Virtual Verduria

Verdurian-English Dictionary

© 1998-2011 by Mark Rosenfelder

Etymology in [brackets]; Caďinor words in CAPS; Verdurian and Old Verdurian (OV) in italics; words from other languages underlined. 'Reborrowing' indicates words borrowed in recent times from Caďinor rather than inherited. For the derivation of Caďinor, Cuêzi, and Xurnese/Axunašin roots from Proto-Eastern, see the appropriate lexicons.

No etymology is given for words formed from common affixes like řo-, -náe, -om, so long as the root has its own dictionary entry.

Parts of speech and genders are not given when they are evident from the form of the word in Verdurian.

Transitivity: vt = transitive; vi = intransitive; vt/vi = either.

The entries for words showing irregular morphology show the forms affected, including common spelling variations. For regular morphology, see the Grammar.

Dialectal, OV, and archaic words are generally entered only when they are mentioned elsewhere in the Verdurian Research Series, and are always marked as such. The selected slang and colloquial words which have been included are also labelled. All other words can be considered standard Mažtane.

Entries for animal names include a short description, which should be taken as a summary of the essential characteristics of the animal. The English gloss is the closest terrestrial analogue; characteristics of this animal not mentioned in the short description do not necessarily apply to the Almean animal. Fuller descriptions can be found on the Almeopedia.

The lexicon includes the commonest Cuzeian and Eleďe given names, but does not indicate common words also used as names, and does not include Caďinor-style combined names (of which more than four hundred are in common use). See the monograph Verdurian Names for these. However, the common name elements in pagan names are listed.

Number of Verdurian entries: 6450 (plus 1650 idioms and sample sentences)


