwẽ]
šoite n ušuite spring [čuntyẽ]
šomo n u- speaker, communicator [‘speak mod’]
šon n ušun group [čun]
šonrəsi n ušunresi oligarchy [čunkrasi]
šošəi n ušušəi vegetable [xučai]
šoso n u- language, speech (ability)
šuhu v šohu šuhiye abandon; break up (a relationship) [čuku ‘exit’]
šunso n u- group identity
šut v šot šušəiye shoot, fire (a weapon) [xuč]
šuv v šov šwaiye rain; shower [xuva]
šweži n ušeži linguistics [xožia]
šyef n ušyif guts, intestines [tripa]
šyeɣu n šyiɣu wheat [trigu]
šyen v šyəyén šyenəiye train, guide [trena]
šyenər n u- training [trenade]
šyeye # thirty
tai n uzai time [tãi]
taimo n uzaimo clock [‘time-mod’]
tæš n uzaš possessions, property [taxič]
Tæy ndef læzay Sol, Earth’s sun [Taya]
Tæyaši n uzayaši solar system [Tayaxi]
tæyaži n uzayaži Sunday [Tayaži]
tæži n uzaži evening [taji]
tæžim n uzažim Tajima screen [Tajima kafu]
te prep since, after [tẽ]
tedoji n u- afternoon [‘after noon’]
ter a subsequent, succeeding, later [‘after’ + adj.]
terzai intj goodbye! [‘later time’]
tesuʔi n užisuʔi Swahili [autonym Kiswahili]
n uze tea [te]
ndef letter T [te]
təigal a monster, horror [taiwala ‘alien’]
təiho n uzəiho space [taiko]
təin n uzəin spaceship [taina]
təré # three [tri]
təréəru n utəríəru triangle [triladu]
tərér a third
təréži n utəríži Tuesday [trijia]
təu adv such, that kind of [tau]
təyégi n utegi gangster, bandit [‘terrorist’]
Təyéh ndef læzeh Earth [Teha]
təyékəl n uzekəl parameter, UI element; (archaic) key [tekla]
təyéso n uteso pain, suffering
tiži n udiži Monday [tujia]
to n uzo calm, sang-froid [to ‘head’]
tohemeži a ambivalent, ambivalence [‘two emoji’]
tokad a second [tukda]
tomat adv very, really [tumač]
toye # twenty
toʔ # two [tuk]
u ndef letter U [u]
ug n uy- dog [ũbua]
ugéheŋ ndef lægoheŋ Martian Mandarin [‘Mars-Chinese’]
Ugéheni ndef lægoheni Areopolis [Wokoni]
Ugéše n lægoše Mars [Woxẽ]
bəi Ugéše on Mars
ugéšer a Martian [Woxẽda]
ugéyen n ugoyen Martian year (~687 Earth days, 667 Mars days) [woñen]
ugezai ndef læy- Mars time [wotãi]
urégəl pron they, them (males) [‘some’ + dewala]
urégi pron they, them (females) [‘some’ + dewali]
urə pron they, them [‘some’ + de]
Usæfi n u- ideology of Afrika ya Mashariki [Usafi]
usu n uy- bear (animal) [usu]
Uyameh ndef læy- the Americas [Ameh pluralized]
Uzefi ndef læy- Utopia (city on Mars)
Vayeš ndef læyayeš Valles city [Valex]
Vayešəɣ ndef læyayešəɣ the Valles Marineris [‘Valles (city) region’]
vedoru n uwidoru glass (substance) [vidru]
væfor n uwafor publicity, propaganda [vapor ‘hot air’]
væu n uwau valve [vavu]
ver n uir life [vida]
vetəri n uyetəri belly, abdomen; womb [vẽtri]
veyu n uiyu wine [viñu]
veyugər n užugər grape [viñuberi]
vež n uyiž window [viža ‘porthole’]
vezu n uyezu wind, breeze [vẽtu]
ndef letter V [ve]
vəgézu n uyozu vote; election [votu]
vəgézugo n uyozugo republic, pre-Incatena democracy [‘vote country’]
vəyémi n uyemi worm [vemi]
vəyéro n uero summer [verõ]
vəyéži a green [veji]
vəyéʔ n uyeʔ people, persons [vek ‘guy’]
vwe prep until, before [vo]
vwer a previous; past, former, ex- [‘until’ + adj.]