a - the letter A (invar.), transliterated a; the second letter of the alphabet [IA]
ä - oh, ah; expression of surprise or pleasure; prolonged, the sound of a scream
- uh, er
ab - prep prototypical use is as instrumental; by, using, with; grammar ending in [AB]
ab tranošán using a knife
ab nilnen with a skirt on
ab torán zië using his own share
ab raženin zië by his own efforts
ab Calton! by Calto!
šerë ab bolén nütán beer with a lot of foam
soĭ mevloži ab ne the verbs in -n
ulelen ab advečelán lië judging from his answer
abbosát - success
abbosan - vi succeed [‘with luck’]
abbosan u beďelán pass a test
abbosne - successful
- reasonable, rational, reasoning [ab curayan, with reason]
Abend - Caďinorian given name [origin obscure; may be related to benda ‘blessing’]
abilen - vt clothe [late Caď. *HABILEN, from HABIL ‘clothes’]
zet abilen clothe oneself; wear (ab)
abnozát - attachment
- vt attach, fasten [‘knot with’]
abžanke - accidental [‘by accident’]
ac - but [AC]
accen - (colloq.) scold, tell off [short for acceoren]
- admonition, reprimand, exhortation, reproach
acceoren - vt admonish, reprimand, exhort [ADCEOREN]
Acceorne so aďeton aelutratán He exhorted the congregation to virtue
Cam acceorme ak zután lië He will reprimand them for their sin
accesten - vt deliver [ADCESTEN ‘to there’]
acclas - parry
acclasmir - vt/vi parry (conj. like clasmir) [‘swing against’]
acinec - vt hear, listen to, hear tell [ADCLINEC ‘lean toward, listen’, from CLINEC ‘lean’]
zet acinec to be known
acinec racont hear a story
Soa mažtana zet acine the city is well known
acinul - rumor; opinion
acoďia - separation, isolation; sequestration, purdah
acoďir - vt separate, sequester, keep apart [ADCOŤIR ‘put aside’, from AD + COŤOS ‘side’]
zet acoďir keep oneself apart from, stand aloof from ()
acota - prep, adv aside, apart from, as opposed to [OV adcota ‘aside’ showing Caď. adverbial ending -A]
acota telin sefoin apart from the other boys
acotál - besides, anyway, in any case [ac otál ‘but also’]
acotura - seduction [‘taking aside’]
acoturen - vt seduce
acoturom - seducer
acřó - adv except, excluding [‘but not’]
Lelnai fsë, acřó soa šeira I saw everything except the palace
Trožnei čil čečum acřó eto You touched every piece of candy but this one
Acuyo - Cuzeian name [Acuōre]
ad - to, toward (always takes dative) [AD]
ad Deštain toward Deštai
büten ad lapisán aim at a rabbit
culpa ad žankan blame for the accident
cellëcan šual ad soan teřuan tie a horse to the post
Prosam ad desin We walked to the bridge
Adaro - Cuzeian name [Adāurio ‘blue (as name)’]
addobre - adjustment, small correction
addobrec - vt adjust (slightly or in increments); (make clothes) fit [‘till right’]
Ci-kyole řo zet addobre This dress doesn’t fit
addobrom - fitter; maker of gloves, belts, scarves, sashes, and other accessories
adecan - just, exactly [AD AECAN ‘to the point’]
adeleca - a Barakhinei play, normally satirical and written by women; by extension, any comedy of manners, especially satirizing the rural nobility [Bar. adleleka ‘showing’]
adesan - vt become (by changing nature; compare ocan) (regular verb) [‘toward-being’]
adesan ďare become a sober person
adežel - cost (amount required to purchase) [ADAECTEL]
adežen - vt fetch [ADAECTEN ‘to here’]
adferieme - tolerant
adferien - vt bear, stand [ad + ferien ‘support’]
adike - prep until, till [AD DIŤAN KEDA ‘to the time when’]
adike čenan till dinner
adike dy adžanmai until I arrive
adis - rejection; divorce [‘toward hate’]
adisan - vt reject, divorce
adkazec - vt identify, indicate [ADKANSEC]
adkazeca - identification, indication
adonic - cottage, small country house [Barakhinei ‘hut’, dim. of ‘room’, from ATONNOS]
- vt instruct [‘toward knowledge’]
advečel - answer, response
advečen - vt answer, respond, reply [ADVEITEN ‘answer’, lit. ‘respond in a speech’]
advečen cues answer a question
advečen imbemecán answer the teacher
adžanen - vi arrive [‘come to’]
adžano - arrival
- god [AIĎOS]
ab soin aďin for heaven’s sake
aďa - goddess [AIĎA]
Aďám - Eleďe name [OV Aďam]
aďán - lawful good, godward; God-oriented ethics or behavior [‘toward God’]
aďát - divinity, godhead [AIĎANTOS]
Aďcet - Godsfest (Caďinorian pagan) [aďië céďue ‘feast of the gods’]
aďeton - church, community of believers, congregation; the body of all Eleďe believers. [AIĎETON]
aďetonáe - (Eleďe) church building
Aďia - Pagan given name [OV Aiďia]
Aďiana - Eleďe name [OV Aďriana]
Aďiano - Eleďe name [OV Aďriano]
aďicole - divine, godly [‘god-loving’]
aďivaži - blasphemy, profanation
aďivažir - blaspheme, profane [AIĎIVAGIR]
aďivažec blasphemous, profane
aďnáe - Caďinorian or Irrean temple; occasionally used for a large Eleďe church. [AIĎNAURE ‘God-place’]
aďom - cleric
aďomát - clergy
aďontu - vision, revelation [‘God-showing’]
áďoraž - hurricane, tornado [‘divine storm’]
aďtävel - disaster, catastrophe [AIĎOTAUBREL ‘god-blow’]
aďtävele - disastrous, catastrophic
Aďunac - the Dwelling of the Gods (1st Age mythology)
Aelëa - Goddess of the Earth and wife of Aežon (1st Age mythology) [AELILEA]
aelutrát - virtue, righteousness; character; the virtues
aelutre - virtuous [reborrowing of AELUŤRES; cf. elut]
aelutul - virtue, good point
Aežon - Lord of the Gods and God of the Heavens (1st Age mythology) [AECTON]
affuca - tartan, plaid (pattern formed with crossing patterns, characteristic of the upper Svetla) [Eř axfuca ‘counter-color’]
agasan - vt/vi annoy [AGASAN ‘poke’]
agasarda - cholera [reborrowing of AGASARDA ‘poking disorder’]
agasë - annoying
Agaďe - Eleďe name [OV Agaťe]
agažë - involved, active, outraged, engagé, particularly as a response to oppression [‘against the outrageous’]
agban - dam; hindrance, obstacle
agbaner - v hinder, impede, obstruct [‘against traveling’]
agbüte - useless [‘against-goal’]
agečia - refusal; disdain
agečir - vt refuse, waive; disdain [‘throw against’]
agmuran - vt disobey [ak ‘against’ + imuran ‘obey’]
Agne - Eleďe name [OV Hagne]
agoläm - important, serious [‘to be faced’]
agolamát - importance, seriousness
agolec - vt face, address; deal with, take care of [‘face toward’]
Eto agole soa aguma? Does this address the problem?
agreni - belief, conviction [ADCRENIS ‘deeply felt’, from AD ‘at’ + CRENIS ‘guts’]
ab agrenin on principle, out of conviction
tenec agrena hold a belief
agrenisát - beliefs, persuasion; belief-system, world-view
agrenuli - opinion [‘a little belief’]
tenec agrenula to have an opinion
aguma - problem [Cuêzi agūma]
Ahuenai - Axunai, Xurno; Xengiman [Axunašin Axunai]
bomë Ahuenai Axunai
ahuenaš - Xurnese [Axunašin axunašin, modified by analogy with Ahuenai]
bome ahuenaš Axunašin
ahuene - Xurnese
ai - I am
ailuro - cat (small domesticated predator, related to čučulĭ etc.)
áiočak - trap [Qaraumcán ayočaq]
aiočakan - vt trap
ak - against [AȞ]
ak mezinen against nature
ak dy so činek šri lest the boss find out
brigan ak drukán fight with a friend
gagan ak hostán choke on a bone
Zet mis dy e ak soán daluguesán It’s said that he’s against the monarchy
Sues ak dunán e dekďun Six times two is twelve
akaltáš - nadir [‘against the zenith’; replacing OV basáš for euphemistic reasons]
akašesa - contrast, opposition
- contrast, oppose [‘against-think’; cf. coašir]
- fire screen [‘against sparks’]
akešui - insurance, insurance policy [‘against failure’]
tene teplenem akešua to be fully insured
akešuir - vt insure
akešuir dom zië insure one’s house
akežan - vt protect [‘guard against’]
akežan so řük ak bortomin protect the castle from bandits
akežë - helm
- protection
Akula - Eleďe name [OV Akula]
aklädan - vt resist [‘go against’]
aklädeca - resistance
aklog - contradiction, denial (pl. akloži) [‘word against’]
aklogen - vt contradict, deny; repudiate
aklogen proetam zië go back on one’s word
akmizec - vi disagree, object (conj. like mizec) [‘speak against’]
akmizec Ihanon disagree with Ihano
akmizec ak ciberdelán disagree with a decision
akmizo - disagreement
aknó - window [‘against storm’ = ak ‘against’ + no (archaic) ‘rain’, from NOU]
akolotan - vt dislike, disdain, spurn [‘feel against’]
akolotë - dislike, disdain
akonten - vt disprove [‘show against’]
akontu - disproof
akoteran - vt confuse, vex, puzzle [‘against-knowledge’]
akoterát - confusion, puzzlement
akpluya - umbrella [‘against rain’]
akprenan - vt rob (with violence) [‘take against’]
akprenan ontediďa de redelcén rob a woman of her watch
akpuyan - vt repel, force back [‘push against’]
Copuynu soa incučä They forced the invader back
akpuyo - resistance (to an enemy or a force)
akrafne - unfair [‘against fairness’]
akřaner - vt guard (captives, prisoners, booty; cf. hežan) [‘keep against’]
akřanec - guard; warden, jailer
akskazia - penalty; fine
- fine, assess a penalty [‘punish against’]
aksubrel - counter-effect [‘against-effect’]
akula - shark (large, primitive, fierce predator) [AKULUA, from Meť. akluwa]
akženë - sin against another man; crime
akžény - malicious, sinful, mean [‘against the people’]
al- - earthly (OV name element) [ALES]
alaďea - music [ALAIŤEA]
alaďeom - musician
Aläna - Name of the first iliu-maiden, Aläna Sorežna Alana the Fair [Cuêzi Alāna]
alat - an emur coin of Pakšohan or Hežina, in other lands generally called alati [dialectal form of ALAŤIS]
alat - a silver coin of Kebri, worth a third more than a fale [Kebreni alať]
alati - lark; a common Caďinorian coin, generally of emur (Célenor, Ctésifon, Guaya, Solhai, Pakšohan, Hežina, Mútkün, Hroth, Érenat, Ismahi— the Ismaîn coin is also called an alasi); also an ancient Caďinorian emur coin [ALAŤIS— the coin generally pictures the bird]
Alauda - Cuzeian name [alaldas ‘star’]
Aláudë - Cuzeian name [alaldillê ‘starlike’]
alb - beam, mast [dialectal variation of arb ‘tree’]
alcalë - treasure; (colloquial) vagina [reborrowing of ALCALIE, from Cuêzi alcalias, nominalization of cōli ‘gather’ (cf. colir)]
alcedla - magic [ALETES CAEDEL ‘the high discipline’]
alcedlom - magician
alcedsanno - wizard, master magician, necromancer
alčiro - (army) captain, major [‘high lieutenant’]
aldea - village [ALDEIA]
alďoro - village chief [ALAŤORION, village chief, elder]
Aleďea - Eleďe name [OV Aleťeia]
Alekia - Eleďe name [OV Alecsia]
Alekio - Eleďe name [OV Alecsio]
aletasces - maximum [reborrowing of ALETASCES ‘highest’]
alihar - advantage, upper hand [reborrowing of ALIȞAR, from Cuêzi alīxār ‘high place’]
bruhan alihar take advantage (+ gen. = of something, + dat. = of someone)
alihar ab hičatán an advantage in cunning
alir - vt/vi (colloq.) deal with, handle, come to terms with, make do with [Flaidish ʔaull]
zet alir get by, make do, get on well enough
Almea - Almea, the world; (not capitalized) world [ALAMEIA, from ALES ‘earthly’, MEIS ‘water’; that is, ‘the seas and lands’]
Doncelai almea pro šrifec I’d give the world to know
Alric - Caďinorian given name; name of the current Verdurian king [OV ‘earthly-ruler’]
altáš - summit; zenith; ideal, paragon [ALETASCES ‘highest’]
altašše - superior, ideal
altát - height
altcliďu - vicar
altcurana - high curacy; the office of an altcüre
altcüre - Caďinorian pagan curate or bishop
alte - high; accent; accented syllable [ALETES]
áltece dec uestĭ at most ten men
altilneo - archbishop
altmesti - archdiocese [cf. mesti ]
altmuyo - crisis [‘high peril’]
altom - leader [‘high-man’]
altora - metrical pattern
altu - tyrant [OV ayltur, boss]
altuát - tyranny
Alue - Cuzeian name [ailuē ‘graceful’]
aluatas - grammar [reborrowing of ALUATAS]
alyo - garlic [ALILO]
am - we are
Ambeca - Cuzeian name [ambeca ‘grace’]
ambresa - liking, appreciation, approval [AMAREICA]
čisy ambresa good taste
ambresa and frälinen a taste for young women
ambrir - vt like, have a taste for; value, appreciate, approve (focus on judgment or aesthetics; cf. ditavan) [AMARIR ‘respect, appreciate’]
ambrec lover, connoisseur, fan, aficionado
ambre soem frälinem he likes young women
Ambrise - Cuzeian name [ambrisei ‘dancer’]
Ambrišo - Cuzeian name [Ambrisio ‘dancer’]
ametan - vt bring; deliver [ADMETTAN, from AD ‘to’ + METTAN ‘put’]
ametan čaa [ad] hotun bring tea for a guest
amevan - vt defy [AȞMEBRAN ‘act against’]
- defiance
- Cuzeian name [amīsia ‘joy’]
ammeď - eldest child; heir [‘first son’]
Amnät- Amnät or Amnās, evil spirit dominating Almea [Cuezi Amnāte ‘of Amnās’]
amnigo - devil, corrupted vyoža (Power) of Almea [Cuezi amnigo ‘coming from Amnäi’]
amrab - law; code of law; monastic rule; monastic order [OV ambrab, assimilated form of ambram, from AMARAUM ‘precedent’, literally ‘what is to be respected’; cf. ambrir]
so amrab the study of law
amrabe - lawful, legal
amrabise - rightful, lawful, de jure (by law)
Ai dalu muë amrabise I am your lawful king
amrabom - lawyer
amrabul - obverse stamp on a coin [leta ambrabul, ‘coin made legal’]
an - one; whole; heir; umarried, single; poetic eldest [AN]
so An Daluy the Heir Apparent, the Crown Prince (f. ana daluy)
an hipcontanan heir to the Viscountcy
an- - eldest
Ana - Eleďe name [OV Anna]
anacoďia - isolation, alienation
- vt isolate, set apart [‘one-separate’]
anát - union, unity
anca - hip [HANCA]
and - for (on behalf of, for the benefit of, intended for); in favor of [reborrowing of AND]
and soan cumbutatán on behalf of the company
ivro and ečomuin a book for schoolchildren
ambresa and šeren a taste for beer
řit and surogonec frying pan
Itësu and soán otifeyen I worry about the poor thing
Ai and soan yestan I’m for the idea
Ei and iy ak? Are you for or against?
Andažuei - Endajué, the majority religion of Xurno [Xurnese Endajué, from ende dzu ez ‘path between all’]
andaša - seminar, meeting; committee [‘session for (doing)’]
andedau - profit [Kebreni adnedau ‘addition’, from adnedu ‘add’, borrowing of ADMETTAN]
colir andedaum is soan cumbutatán make a profit from the business
So cumbutát keďe andedaum The business returns a profit
andettene - profitable [‘has profits’]
andor - mighty [ANDEOR]
Andrea - Eleďe name [OV Anďrea]
Andrey - Eleďe name [OV Anďrea]
ane - eldest
anĭ parents
anëdana - lineage; breed
anëdë - of good family; pedigreed (animal)
anëden - vi descend [ANORDEN ‘claim as one’s ancestor’, from ANOR ‘elder’]
anëdec descendant
anëdul ancestor
anëdec Sumeei A descendant of Sumeo
Anëde Sumeei He descends from Sumeo
Anëla - Eleďe name [OV Angela]
anelen - vt/vi ring
anelo - ring [ANELLO]
anelota - chain mail [‘ring-collection’]
anëly - angel
Áneve - Goddess of Spirit and love (1st age mythology) [OV Ándembre, late Caďinor ANDEMARE, feminization of ANDEMAR]
anguia - eel (long thin fish) [ANGUHILA, from Cuêzi ancuīlla ‘small sea serpent’, from Meť. ankuwa ‘sea snake’]
anieprusi - singles bar [anië prusi, ‘inn of the unmarried’]
anise - only, unique, sole
Eu soĭ anisĭ kaë šrifu They’re the only ones who know
anisece - only, solely, merely
anitire - sincere, honest; naïvely trusting [‘single-spirited’]
aniže - cool, chilly
-ank- - pejorative suffix [Ctésifoni dialect]
ankazë - nominee, candidate (in an election)
ankazec - vt nominate for office [‘point for’]
zet kazec run for office
Ankaztom Caltam and munëin We’ll run Calto for the position
ankazeca - nomination, candidature
anor - elder [ANOR]
anori - college, group
soa Anori - (Caďinorian Catholic) College of Cardinals
anorul - collegian; Cardinal
anröma - the singular [‘one-count’]
anröme - singular
ans - handle [ANSOS]
ansel - key [‘little handle’]
ánselcud - keyhole (pl. ánselcuzĭ) [‘key-hole’]
antau - system [Cuêzi āntāu ‘unity’, from āno ‘one’]
anušan - vt loathe [AȞNUSIAN ‘set one’s face against’, from AȞ ‘against’ + NUSIAN ‘be determined’]
anušeo - loathing
apelu - call [APELLU]
apeluan - vt call, summon [APELLAN ‘name, call’]
apeluan pretäram call a servant
Apleno - Eleďe name [OV Apellen]
Apolo - Eleďe name [OV Apollo]
apros - adv later, afterward; prep after [AD PROCIN ‘(following) close after’]
apros soan pavonan following the wagon
apros soan prandon after dinner
apros dy so dalu fäsre after the King left
So dalu apros siča šantne The king was later singing
aprosmev - reaction
aprosmevan - vi react; vt counter [‘act after’]
aproste - adj later, subsequent
appakan - vi approach
Appakam soan mažtanan We’re approaching the city
appakát - approach [‘toward closeness’]
appuyan - vt motivate, inspire; imply, suggest [‘push toward’]
Et appuyei šantan You inspire me to sing
Šant appuye alaďea A song implies music
appuyo - motivation; implication, suggestion
apprĭ - before, in front of [ad ‘toward’+ prĭ ‘facing’]
apprĭ so domán in front of the house
ar - yes [Curiyan ayra ‘truly’]
arad - despite [HARAD]
arafát - terror, brutality, lawlessness [ ‘away from’ + rafát ‘justice’]
aran - cradle [ARANOS]
Arana - Cuzeian name (m) [araunas ‘eagle’]
Aránicer - Aránicer, a city on the upper Svetla [ARAUNICAER, half-translation of ARAUNICOROS, from Cuêzi Araunicoros ‘port of the Eagle’]
arasni - spider (web-building arthropod— on Almea, ten-legged) [ARACNIS]
arastát - care
araste - careful, painstaking; patient [ARACNITES ‘painstaking, like a spider’]
Araš - Araš, the first man [Cuêzi Arrasos]
Arašát - Arašát, the worship of Iáinos; the religion of Cuzei and the Arašeĭ
Arašei - one of the worshippers of Iáinos [‘son of Araš’]
Aranotu - the Creating Spirit, Mind (1st Age mythology)
arašó - very much, much, quite
arb - tree [ARBOS]
arbek - locust (swarming, destructive hopping insect) [HARBEȞ]
arbul - shrub
arc - bow, arc [ARCOS]
Arcaln - the ancient fortress on Arin Island guarding Verduria [‘Arin fortress’]
Arcél - the eastern continent, seat of Belesao and Uytai [Uytainese ʔarkhel ‘Almea’]
- bowmaker (a subspecialty of strelorát)
ardënda - monument [ADLERIENDA ‘memorial’, from ADLERIEC ‘remember’, from AD + LERIAS ‘understanding’]
Arénica - ancient name of Verduria [ARENICA, from AROSD]
arico - long bean [HARICO]
arin - relating to Arosd or Arénica; (poetically) Verdurian; also, the name of the delta island on which Arcaln is built [ARENES]
arkoša - tree-dwelling cat, found in Rau jungle [‘tree cat’]
arni - lamb [ARINIS]
Äron - Eleďe name [OV Aaron]
Arosd - ancient name for the Eärdur river delta [Meťaiun ‘delta’]
ařelir - vt pelt with stones or debris; cast sand, seeds, or other small objects on; sprinkle (with water) [AȞRESLIR, from AȞ ‘against’ + RESLIR ‘sow’]
ařemë - negative (grammar, logic) [AȞEMEC ‘deny’, from AȞ ‘against’ + EMEC ‘talk’]
arendil - termite [AȞENDIL ‘against-wood-thing’]
ařolotë - prejudice, bigotry, unreasoning dislike [‘feel against’]
ařolotëte - prejudiced, bigoted (ak)
Ařomba - Goddess of Endings [AȞOMERA]
ařošát - persecution, harassment
- persecute, badger, harass [AȞKOSCEN ‘play with like a cat’, cf. koška]
aržent - silver[ARGENTOS]
aržentei - official name for the fale, the large silver coin of Verduria; a similar coin in Krasnaya; or a small silver coin of Célenor, Guaya, or Viminia
aržentul - a small silver coin of Verduria (worth 1/3 fale); used informally for similar coins in other countries [‘small silver’]
äser - merry, jolly, cheerful [ALACER ‘roaring drunk’]
äserát - merriment, jollity, mirth, good cheer
asën - maple (temperate, deciduous tree with heavy foliage) [ACERNOS]
ásuir - vi sit, sit down [ASIR]
šesan asuir seat
asuena - seat; chair [reborrowing of ASUENA]
asuena lonei the place of honor; (grammar) the most salient position
-áš - augmentive suffix
aša - session, sitting [ASIA, from ASIR ‘sit’]
ašea - thought
ašec - thinker; intelligent creature
ašetia - redemption; ransom; salvation
ašetir - vt redeem, ransom [‘buy toward’]
ašir - vt think; consider, figure [HASCIR]
Tot řo ašu I think not
Ašcelau dy suvei soa ďaya I suppose you’re right
At - abbreviation for Aďom tësaďatei, Caďinorian pagan priest
-át - state, art, method [-ANTOS]
atabei - empress [ATRABEIS]
atabo - emperor [ATRABION]
atäpan - vt catch [ad + haup OV ‘cord (for trapping game)’, from HAUPIS ‘tight’]
Atau - Cuzeian name [Antāu]
atikan - vt sting; agitate, stir up [synaesthetic]
atikát - agitation, unrest
atiku - sting
Atipa - Eleďe name [OV Antipa]
Atónia - Eleďe name [OV Antonio]
Atónio - Eleďe name [OV Antonio]
atna - cabin [ATONNA ‘small room’]
attenec - vi belong [‘toward having’]
attenec soán šohán belong to the duke
attróuen - vt reach, attain; convince [‘toward finding’]
attróuen so ftalók reach the ceiling
atüčy - rascal [ANTIUTIS ‘mischievous’, ultimately from ANTIU ‘prank’]
atún - room; paragraph [ATONNOS]
atunec - roommate
atuny - apartment; lodgings [atunĭ ‘rooms’]
audát - reception, audience; conception (of ideas) [ALDANTOS]
audec - vt receive, host, put up; conceive, think up (an idea) [ALDEC]
audec hotom zië receive one’s guests
Kiel audeo yelem lë? Where do you get your ideas?
audnáe - living room
auva - womb; mold (for clay or metal) [ALBRA]
auvec - cast, mold [ALBREC]
ava - grandmother [ABRA]
ave - hail! hello!
Avéla - Avéla, capital of Érenat and center of the Eleďe church [Keb. Avelaḣ]
avelotá - “avelanism,” a speech mannerism characteristic of Avélan dialect
avena - oats [ABRENNA]
avenura - porridge
avisar - secondary school [AVISSAR ‘academy’, from Cuêzi avissār ‘community of scholars’, lit. ‘place of knowledge’]
avisarei (invar.) having completed avisar studies but not entered a university
avisaru - student in an avisar
avo - grandfather [ABRO]
Avräm - Eleďe name [OV Avraam]
avula - great-aunt
avulën - voluntary [ab vulein ‘with will’]
avulo - great-uncle
ay - ouch (expresion of pain)
ayurë - sunflower [‘worshipper’]
ayurea - devotion
ayurec - vt idolize, worship, be devoted to [AHUREC]
Ávusto - Eleďe name [OV Avgusto]
Azedun - archdemon (1st age mythology)
Azënár - Cuzeian name [azienār ‘forest’]
azipa - (m) fat, grease [ADIPAS]
azipdan - vt grease; dip in fat (before frying)
azifse - a fat
azurda - (m) sapphire [ADURDAS, from Cuêzi adūrdas ‘blue substance’]
azure - blue [ADURES]
azurek - bruise, welt [OV dim. of ‘blue’]
dan azurek bruise (+dat.)
azurom - sailor, naval recruit [from the blue color of their uniform]
azuršue - bluish; the darkish color of the Uytainese
- prep away, away from; besides, except [AIUS]
žesan až soan mažtanan live away from the city
vežaen až soa mažtana run away from the city (acc., showing movement)
až Vyatán erán south of Vyat
až Verdúrian po ďunen cemisen two kilometers from Verduria
Soĭ činĭ eu on de čelán caë The plates are out of their places again
Řo e agoläm až lavisian Nothing matters but dancing
ažana - at least, at worst [AC TANA ‘but surely’]
Ažáritar - name of a star [Cuêzi Agāeritar]
- a movement away
ažbežir - vt withdraw, retire, move away [‘movement away’]
zet ažbežir withdraw (oneself)
Tam ažbežirum im audnáa Let us retire to the living room
ažbrugiven - duck, dodge [‘twist away’]
ažcita - monastery [away + CINTURA ‘city walls’: ‘away from the city’]
ažflegan - vt wean [‘away from nursing’]
ažgolec - vt ignore, neglect [‘face away’]
ažela - tenderness [AGELLA ‘kindness’]
ažele - tender
ažfäsir - vt forego, leave; forsake [‘away-leave’]
ažglömen - vt wipe someone’s nose [‘away-snot’]
zet ažglömen blow one’s nose
ažlädan - vi spread out, disperse, scatter (of individuals) [‘go away’]
ažlapren - run away, elude [AIUSLAPREN]
ažmëria - discouragement
ažmërir - discourage, demoralize [‘away from fiery’]
ažmetan - vt throw out, discard ‘put away’]
ažmetulĭ (pl.) garbage
ažmifan - vt revoke [‘away-allow’]
ažmifan soi coamrabi lukulei revoke the privileges of the guilty party
ažmifát - revocation
aznimea - refusal
ažnimec - vt decline, turn down [NIMEC ‘plan to’]
zet ažnimec pass (one’s turn), defer to another
Ažirei - Goddess of the Sea [AGIREIS, from Meť. Agibna]
amrab Ažireë maritime law, the law of the sea
ažprenan - vt take away [‘away-take’]
Ažprenano ci-dronem! Take away these guitars!
ažuvea - vacation
ažuven - vi go on vacation [AIUBREN ‘go away (on retreat)’, from AIUS ‘away’]