wafal n ugafəl judge [wãkwala]
wafaləž n ugafaləž court (of a judge) [‘judge house’]
wakad a first [wãkda]
wakagi n ugakagi chairman, president [‘first person’]
wakasi n ugakasi totalitarianism [wãkkrasi]
wakasir a totalitarian
wasei n ugasei pornography [wãse vi ‘yellow Vee’]
wasə a salacious, dirty, pornographic [wãse ‘yellow’]
wašip a primitive [wãčip ‘stupid’]
waʔ # one [wãk]
intj well… (marks dispreferreds) [wat]
wæf a fat, chubby [wapa ‘sexy’]
wæg n ugag flower [wawa]
wægat pron why [wanwat]
wæi n lægai older woman (past first oragæši) [mwali ‘woman’]
wæi n ugai woman [wali]
wæn # ten thousand [wan]
wær n ugar water [wada]
wæš n ugaš danger [wača]
wæsər a dangerous
wæt pron what [wat]
wæyu n ugau older man (past first oragæši) [wala]
wegəl conj or [‘some’]
wegəl pron some; someone, somebody [mowala]
wegəra a huge, enormous [augm. ‘big’]
wegi n uyegi pal, mate [ñobi ‘cunt’]
wegizu a extreme, excessive [augm. ‘much’ ]
wehəž n umohəž residence, living quarters [mohakaža]
wei somewhere [moli]
wei a new [novi]
Weibarət ndef læneibarət New Bharat
Weibəu ndef u- Weinbaum (city on Mars)
Weiheni ndef u- Newtown (city on Mars)
Weiʔu ndef u- New Rio (city on Mars]
weimoh v weiweh weimohəiye move (residences), migrate
Weiresi ndef læneiresi Novorossiya
weisin n uneisin news; news site, media [‘new scene’]
weisingi n uneisingi journalist, reporter
weiso n uneiso newness, novelty [‘new’ + -so]
weiwehgi n u- migrant, immigrant, settler, colonist
weiwehso n u- migration, immigration, settlement, colonization
weižeru a uneižeru new gender, esp. with nontraditional genitals
wem pron we, us [wi menu ‘ourselves’]
weməu a normal, ordinary [nomau]
wemo adv stop doing X! [nomo]
wemo n uyomo human (noun) [omo]
wemor a human, of humans [omoda]
wenaʔ a expensive [‘much money’]
wenər # hundred [oner]
wenərad a hundredth
weninomi ndef læmeninomi socionomics [‘society’ + -nomia]
weninomir a socionomic
wenirəsi n læmenirəsi modern democracy [‘community power’]
wenis a (history) socialist, Armonista [monisa]
Wenisəž ndef læmenisəž Armonía, a planet of μ Cassiopeiae
wer a other, another [oda]
Werə ndef lænwerə Nuevos Aires [Novere]
weri n umodi mod, modification [modi]
wero n uyoro beef, cow, cattle [ñoro]
weržeru a u- binary, neither male nor female [‘other gender’]
wes n umos baby, beloved, honey (term of endearment for either sex) [mosa ‘girl’]
Wesəheni ndef Mons [Mõskoni]
weš n unoš nut, kernel; nucleus [nox]
wešeu a crowded, dense [augm. ‘full’]
weši n umoši mountain, hill [moči]
weši a northern [noči]
wešiɣ n unošiɣ north
Wešiameh n unešiameh North America
wešip n umešip genius [‘big chip’]
wešit pron something [moxič ]ō
weyeyu n u- majority; most [augm. ‘half’]
Weyipay ndef u- Wiŋiwapya, a city on Mars
weyu a wet [molyu]
wezai pron sometime, sometimes [motãi]
wezite n u- climate [augm. ‘weather’]
wezu pron much, many [mwitu]
wežu adv somehow [možetu]
wəi prep than (used with comparatives) [wai]
wəigé post out of, outside, away from, off [waimẽ]
wəigi n ugəigi foreigner [waiwali]
wəiɣo a foreign [waigo]
wəiheni n ugəiheni the (inhospitable) highlands [waikoni]
wəihoš a off-planet, offworld; not from Mars [‘away-rock’]
wəimei n ugəimei the ‘near outside’: breathable area protected by Tajima screens [‘outside-place’]
wəimen n ugəimen airlock [waimen]
wəizay a outsystem, colonial, from the human worlds outside the solar system [‘outside-Sol’]
wəizaygi n u- colonial, someone not from Sol system
wəyédə n ugedə question [wende]
wi pron when; (prep) at (a time), while [wĩ]
wo v lo yeiye ləgél wash, clean [do]
wohəž n urohəž sink, wash station [dolum]
yagəi v lagəi yagəiye find [lãbai]
yan v læn yaiye læl lead, govern [lan ‘run’]
yaran v aran araiye aral rest, relax [aran]
yaš v aš yašiye think; plan [axa]
yaže v vyæžə yažəiye visit, stay over, be a guest [vyaže ‘travel’]
yažegi n uvažegi visitor, guest