ba- - brother’s (prefix) [abbreviation of baraďu]
baba - adv open-mouthed, gaping, slack-jawed [BABEC ‘open the mouth wide’, imitative]
Siča tekru baba I stood there with my jaw dropped
bäbec - vi yawn [BABEC; long ä is synaesthetic]
bäbeo - yawn
baco - (obscene) cunt [BACO]
badai - scream
badair - vi scream
baďi - hitting; percussion
baďir - vt hit [BAŤIR]
baďul - percussion instrument
bakati - vomit
bakatir - vt vomit [variant of babatir: baba ‘open-mouthed’ + -atir ‘do (with a body part)’]
bakt - terrible [Kebreni bakte ‘fucking’]
bal - tact [BAL]
balam - edible plant, vegetable [BOLAM]
baltene - tactful
ban - way, passage; initial direction [BANOS]
až ban! get out of the way!
baner - vi venture
Bánimu - Cuzeian name [banimu ‘voyager’]
bankeša - destination [‘way’s end’]
Bar - Cuzeian name [bāuros ‘old one’]
baraďu - brother [BARAŤU]
Barahin - Barakhún [partial translation of Barakhinei Barakhun, ‘mountain-land’]
Barahina - Barakhina (capital city of Barakhún) [Barakhinei]
barahine - n, adj Barakhuni
barahinei - Barakhinei (language) [Barakhinei, ‘of Barakhún’]
Bardau - Cuzeian name [bardāu ‘communion’, from bardu ‘brother’]
bardaum - primal, ritualistic, orgiastic [Cuêzi bardāume ‘communal, drawing together’]
bardinó - coyote (medium-size, very clever predator; related to lef ) [BARILONDOS, augmentative of BAURILOS, from Cuêzi bāurīllos ‘little old one’]
bargë - quarter, one fourth [BARGAU, from Cuêzi bārgāu, from bāor ‘four’]
barsúc - badger (small predator) (pl. barsúsĭ) [BURSONCOS]
barucia - lounging, lying
barucir - vi lie; rest, lounge [*BARUKIR ‘rest on the patio’]
Barucre sur nažezan He was lying on the couch
Barucre sur nažeza He lay down on the couch
baruk - paved outside room in an ancient Caďinorian house
bařura - a unit of area, 6.2 square feet [BAREȞURA ‘armful’]
basasces - minimum [reborrowing of BASASCES ‘lowest’]
basáš - slaver; scumbag, lowest of the low; (archaic) nadir [BASASCES ‘lowest’]
basašše - inferior; of the lowest morals or quality; pessimal
basát - lowness
base - low, lower; mean, vulgar; unaccented syllable, dip [BASES]
basece dec uestĭ at least ten men
so base Eärdur the lower Eärdur
basfahe - slang, lower class speech [‘low speech’]
baskud - anus [‘lower hole’]
baslevi - labium (of external female genitalia) [‘lower lip’]
basom - slave
basomát - slavery
baspüna - flipper [‘lower fin’]
basřez - toil, hard work, drudgery [‘low work’]
basřezen - vi toil, drudge, labor
bastón - stick [BASTONDOS, augmentative of BASTOS]
baš - slap, spanking
bašan - vt slap, clap, spank [imitative]
bašševey - a pubic hair
bašti - the sticks (percussion instrument) [Ismaîn başti ‘sticks’, from BASTOS]
baubu - rabies (the Almean disease is associated with horses rather than dogs) [Barakhinei balbu, from Somoyi]
bäz - claim, demand [OV ‘toll’, from *BANSOS, from BANSES ‘of the road’, from BANOS ‘road, way’]
bäzec - vi claim, demand
bäzec pro gintron to claim the throne
bdornor - stranger (Curiyan dialect) [from Curiyan]
be - the letter B (invar.), the eleventh letter of the alphabet [BE]
Bečínd - God of Earth (First age mythology) [BETCINDOS, augmentative derivation of BETCIR, Arániceri variant of BECTIR ‘move’]
bečka - barrel; a unit of measure, 4 lucoi or 145.1 l [OV beyčka, diminutive of bayča, from BAITA, from Meť.]
bečom - barrelmaker, cooper
bečón - a fast dance in Ismaîn style, esp. accompanied by the guitar [Ismaîn beçtô, augm. of ‘movement’, from BECTIR]
bedorcan - vi stumble [synaesthetic— the tongue stumbles across the palate]
beďel - test, observation
abbosan u beďelán pass a test
ešuir beďel fail a test
hipsalďir beďel take a test
beďelan - vt test
beďir - vt inspect, observe [BEŤIR ‘inspect, test’]
beďo - inspection, observation
araste beďo close investigation (scientific attitude)
befel - command, order, decree; imperative mood [Curiyan befe ‘order’ + nominalization -el]
ül befel classical imperative
befelan - vi command, order (takes dat.)
Ke befelcele Ënomain lialan? Who would command the sun to rise?
beh - spirit, essence— a substance formed by distillation [BAEȞ ‘essence’]
beh elcarinei sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol)
beh selei hydrochloric acid (muriatic acid)
beh mičii acquous ammonia
behdan - vt sketch [BAEȞDAN ‘portray’, from DAN ‘give’ + BAEȞ ‘essence’]
behdel - picture (a mimetic representation; cf. risunë, pažaka) [BAEȞDEL]
Behusa - Behusa religion [Xurnese Bezuxau ‘Bezu teaching’]
bekamát - comfort
bekame - comfortable [BEKASMES ‘informal, wearing old clothes’, from BEKE ‘old clothes’]
belaca - straight sword, Caďinorian sword (pl. belasĭ) [BELACA]
belaca platula mercenary
belacát - courtesy, chivalry, noble manners [OV ‘swordsmanship’]
belacatise - courteous, chivalrous, gallant, polite
belacatom - gentleman, a gallant or chivalrous man
beldobre - good, right, lovely, satisfying, beautiful; suggesting Narnia, or the Gospels [beluán ‘beautiful’ + dobre ‘good’]
Belesáu - Belesao [Kebreni Belesau]
- fair weather
belfassec - vi to be fair (conj. like fassec) [bel(uan) ‘beautiful + fassec ‘do’]
Eludëno belfas It’s nice out today
belgo - war [reborrowing of BELGO]
Belgo řo e belfasco War is hell
belgom - warrior
belgomáš - warlord
belgovël - ostentatious, grandiose [BELGOVILEIL, after the emperor BELGOVILEAS who rebuilt Ctésifon in grand style]
belgsanno - general [‘war-lord’]
Belnear - God of the Forest
belor - close friend [BELOR]
belora - (female) close friend
Belšai - Belšai [Xurnese Belšay]
belšaine - of Belšai
belua - beauty
beluán - beautiful [BELUAND ‘dear, loveable’, from BELOR ‘close friend’]
beluso - a teacher of Endajué [Xurnese beylusu]
- head; cob (of maize) [BEMBOS ‘gourd’]
bemáš - cartoon, caricature [behdel bemáš ‘big head drawing’]
bemašát - cartooning, the art of caricature
bemát - capital
bembula - skull [‘head ball’]
benda - work, power [BENEDA ‘consecration’]
Benécia - Benécia [from dialectal beneca ‘blessing’]
benécy- Benécian
bengát - blessing
benge - a most; n majority [reborrowing of BENGES]
pava benge plurality
Ce-fako e benge That party predominates (holds a plurality)
Ce-fako e so benge That party is the majority
benir - vt bless [BENGIR]
beom - baron [from belgom, warrior]
beoma - baronness
beomana - barony
beomul - baronet; an honorary title bestowed by the Verdurian king
ber - lock [BAEROS]
beran - vt lock
berana - harem; women’s quarters [BAERANDA ‘purdah, lockup for concubines’]
beranát - concubinage
beranë - concubine; mistress
berda - path, trail [BEREDA]
Beret - Cuzeian name [Beretos, from berede ‘green’]
berise - mysterious [BERISES ‘obscure’, from BER ‘mist’]
berisél - mystery
berole - malachite (hydrous carbonate of copper) [BEREOLE, from Cuêzi ‘green jewel’]
Bérunor - Lake Berunor in Ešan [Barakhinei Berunnor, from BERUNDOS ‘fog’, the Caď. name of the lake, plus -nor ‘land’]
beře - sloppy [BEKRES ‘dressed in old clothes’, from BEKE ‘old clothes’]
beřotá - bad taste, kitsch
beřotise - kitschy
bes - hero (OV name element); name of a Caďinorian gold coin, and a modern gold coin of Krasnaya, Ctésifon, or Guaya [BAESOS]
besgetec - extravagant, profligate [BAESOGAETEC ‘throwing away besĭ’]
- a small gold coin of Ctésifon [reborrowing of BAESIMA ‘small bes’]
Besoma - Cuzeian name [Bēusomâ ‘dream of peace’]
besya - lover, girlfriend; (archaic) fiancée [OV besia ‘promise’]
besyun - lover, boyfriend; (archaic) fiancé [OV besiond, m. form of besia]
bešana - promise; name of the twelfth month [BAESIANDA ‘promise, betrothal’]
bešanen - vt promise
Ihano bešanne Rahelin prandam Ihano promised Raheli a dinner
betra - female dog, bitch [BAETERA]
beza - bucket [BAEDIA]
bežia - movement, motion
beživiso - dynamics [‘study of motion’]
bežir - vi move; work, function, operate [BECTIR]
šesan bežir teleam make an instrument work
So niru beže The machine is on, is working
bežuloš - a single movement
Siča fäbai— řo suy bežuloš! I’m painting— don’t even budge!
bibozu - void; the chaos before creation [BIBODUOS, from Cuêzi biboduas ‘emptiness’]
bice - fir [Xurnese bika]
bidracon - atom, molecule (the smallest unit you can have of a substance without decomposing into elements) [Cuêzi bidracuon ‘the indivisible’, from dracê ‘cut’]
bilic - cheap [OV bilic ‘miserly’, from BILLIR ‘hoard’]
bindo - vine, grapevine [BINDO, variant of BIDNO, from Meť. bijno; cf. Keb. biźnu]
binea - list [reborrowing of BINEIA ‘registry’]
binges - alumina (aluminum oxide) [Cuolese (of Belšai) biŋgec ‘white clay’]
bistren - vi bustle [Flaidish bister ‘busy oneself’, from the plural of bist ‘task’]
biyeta- royal vote, the vote of an elector for the kingship or another post so filled; by extension, electorship, one’s right to cast a biyeta, noble status, title [BILETA ‘voter’s stylus’]
biyetec - elector, someone with the right to cast a biyeta; by extension, powermonger
biyeten - vt (with acc.) to make someone an elector; to grant a title of nobility (because a noble always has the biyeta); vi (with dat.) to elect, to choose (of kings, etc.)
biyetora - the assembly of all those who hold the biyeta
Bizbero - Cuzeian name [Bisbēruos ‘fearless’]
Bizbirah - Cuzeian name [Bisbirax ‘no enemies’]
bižno - upstart
blan - date (fruit) [BALANOS]
blanarb - palm tree
bliďrom - a busybody
bliďräm - one’s affairs; agenda
bliďrämen - vi to busy oneself, to hustle back and forth, to bustle
bliďren - vi to be busy, to occupy oneself, to do [synaesthetic]
bliďren cum imfátin zië to be busy with one’s children
bo- - in-law prefix
bobren - vt embarass [late colloquial *BOBREN ‘make to look foolish’, from BOBRES ‘foolish’, from BOBO ‘fool’]
Meď së fsëgda et bobre My son always embarrasses me
boc - cube (pl. bosĭ) [BOCOS]
boce - plenty [Viminian dialect ‘plenty, a lot’; from BOLGES ‘big’]
bocteica - diplomacy [reborrowing of BOCTEICA ‘dealings, diplomacy’, from BOCTAN ‘deal with’]
bocteicom - diplomat
boctura - tribute [reborrowing of BOCTURA, from BOCTAN ‘deal with’]
bocžene - crowded [‘plenty of people’]
boď - kick
boďan - vt kick [BOŤAN]
Boďneay - God of War
boďpila - kickball, football, soccer [‘kick ball’]
boemo - riverbank [BUHEMUL, alteration of BUMEHUL ‘unplowed area, border’]
bogaty - rich; delicious [Southern dialectal derivation from colloquial BOLGANTIS ‘very big, very good’]
boh - trow bean [Flaidish bauʔ]
bola - an in-law
bolašo - starfish [BOLASCON]
bolë - adj much [BOLGES ‘big’]
bolëce - adv much
bolëďe - major [BOLGEĎES ‘bigger’]
bolyáše - big; grown-up [BOLGASCES ‘biggest’, reinterpreted as an augmentative in OV]
bomát - age
bombril - immense, huge, massive [BUMERIL ‘unmeasured’]
bome - old [BOSMES ‘wrinkled’, from BOSOS ‘wrinkle’]
bomřanec - conservative [‘keeping of the old’]
bonüra - ecstacy
bonürë - ecstatic
bordë - coast; frame (of a picture); rim [BORDILE ‘shore’, from BORDOS ‘edge’]
boruna - torrent [BORUNDA, augmentative of BORA ‘flood’]
bort - band, gang [Caizu baort ‘cohort, band (of forty men)’; cf. Cuêzi bārde ‘forty’]
bortom - bandit
borže - heretical, dissident [BORGES ‘alone, apart’]
bos - wrinkle [BOSOS]
bosa - fortune; luck; chance; a good turn of the cards [Cuêzi bōsa ‘chance’]
bosme - elderly, senile [medical reborrowing of BOSMES ‘wrinkled, senile’; cf. bome]
bosmeca - senescence, senility; old age (with an emphasis on declining powers or inability to execute one’s functions) [reborrowing of BOSMEICA]
bosmizë - fortuneteller, soothsayer [‘fortune-sayer’]
bostene - lucky
bostuna - seaweed [BOSUNA]
bošnan - vi quit, give out, fail, stop working; run out
bošnom - quitter, loser, schlemiel
bostuna- kelp [reborrowing of BOSTUNA ‘seaweed’]
botsa - vanilla (the Almean plant is a type of tropical bean) [Nanese boütsa]
boua - cow; (slang) mark, victim [BOUNA]
bouan - bull (male of large, bulky herbivore); (slang) trick, john [BOUNOS]
bouhutor - dairy [‘cow farm’]
boumyaso - beef [‘cow meat’]
bouta - cocoon, chrysalis, pupa; cyst [BOLTA ‘swelling’]
bouucöm - dairy farmer
božan - vi fare [BOCTAN ‘treat’: Kensa ek boctont? ‘How are they treating you?’ → Kiel bože? ‘How are you doing?’]
brac - glory [BERAC]
so Brac Eleďei The Ascension
bracse - glorious
brak - arm (OV irr. pl. brai still used in poetry) [BERAȞ, variant of BAREȞ]
brakoš - sleeve
brašo - flour [BRASCO]
brasco - pollen [reborrowing of BRASCO]
breme - placid, serene [BERESMES ‘foggy’]
- band, strip; thong; bandage; Almean bra [BRESOS ‘band’]
bresáš - strap, large band
bresul - small band, ribbon, tape
bretel - suspender
bretir - vt/vi suspend, hang [late Caď. *BRESTIR ‘tie up, truss’, from BRESOS ‘band’]
brevát - shortness
breve - short; short mark, as in ĭ, ŭ (ĭ, ŭ) [BREVES]
i brevë the character ĭ
brevë - short letter, note [pisá brevë ]
brigan - vi fight, battle [BRIGAN]
brigan ak Kebrin fight [with] Kebri
brigát - fight, fighting
brigec - fighter, brigand
brigoš - weapon
Brinuma - Cuzeian name [Brinūmē ‘near to God’]
Brinumo - Cuzeian name [Brinūmio ‘near to God’]
bris - the sound of breaking glass [imitative]
brisete - fragile, brittle
brisgent - bismuth [‘break(able)-metal’]
fale brisgent bismuth oxide [‘white bismuth’]
mlakon brisgentei bismuth-glance (bismuth sulphide) [‘coal of bismuth’]
brisir - vt/vi break
bröca - (sing.) trousers, pants (pl. brösĭ) [BRUECA ‘leggings’]
brondora - sluggishness, lethargy
brondore - sluggish, lethargic [Cuêzi brondoro]
brub - block [BRUBOS]
bruge - crooked, twisty
brugiven - vi/vt twist
brugivoš - wrench
bruhan - vt use [BURUȞAN]
zet bruhan (pro) serve (as), be used (for)
bruhu - trumpet (like an elephant) [imitative]
bruhuan - vi trumpet
bruk - use, usage [BURUȞ]
brum - fog [BERUNDOS, augmentative of BER ‘mist’]
brunarë - alum (potassium aluminum sulphate), a mineral salt used as a mordant and astringent [INDETIA BERUNDARIES ‘astringent of Berunor’]
brune - brown; of skin color, the typical color of Verdurians and Caďinorians
brunsus - umber [‘brown earth’]
brúnšue - brownish
brura - heather [BRURUA]
bruřy - tool; (in pl.) equipment [BURUȞRIS ‘useful’]
bruřo - (colloquial) belly, gut [BRUȞO ‘animal’s stomach’]
bruše - tough
bruvel - solution, resolution
bruven - vt solve, resolve [BRUVEN ‘loosen’]
bu- - un-, in- (unproductive; see řo-) [BU- ‘not’]
buas - sponge [BURASOS, from Meť.]
bubo - lad, lout [BUBO]
buduk - an elcarin silver coin, worth about 2.5 falĭ [Barakhinei budukh, from Elkarîl]
buďaye - wrong, incorrect [BUĎAHES]
bufan - vt beat [OV buf ‘sound of a blow’]
bufauhe - paralysis [reborrowing of BUFAUȞES ‘incapable’]
Buheda - Goddess of Bread
bukrare - infinite [reborrowing of BUKRARES ‘unlimited’, from BU- ‘not’ + KRAIS ‘limit’]
bulondir - vt bake [BULONDIR, from BULLA ‘round loaf of bread’]
Yon zet bulonde The bread is baking
bulondom - baker
bulonnáe - bakery
bulse - round [from BULLA; see bulondir]
bulsrava - a type of shellfish, used to produce a purplish dye [‘round-shell’]
bumečo - pearl [BUSMETRIO, BUSMITRIO, from Meť. boȟtumičiro ‘sea-silver’]
bumuše - few, scarce; (colloq.) brainless [BUMUSCES ‘not many’]
bumuše lerë unperceptive, lacking understanding
bumušë - scarcity, lacking
bünát - violence
büne - violent [BUINES ‘ill-tempered’]
Bunori - Life, Fortune; one of the Fates; (not capitalized) one’s chances in life; good fortune [BUNNORIS, from proto-Eastern *bunnem ‘distribute’]
tróuen bunora zië seek one’s fortune
ab Bunorin by fortune, by fate
buona - cool, good (slang; invar.)
buprilise - (grammar) indefinite, irrealis [‘not definite’]
bur - puzzle (OV name element) [BUROS]
buřičy - naïve; simpleton [BUȞITRIS ‘clumsy’; cf. hičy]
buřy - mark, dupe, victim [short for buřičy]
buš - mouth; spout [BUSCOS]
busemil - indecent, improper [‘not decent’]
bušoš - cork; plug [‘mouth-thing’]
bušošan - vt cork, plug
büt - goal, target (pl. büsĭ) [BUTOS]
büsĭ a game resembling pétanque or bocci
büten - vi aim
büten ad soán lapisán aim at the rabbit
butošeo - need [BUTOSCEIO ‘insufficiency’; cf. tošen]
Tenao butošeam onrälulië I need some biscuits
butošše - needful, required
buyel - lout, loutish [after Buyel, a town in Verduria province]