yæn n uyan salt, salty [yan]
yæžed n uyažed visit [vyažede]
yebar v lebar yebarəiye remember, recall [lẽbra]
yefal n umefal engineer, fixer [mekwala]
yeɣ # million [mega]
yehætəri n umehætəri mechawomb [mekavẽtri]
yehafəi make amends or restitution [mekafãi ‘fix’]
yeharet a deadly [mekadeč]
yeharə n umeharə construction, mechanism [mekade]
yehaži n umehaži mechanics, engineering [mekažia]
yehveži v mehveži yehvežiye terraform [mekaveji]
yei a beautiful [meli]
yei n unei snow [nevi]
yeir n umeir beauty [melida]
yem pron I, me [mi memu ‘myself’]
Yemaž ndef læ- Iemanjá, sister planet to Sihor
yemeži v emeži yemežiye emote; feel (for the moment)
yemə a fancy, luxurious [meme ‘dear’]
yeməd n u- luxury, fancy goods
yemir n umemir 1000 km [memida]
yemu adv same [memu]
yemufih a stable, constant [‘stay same’]
yen v ləyen yeiye ləyen learn, study [len]
yen n umen door [men]
yen n u- calendar (Earth) year [ñen]
yenmo n u- camera, imagizer, lens [‘eye-mod’]
yenu a afraid [medu]
yer n umer crap, poop; manure, dung [merda ‘shit’]
yeš n umeš month [mex]
yesapə v esapə yesapəiye hope, expect [espar]
Yešeŋ ndef læmešeŋ Meicheng [Mečeŋ ]
yesətə v vəyésətə yesəšəiye appear as, seem to be, disguise as [veste ‘wear’]
yesu a boring, dull [nesu ‘stupid’]
yet v ləyeč yešiye may (be allowed to) [leč]
yeyu n umeyu half [meyu]
yeyumeši a subsmart; non-sentient (of devices) [‘half-sentient’]
yeyušu n umeyušu dome (esp. one supporting a Tajima screen), hemisphere [meyučyu]
yez v ləyéz yezaiye get, obtain; attain, reach [ta with CoS]
yeʔ n umeʔ mec, robot, android [mek]
yeʔež n umeʔež mec room, the part of a building used only by mecs
yeʔr a mechanical, robotic
prep plus, with, as well as [ye ‘also’]
ndef letter Y [ye]
yəgé post to the right of [yomẽ]
yəi v əi yəiye love [ai]
yəiʔ v ləiʔ yəkəiye have fun, have a good time; party [laik ‘like’]
yəməh v yəmehəiye add [aemeka]
yəməhso n u- addition; sum, amount
yəyéga n uyega night [yewã]
yəyén n uyen eye [yen]
yir v ver yeraiye live [vida]
yir v ver yiraiye turn [vira]
yisi n u- uranium [yusi]
yizaf v izaf yizafəiye look (good, pretty, etc.); present or show oneself as; show (on the Vee) [cf. izaf]
yo v vo yiye fly [voa]
yoaš n oašo yoašeiye detail, report (on) [olaxo ‘gossip’]
yogat pron how [yuŋwat]
yoɣo adv thanks
yoɣósat adv thank you [‘will enjoy’]
yohaz n uyuhaz pajamas, gown [Jap. yukata]
yoŋso n u- usage
yošu n uyušu moon (any) [yuxu]
yozu v vəgézu yozuiye vote; elect[votu]
yuŋ prep with, using [‘use’]
yuŋ v yoŋ yuiye yol use [yuŋ]
zahot v tæhot zahošiye explain [takoč]
zelæɣuŋar a manufactured, artificial
zeléšar n u- AI [‘completed’, i.e. advanced to sentient status
zeŋ v təyéŋ zeiye hurt, suffer[teŋ]
zez n šez zezəiye try, test, experiment [tẽta]
v tə zaiye have, own, possess [ta]
ziŋ n teŋ ziye hear [tiŋ]
Zir ndef uzir Tir Habitat (orbiting Sirius)
zir n šet ziraiye pull (on) [tira]
zogal v pegal zogaiye run, manage [towala ‘boss’]
zogalgi n upegalgi manager; mayor
žai v dai žaiye stand; remain, stay; there is/are [jãli]
Žæf ndef læžaf Japan [Žapã]
žæfot n užafot wrapping; dress, skirt, robe
žeɣu n užiɣu spine, backbone [žigu]
žafot v žæfot žafošəiye wrap; dress, wear, put on [žafoč]
žəyéni a random [ženi]
žeru n u- sexual identity, grammatical gender [žẽru]
žeru v žəyéru žeriye know; know how to, can [žedu]
žeruso n u- knowledge [žedu + sõ]
žeši n u- (politics, law) people, population [žẽči]
žeyəiʔ a popular [žẽlaik]
žezu post as, like [žetu]
Žəyésu ndef læžesu Jesus, Christ [Žesu]
Žəyésurəu ndef læžesurəu Christianity [Žesudau]
žəyét ndef letter Z [zeč]
žəyéu n užeu ice [želu]
žəyézu n užezu way, method [žetu]
žəyóyu n užoyu knee [žwelyu]
žiɣo v deɣo žiɣəiye be corrupt, be shameless [jigo ‘whore out’]
žiŋi a easy [žuŋi]
žirməh v dirməh žirməhəiyte subtract [jĩdemeka]
žisey v desey žiseyəiye draw, sketch [jiseña]

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