ca - they [CA]
cäcian - vt chop; break off [dynamic forms of CAUCAN ‘break’]
cadeo - commandment [CADEIO ‘command, rule’]
caďin - Caďinorian; a small gold coin of Pakšohan [CAĎIN]
Caďinas - Caďinas, the Caďinorian Empire [CAĎINAS, from proto-Central kaduns ‘(people of the) river fork’, a tribe of early Caďinorians along the middle Svetla]
caďino - Caďinor [CAĎINOR]
caďino tëdene ‘modern Caďinor’: what the Ctésifoni call Verdurian
caďinotá - archaism [‘caďinorism’]
caë - their
caesia - rash [reborrowing of CAESIA ‘scratching’]
cäh - lizard (small, swift reptile) [CAUȞOS]
Caiem - one of Ënomai’s planets [*CAILEND, variant of CALIEND]
caineš - inhuman, horrible, mechanical, triumphantly evil [OV ecaynceš, merger of ecay ‘horrible’ with enceš ‘fear’; see nkaš]
cairete - timely
cairo - time, occasion, opportunity, chance [CAIRON ‘opportunity’]
cairon at the right time
matuan cairam seize an opportunity
Caizu - the Caizuran language [Caizu; cf. Cuêzi]
Caizura - Caizura [from Caizu]
caizure - adj Caizuran
cal - hot
calec - vt heat, warm
zet calec heat up, get warmer
caledë - quaint, picturesque [after Caledo, a city in Zeir]
Calërea - Goddess of Life (1st Age) [CALIEREA, probably related to CALO ‘sunlight’]
cäli - stalk, stem [CAULIS]
cälĭ asparagus
cálima - knuckle [CALCIMA, diminutive of CALCO ‘heel’; the knuckle was seen as the heel of the finger]
caln - fortress [CALENOS]
calnaďom - chaplain
calo - heat; the fifth month [CALO]
calodimo - temperature [‘heat-amount’]
Caloton - God of Day [CALOTEON, from CALO ‘heat, sunlight’ + -(T)EON ‘clan’]
calseo - shoe [CALCEIO, from CALCOS ‘heel’]
calseom - shoemaker
calsešue - humid [‘hot-heavy’]
calsešuesa - humidity
calteleo - thermometer [‘heat-instrument’]
calten - the fourth day of the week [‘Caloton’s day’]
Calto - Caloton (familiar)
ab Calto by Caloton (Viminian dialect; standard is ab Calton)
caltose - sunny in disposition, sanguine, optimistic [‘like Calto’]
cälul - stem [‘little stalk’]
calura - fever [CALURA ‘hotness, fever’]
calžole - hot and dry (not humid) [‘hot-light’]
cam - them (acc.)
cäma - holiday [CAUMA ‘rest period’]
cämec - vi do nothing, be idle
Camélia - Cuzeian name [caumēliye ‘sweetheart’]
Camiši - Cuzeian name [cammisi ‘yellow’]
camsida - yellow arsenic, orpiment (arsenic trisulphide) [ECAMMISIDAS, from Cuêzi, ‘yellowizing substance’]
čuél camside white arsenic (arsenic trioxide)
camsidole - arsenic [‘crystal orpiment’]
can - to them (dat.)
cap - beech [CAPOS]
cäpibode - devotional, inspirational, religious (art) [Cuêzi cāpiboede, from cāpi ‘adore’]
capir - vt revere [CALPIR]
capiye - reverence
car - square; courtyard [CARROS]
gliny car rectangle
carďa - curve [CARĎA]
carďë - sword, specifically a curved Verdurian sword; scimitar [CARĎILE ‘curved thing’]
carďise - curved, curvy
caro - diamond (shape); pane (of glass—often diamond-shaped in Verduria) [OV pier carosiryse ‘square-bodied stone’]
carpuan - vt snatch, grab [colloq. CARPUAN ‘seize’, from CARPOS ‘trophy’]
cas - corner [CASOS]
cäsel - bit, scrap, small piece; die (from game) [CAUCEL ‘broken off piece’]
cäselĭ a wagering game, originally played with pieces of sticks, later with tin coins
casi - helmet [CASSIS]
cašna - chestnut (nut) [CASTANA]
cašne - chestnut (color), greyish or reddish brown
caturë - rhythmic
caturo - rhythm [Cuezi catūro ‘rhythm’]
caua - coffee (bitter bean brewed into a beverage) [Moreo Ašcai kahawa]
cauc - heel [CALCOS]
caucačir - vt goad, prod, spur; urge, urge on [CALCATIR ‘prod with the heel’]
caucel - bit, very small piece [student slang; from CAUCEL]
caučuco - rubber [CALTUCO]
caül - frail, feeble [CAUAUIL ‘puppyish’]
caumen - vt blow off, bag, skip (slang) [students’ reborrowing of CAUMEN ‘not work’]
caunáe - coffeehouse, café
cave - basement, cellar
cavir - vi warn [CABRIR ‘admonish’]
cavir soin šadenin eta malionile warn the knights about venereal disease
cavel - warning
cayun - washroom [CAIUND ‘most horrible’]
cazo - law, rule; legal act; parliamentary bill (cf. cliďel) [CADUS]
ce- - that
cebo - onion [CAEBOLO]
cebrel - building [reborrowing from CEBREL]
- type of songbird [named for its song]
Cecia - Eleďe name [OV Caecilia]
cečel - there [‘that place’]
cečelei thence, from there
cečelán thither, to there
cečel zdesy here and there
cečelece - thereby
cedel - habit, practice [CAEDEL ‘discipline’]
ceďnare - seventh day of the week; Caďinorian pagan holiday; Eleďe sabbath [OV, ‘feast of Enäron’]
céďue - feast [CAEŤUE]
céďuen - vi feast
Cefa - Eleďe name [OV Cefa]
cel - between [CAEL]
celäu - swordsmanship [Cuêzi celāuas from cêla ‘sword’]
celčelan - vt switch, replace [‘between-places’]
celdoni - trade, commerce
celdonise - commercial
celdan - vt trade, exchange (conjugated like dan) [‘between-give’]
celdan carďem pro maslon trade swords for butter
celdan cum kebrénin trade with the Kebreni
celďeltan - vt interpret [‘between-change’]
celëtesa - judgment, discernment
celëtir - vt judge, discern, distinguish [‘pick between’]
celëtir oresta discern the truth
celëtir druk co vrakán tell friend from foe
celëtir dy so cairo že judge that the time is right
celftacon - medium; basis [‘between-element’]
celftena - arrangement, agreement, deal; engagement
celftenen - vt arrange, set up, install
celftenen nosan frälinan become engaged to a girl
celftenen miďä set up a party
celise - mutual [‘betweenish’]
celkestát - transformation, metamorphosis, transmutation
- vt transform, convert (a substance), transmute [‘between types’]
celkunom - moneychanger; this is also the term money-lenders (ružkunomĭ) like to use for themselves [‘between-money-man’]
cellëc - connection [‘between-link’]
cellëcan - vt connect to, link up with
cellëcan so laun ad soán carán connect the circle to the square
cellele - transparent [‘between-see’]
cellimura - cleavage; also, a dress exposing the area between the breasts; compare sullimura [‘between breasts’]
celmeas - intercourse [‘relation between’]
celmetan - vt translate; transfer (goods) [‘between-put’]
zet celmetan (intr.) translate, mean, be translated as (followed by nominative)
zet celmete nočy ‘Nōtu’ means ‘night’
celmetát - translation; transferral
celmetec - translator
celprimetan - vi compromise [‘between-offer’]
celprimeto - compromise
celpuyan - interrupt [‘between-push’]
celpuyo - interruption
- gap, interval [‘between-thing’]
celošše - intermittent, sporadic [‘gappy’]
Celošo - Cuzeian name [Celōusio ‘swordsman’]
celscurise - international [‘between countries’]
celsfahe - conversation, dialog
celsfahen - vi converse, chat [‘between-speech’]
celšir - competition [OV celsiř, ‘fight between’]
celširan - vi compete
celveitát - communication
- vi communicate [‘between’ + reborrowed VEITEN ‘speak’]
- sandwich [‘between zerĭ’]
celžanen - vi intervene [‘come between’]
celžano - intervention
celžene - social [‘between people’]
cemisa - a unit of measure containing 1000 čimĭ, about 2500 feet [CAEMICA, the distance round the CAEMA, the largest temple in ancient Ctésifon]
cëmura - column; column of text; page [KILIMURA, from KILIMA ‘hill’]
ceno - abbot [CAENOS, a type of close-fitting hat worn by the head monk]
cenobát - abbey
ceozë - (archaic) therefore, for that reason
cepelát - loyalty, faithfulness; chastity
cepele - loyal, faithful; chaste [CEPLES ‘abstinent’, from CEPAN ‘abstain’]
cepil - brush (for cleaning or combing) [CAEPIL]
cepilan - vt brush
cepsanno - castle commander [CAEP(O)SANNO ‘chain (fort) lord’]
cer - port [CAER]
cer - masculine (gender) [reborrowing of CER ‘male’]
ceřecát - alchemy [‘between natures’]
ceřecom - alchemist
cës - the tenth letter of the Verdurian alphabet, C (transliterated c) [reborrowed form of CES (OV se)]
cës fleade Verdurian name for the X (X) used in Flaidish
cesuäm - itch, itchy [‘to be scratched’]
cesuan - vt scratch [from dynamic forms of CAESAN ‘itch’]
šesan cesuan itch
cesuul - scratch
ceštan - vt overthrow [KESTAN]
cešteo - overthrow
céšuaš - tribe [Barakhinei keshkuash, from Western keshiguashin]
cevai - chant; solemn song; psalm [CABRAIS]
ci- - this
ciberdel - decision
ciberden - vi decide [‘this-path’]
Ciberdnai eta so irtekát I made a decision about the rebellion
Ciberdnai and/ak soán irtekatán I decided for/against the rebellion
cici - chirp, peep [imitative]
cician - vi chirp, peep
cicika - chick [‘peep’ + OV dim.]
cicil - cricket (hopping insect, chirps at night)
cierceát - wavering
cierceyen - vi waver [ci er ce, ‘these and those’]
cilu - police, guardsmen [slang alteration of civru ‘copper’, from their regalia]
ciluom - policeman, guard
cima - hill [KILIMA]
cimeca - slope, incline [KILIMEICA]
ciozë - (archaic) therefore, for this reason
cipan - vi boil; be angry [KIPAN]
Šesanei cipan meii Go boil some water
So mey cipe The water is boiling
Činek lë cipe? Is your boss pissed?
cipoš - kettle, pot (for boiling water); teapot [‘boil-thing’]
cipulan - vi effervesce [‘little boiling’]
cipulát - effervescence, esp. that produced by reacting acids and alkalis
šalea cipulátei fixed air, carbon dioxide [‘air of effervescence’]
cira - wife [KIRA]
cirabectia - gymnastics, exercise [reborrowing of CIRABECTIA ‘body movement’]
ciröla - plum [KIRUELA]
ciröla imšešula prune
cirula - (colloq.) little woman, broad, wifey, the better half
cirut - type of songbird [named for its song]
cisa - brush (for painting) [Cuêzi cissa]
cisci - risk
ciscir - vt risk [reborrowing of CISCIR]
Cisce so gintram pro ce-subuďuďen? You risk the throne for those idiot droolings?
cistila - crown; decoration showing a year’s military service [reborrowing of CISTILA]
cišcöresa - apathy, lack of will, sloth
cišcöre - apathetic, without will, slothful [‘weak-heart’]
cišitát - weakness
cišitë - weak, feeble [from an intensive form of KISCIS]
cišura - decay; (colloq.) crush
cišuran - vi decay; weaken; (medical) waste away; (colloq.) have a crush on [KISCURAN ‘weaken’]
Ihano cišure prĭ Rahelin Ihano has a crush on Raheli
Raheli ilun cišure so uem Raheli broke his heart
Civea - Cuzeian name (m) [civēyas ‘submission (to Eleď)’]
civru - copper [KIBRU]
civru verdul, civru crežul verdigris, copper acetate [‘greened’ or ‘eaten’ copper]
ciy - epoch, age, era [KILIS]
Ftore Ciy, Ciy Iliuë Second Age, Age of Ilii
Ciy Ženië The Age of Peoples
clačir - vi burst; hatch; (slang) break, spill the beans [CLATIR]
Cläďa - Eleďe name [OV Clauďia]
Cläďo - Eleďe name [OV Clauďio]
claë - bright, vivid [CLAIES]
claesa - brightness (also spelled claësa)
clai- - bright (OV name element) [CLAIES]
clas - swing [back-formation from clasmir]
clasmir - vt wield (a weapon); swing; hack (add unaccented -i- before a consonant: past clásmiru, etc.) [reborrowing of CLASMIR ‘swing a sword’]
clečura - cabal [CLAETURA, from CLAETUS ‘oath’]
soa Ružë Clečura the Red Cabal
voitec im clečura join a cabal
cleir - majestic, powerful, assured, mature, virtuoso; medium red wine [‘clero-like’]
cleiresa - majesty, confidence, maturity
clek - fist [CLEȞ]
Clemet - Eleďe name [OV Clement]
clero - bass horn [CLERUS ‘cow-bell’]
clesnát - frugality, thrift
clesny - frugal [CLECNIS ‘tight-fisted’]
cletana - seminary for Caďinorian priests; military academy [CLAETANDA, place where one takes a CLAETUS ‘oath’]
cletandre - pedantic, scholastic, nit-picking [CLAETANDRES ‘relating to a cletana’]
cletanom - seminarian; cadet
cletandoro - dean of a seminary [CLAETANDORION]
cleura - cage [CLEȞURA ‘cage, trap’ from CLEȞ ‘fist’]
cliďel - statute, ordinance (subordinate to a cazo) [CLIŤEL ‘statement’]
cliďu - priest [AIĎOCLIŤUS ‘priest, god-speaker’, from AIĎOS ‘god’ + CLIŤEC ‘speak (ceremonially)’]
cloš - bell [CLOSCOS]
co - by, along, alongside; compared to [CO]
co aknon beside the window
co prosian along the street
co soán šohán compared to the duke
coacino - irony; double entendre [‘hear (another meaning) alongside’]
coamrab - privilege [‘alongside-law’; from the separate law for nobles in medieval times]
coamrábise - privileged, above the law
coanelo - latitude, parallel [‘along-ring’]
daluy coanelo equator
coašesa - comparison
coašir - vt compare, match, relate, appraise [‘think alongside’]
coašul - relative, as compared to [‘compared’]
so lešel ořei coašulei aržentán the price of gold relative to silver
Řo benfas sul coašulece It’s relatively nice out; it’s nice, comparatively speaking
cocrivan - vt countersign [‘alongside-write’]
cocrivel - counter-signature
codus - helm, ship’s wheel [‘along with rudder’]
coďev - influence
coďevan - vt influence [COĎEBRAN ‘affect’]
coe - caw [imitative]
coec - crow, raven (black, smart, chicken-sized scavenger)
coelibode - romance (work of art) [Cuêzi coêliboede, from coêliboe ‘love-inducing’]
coen - vi caw, croak
cofil - warp (of fabric) [COFIL]
- adultery
cogir - vi commit adultery [reborrowing of COGIR ‘fornicate’]
cogir cum ouandán commit adultery with a neighbor
cogul - n bastard; a illegitimate
colabani - pancreas [reborrowing of COLABANIS ‘tonguelike’]
colädan - vi complement each other, get along [‘go along (together)’]
colapreca - help, assistance
colapren - vt help, assist [reborrowing of COLAPREN ‘run alongside, support, assist’]
colaprec - assistant; in plural staff
colën - parallel line [‘line alongside’]
colënise - parallel
colep - type of fish [COLEPIOS]
Colibe - Cuzeian name [coêliboe ‘love-inducing’]
colir - vt gather; receive, take; focus (light); receive a degree [CULLIR]
zet colir assemble, get together
colir sumériam receive the degree of suméria (1st level of university)
colir scrifteca receive the degree of scrifteca (2nd level of university)
Colira - Cuzeian name (m) [coelīras ‘devotion’]
colnáe - common room (e.g. in a tavern) [‘gather-place’]
colo - calf of leg [COLLO]
coltiel - focus (of a lens) [‘gather-point’]
com - prep as, like, in the way of [OV comül, from CUM IULIN ‘in the way of’]
com řovoitulan like a virgin
com šuščatán huyonán like a dead chicken
com - marvel (OV name element) [CUOMOS]
Coma - Eleďe name [OV Cosma]
comcrifát - script, writing [‘as written’]
comcrifata - lower case
comdalue - princely, luxurious [‘like a king’]
comdruke - amiable [‘like a friend’]
cometan - join, combine, sew together [‘put next to’]
cometát - combination, joining
- joint, seam
comfante - diligent, hard-working [‘like a spirit’]
comit - count, county governor [reborrowing of COMITOS, ‘count’]
comlefát - malice
- wolfish, malicious [‘like a wolf’]
commizo - semi-refrain [‘say like’]
Como - Eleďe name [OV Cosmo]
comšayne - similar
comšaynir - vt resemble [‘appear like’]
conďayäm - defensible, valid
conďayec - vt justify, defend [‘like right’]
conďayeca - justification, defense (of an idea)
cont - count, earl [COMITOS]
contana - county [COMITANDA]
coprós - ad, prep since [co + apros]
coprós eldënán since noon
coprós dy so dalu šušde since the King died
So šoh řo zet lele coprós The duke has not been seen since
copuyan - vi force; compress [‘push alongside’]
copuyan hipsalďir mallon soán šohán force the duke to submit to an indignity
zen copuyan lädan force oneself to go
copuyo - force
cöd - core, pit, kernel, yolk [CUEDOS]
cöne - adj core, basic, fundamental [late Caď. CUEDNES]
cör - heart (archaic) [OV cör, cödr, from CUEDROS]
cora - a small river trader, with a sail [CORA, from Monkhayic; cf. Meť. koadu ‘fast thing’; the r/d correspondence is also seen in MOȞNARU vs. Monȟado ‘Monkhayu’]
corë - court (royal or noble household) [CURIES]
corëne - courtly; formal
coriy - Curiyan
Cornél - Eleďe name [OV Cornelio]
corona - a military riverboat, the main protector of Verduria’s river trade; or a large trading boat [CORONDA ‘big riverboat’]
corp - bribe
corpát - bribery
cořřaner - cherish [‘heart-keep’]
corže - canyon [CORGE]
corun - Kurundasti, Jippirasti, Tžuro [CORONDASTES]
corunát - Jippirasti
cos - left [CORSOS]
cošadan - vt catch up to, reach, overtake [COSCADRAN ‘ride alongside’]
cot - side; (grammar) case, person; margin; (mil.) specialized force such as cavalry [COŤOS]
cot sfahecei first person
cot oecei second person
cot telië third person
cot kobei profile, side view
se-cot first person singular (etc.)
anei cotei... otrei cotei on the one hand... on the other hand
cöt - beetle [CUETOS]
cotranel - slit, incision
- slit, incise, cut carefully [‘cut along (a line)’]
cotřez - hobby, pastime [‘side-work’]
cotuepen - vt balance, equal [‘sides equal’]
covaler - vt assess the value of [com + valer ‘be worth’]
Covalre dom esë po 4500 ořulen He assessed my house as being worth 4500 ořulĭ
cöze - byzantine, intrigue-filled; elaborate; (archaic) Cuzeian [CUEZISES, Cuêzi cuêzise]
cožanen - happen at the same time or by coincidence [‘happen alongside’]
cožanec coincidental, concurrent
cožano - coincidence, co-occurence
craď - carp (colorful fish for ponds)
crama - grill, grate [CRATIMA, dim. of CRATIS ‘framework’]
cramen - vt grill
- mesh [OV dim. of crama]
- ruby [CURANTOR, from Cuêzi curantōre, from Elkarîl kurântur]
creče - pleasant, agreeable [CRETRES, from CRETES ‘happy’]
credre - caustic, alkaline, basic [OV crede, corrected from its original CREIDRES, from CREIDAS ‘lime’]
creec - the Creator
crefu - dusk [CREFU]
crefuselta - twilight [‘dusk-light’]
creir - vt create [CREIR]
creisa - creation
creny - trachea or esophagus [reborrowing of crenis ‘internal bodily conduit’]
creny pulmonei trachea
creny magenei esophagus
crešir - vi/vt grow [CRESCIR]
crešë - growth [CRESCILE]
crete - glad [reborrowing of CRETES ‘glad, happy’]
crešmädörn - rhythmic, compelling, primal, sad; marked by a majestic rise and an inevitable fall [‘growing-majestic’]
crešvoce - compelling, ascendant; marked by a long rise from small beginnings [‘grow-calling’]
cretotá - compliment [‘pleasantism’]
creza - (m) lime, quicklime (calcium oxide); classroom chalk [CREIDAS, from Cuêzi creidas ‘eating substance’]
crezapër - limestone, chalk (calcium carbonate) [‘lime rock’]
crežen - vt eat; alchemy corrode [CREGEN]
crežec (alchemy) corrosive
crežeo - eating [CREGEIO]
crif - scroll; ledger; manuscript; menu (e.g. of a restaurant) [CRIVOS]
leta crifei unit of account [‘coin of the ledger’]
oř crifei Érenati unit of account, based on the old gold
crifát - the art of writing
crifom - scribe
crifpër - graphite [‘write-stone’]
crifpër Benécë molybdenite (MoS2) [‘Benécian graphite’]
crifsäte - scriptorium
crivan - vt write [CRIVAN, from CRIVOS ‘scroll’]
crivan den fill out a form
crivát - writing
crivec - writer
crivel - text; explicandum of a commentary
crivogués - bureaucracy [‘scroll-power’]
crivoguesom - bureaucrat
crižžen - vi party hearty [CREGINSEN, prolongative of CREGEN ‘eat’]
crocan - vt gorge, pig out (on)
crocec - glutton, pig
crundina - a very long brass instrument [OV crungadina ‘triple trumpet’]
crunya - trumpet [CRUNGA]
crur - leg [CRUROS]
cruřizo - buttock [‘leg-root’]
crusan - vt stretch, reach
crusan braki stretch one’s legs
crusan pakán scorson reach for a nearby branch
crusul (colloq.) tense, uptight
cruseo - stretch, reach
cruy - tight; steep, plunging; sharp (of curves); obscene vagina
ctanec - future tense [reborrowing of CTANEC ‘coming’]
ctel - person, party [reborrowing of CTEL ‘individual’]
Ctelm - the Ctelm mountain range east of the Plain [*CŤAENEME, variant of CAEŤMENE, from Meť. Gauthmene ‘hills of dawn’]
- Ctésifon, capital of Caďinas and of the modern state of Ctésifon; in speech always and in writing often Žésifo [reborrowing from CTESIFON; earlier CTESIFOS]
ctuzete - artificial [from Ctuzo]
Ctuzo - God of Manufacturing [reborrowing of CTUZO]
cu- - prepositional prefix roughly, somewhat [com]
cune around, near
cucuri - weight of 6.071 kg, 10 süroi [CUCURIS]
cucurú - cock-a-doodle-doo [imitative]
cucuruan - vi crow
cučec - vt attack [Ctésifoni dialect; from CUTEC]
cučeo - attack
cučil - tick (tiny parasitic insect) [CUTIL, from CUTEC ‘attack’]
cuda - elbow [CULDA]
cuda-dos (invar.) cramped, crowded
cüe - oil [KINHE]
cüe Kare petroleum [‘oil of Kara’— an area where it is found on the surface]
cüeden - vt anoint
Cüedul - the Anointed, the Messiah, the Christ, Eleď
cuéh - quack [imitative]
cuehen - vi quack
cuelzulë - proud, clean, happy, brassy, honest; suggesting Handel’s Water Music [‘gather-joy’]
cuenda - festival [CURENDA]
cuenda miurië circus, traveling performance
Cuendaya - Lesser Festival
Cuéndimar - third month; Grand Festival in this month
cuero - host [CULERION]
cues - question; question mark (?)
cuesan - vt ask [CURESAN]
cuesan cues ask a question
zen cuesan wonder
cuesrëcen - vt introduce [‘ask aquaintance’]
cuesrëcen Ihanam Rahelin introduce Ihano to Raheli
Zen mifanei zen cuesrëcen Allow me to introduce oneself
cuesrëco - introduction
brevë cuesrëcei letter of introduction
cuestenát - curiosity, inquisitiveness
- curious, inquisitive [‘has questions’]
cuezi - Cuêzi, the Cuzeian language [Cuêzi Cuêzi]
cuim - prep around, about [cu + im]
cuim domán about the house, somewhere in the house
culanul - pastry, small cake, torte [after Surcont Culán, who made them fashionable]
culë - gathering, reception; collection; course or class (at school) [CULILE]
slušir culä take a class
culisa - fleet [Kebreni kulisa ‘what is commanded’]
culpa - blame [reborrowing of CULPA (OV cupa)]
culpir - vi blame, accuse [CULPIR]
Raheli culpre Ihanon ad soan žankan Raheli blamed Ihano for the accident
culso - admiral, commodore [Kebreni kulseu ‘commander’, from kulsu ‘command’]
cum - prep with, among [CUM]
cum ti-drukin with some friends
cum zen personally, unassisted
cum lënin with stripes
dëguran cum soán lescomán haggle with the marketwoman
mevel cum Kebrin a treaty with Kebri
cumaudët - conditions, terms [LET CUMALDILEŤ ‘if you accept’, common legal formula]
dan cumaudëti zië state one’s terms
Prinimom ce-cumadëti We accept those conditions
cumasát - nursing; care, protection, oversight
cumasec - nurse
cumásuir - vt nurse; care, care for [‘sit with’]
cumbectia - syntax [reborrowing of CUMBECTIA, from CUM ‘with’ + BECTIA ‘movement’]
cumbeme - alert [‘with a head’]
cumbrigát - defense
cumbrigan - vt defend [‘fight with’]
cumbrigan soa mažtana ak vrakin lë defend the city against its enemies
cumbutát - partnership, company (organized for business or any other common end)
cumbutát and alaďean orchestra
cumbutát imbineyul limited liability corporation (Verdurian law)
cumbuten - associate with, partner with
cumbutise - harmonious, allied, having the same values or goal(s)
cumbutom - partner [‘man with (same) goal’]
cumepesa - capacity, power
cumepesa irzovec the ability to win
cumepan - vi to be capable of [‘with-can’]
cumepan legan to be capable of lying
cumeliräm - fiancé [‘to be lived with’]
cumetu - seafood salad in the Ismaîn style [earlier cumétiu; Ismaîn kumetił, literally ‘arrangement’, from CUM ‘with’ + METTAN ‘put’]
cumferien - contribute, pitch in [‘support with (others)’]
cumfriseo - excitement, thrill
cumfriser - vt excite, thrill [‘with-shake’]
cumlädan - vt accompany; join, combine [‘go with’]
cumlädan Ihanam Deštain accompany Ihano to Deštai
cumlädan oligum join a group
cumlädan soa creča ad soán fayulán join the pleasant to the necesary (i.e. combine business and pleasure)
cumlelen - vt witness [‘with-see’]
cumlelom - witness
cumlübec - vi sleep together; usually takes plural subjects (genteel in tone) [‘with-love’]
Ihano er Raheli cumlübu Ihano and Raheli are sleeping together
cummev - collective action against an employer or landlord; boycott, strike
cummevan - vi act collectively; strike, boycott [MEBRAN]
cummevan ak činekán act against the boss
šesan cummevan soin hutoromin organize the farmers to act collectively
cummizec - vi agree [‘with-say’]
Cummizao miyirece soán dalun I agree with the King, of course
cummizo - agreement
cummizo cum soán ouandán eta so arb traforhec an agreement with the neighbor about the overhanging tree
cumnuven - vi sleep together (equivalent in tone and meaning to English ‘make love’) [‘(go) to bed with’]
Pro lengen cumnuvnu We made love for hours
cumon - ally [cumon ‘with-man’]
cumonora - league [‘collection of allies’]
Cumonora i Scafiora The Scafiora League
cumorgát - bitterness, contempt, scorn
cumorge - bitter, cynical, angry at the world, contemptuously defiant [‘with morbidity’]
cumoteran - vt understand, grasp, realize; sympathize [‘know with’]
Cumoterai suspilavát lë I understand your suffering (acc.)
Cumoterai redelcen I understand women (dat.)
cumoterát - society, profession, fellowship; specically the association of those initiated into the ‘closed’ professions such as medicine, law, alchemy, or magic
cumoterul - fellow, member of such a fellowship
cumotery - understanding
cumpogan - vt perfect; finish (schooling etc.) [CUMPUGAN, loan-translation of Cuêzi sofusê, so- ‘with’ fusê ‘complete’]
cumpogul - perfect, perfected; unrestricted, total
cumpogulece totally, perfectly, absolutely
cumprenäm - context, background [‘to be understood’]
cumprenan - vt understand; include; engender [‘take with’]
Mey řo cumprene sul šalea tšurei er živä salea Water consists of hydrogen and oxygen
Řo cumprenai so uklam I don’t understand the proof
Lübor cumprene ši-olotem Love encompasses all feelings
cumprosan - vi parade, march [‘walk together’]
cumproseo - parade, march
Išet Cumproseo Solemn March celebrating the harvest
cumpužeo - perfection [CUMPUGEIO]
cumřez - cooperation, collaboration
cumřezen - vi cooperate, collaborate [‘work together’]
cumšadan - vt escort (prisoners or guests); ride together [‘ride with’]
cumšadom - a military escort; fellow rider
cumuna - town [CUMUNDA, augmentative of CUMA ‘hearth’]
cumyonom - companion [‘person to share bread with’]
cumyonom vëčerei dinner partner, date
cuncolir - organize, form (a cunculë) [‘gather with’]
cuncorë - meeting, session [CUNCURIES]
cuncreniy - heartfelt; vehement [‘with feeling’]
cunculë - organization, association, society, company; a trade association or lesser guild [cum ‘with’ + culë ‘collection’]
cüncüni - whine, whimper [imitative]
cüncünir - vi whine, whimper
cuncuresa - joint custody, ownership, or use
cuncurec - have joint custody, ownership, or use of [‘hold together’]
cuncurul - joint, common, jointly owned
cuncurian - vi meet, sit (as an assembly) [CUNCURIAN ‘deliberate with’]
cundrožir - vt leaven; (colloq.) impregnate [‘with yeast’]
cundrožul - pregnant
cune - prep around, somewhere near (in time or space)
cune eldënán about noon
cune soán domán somwhere around the house
cunënia - oppression, repression
- oppress, repress [CUNGAENIR]
cunësan - vt trust [CUNGESAN, lit. ‘with (the same) god’]
So dalu cunëse reďréem zië The king trusts his ministers
Cunësai volematán lë I trust in your good will
cunësát - trust
cunire - tedious [OV cundisre ‘annoying’, from CUMDISRES ‘seething’, CUMDISAN ‘seethe’, from CUM ‘with’ + DISAN ‘hate’]
cuniresa - tedium
cunkonsia - consulation, conference
cunkonsir - vt consult, confer [‘counsel with’]
- confederacy
cunnažan - vi confederate (cum) [‘rule together’]
cunnažise - confederate; Svetlan
cunya - swan (large, pretty, white lake or swamp-dwelling bird) [*CUNGA, variant of CUGNA]
cuon - dog (small predator, domesticated form of the lef ); lout [CUONOS]
cup - blow, hit
cupan - vt box, fight
cupáš - shock, huge blow
cupi - fisticuffs, fight [cupĭ ‘blows’]
cuplana - canvas [cuplia ‘hemp’ + -ana]
cuplanom - sailmaker
cuplia - hemp, marijuana [CONOPLIA]
curaise - abstract
cürälan - deep fry, fry in a bath of oil [‘oil-cook’]
cürana - curacy
curaya - reason [CURAIA ‘argumentation’, orig. ‘brooding’, from CURA ‘hen’]
aša curaye debate (as an event)
curayen - vi reason, argue, debate
curayora - argument, proof; discourse; logic
cüre - curate [Avélan dialect; abbreviation of vacüre; see vacuran]
curec - vt hold; vi restrain [CURREC]
zen curec dën have a day off
zet curec abstain, hold back, refrain (from: + dat.)
Ihano curce ciran zië baďir so imfát Ihano kept his wife from hitting the child
curesäm - responsible [CURESAUM ‘the one to be asked’]
curesát - responsibility
curesec - interrogative, question word [reborrowing of CURESEC ‘asking’]
cureza - axle; crutch
curien - vt deliberate, consider (as in courts, offices); review (a case) [CURIEN]
So sud curime precet lë The Court will consider your petition
curizec - vt grasp, grip [CURRINSEC, prolongative of CURREC ‘hold’]
curizeo - grasp, grip
curka - hen [OV diminutive, from CURA]
cürnu - a small silver coin of Kebri or Érenat [Kebreni kuirnu ‘half (an alat)’]
cürnu sutam a small Kebreni gold coin [Kebreni kuirnu suiťum]
curo - hold (on something)
curolec - vi sparkle, scintillate [CUROLEC]
- vt scan; edit, revise [‘check roughly’]
curonec - editor
curoni - scan, edit, revision
curoš - pliers
curulë - star (fixed astronomical object) [CUROLILE, variant of CULORILE ‘star’, from CUROLEC ‘sparkle’]
curulelát - navigation
curulelen - vi navigate [‘see stars’]
curulëra - constellation
curulora - contents [from curul ‘what is held’]
curvinte - nut (for attaching bolts) [‘hold-screw’]
Curym - the largest continent in the northern hemisphere
- (apoplectic) stroke [reborrowing of CUTEIO ‘attack, stroke’]
cuyo - spoon; as a measuring unit, 3 miĭ, 1/4 verae (1.4 tbsp.) [CULGO]
cuzeë - Cuzeian
Cuzei - Cuzei [Benécian Cûzêy, from CUEZAIE, from Cuêzi Cuêzaye]
cüzir - vt/vi close [from dynamic forms of CIUDER ‘close’]
cyager - vt flog [CLAGER]
cyagito - flogging


ča - well!
čačayëse - dim, slow to understand [‘slow-eyed’, i.e. one with bad leria ]
čačë - slow [Curiyan čeče ‘sluggish’]
čai - tea [Uytain tsai]
čaináe - tearoom
čaise - of tea; pale in skin color (by Verdurian standards)
čambra - grand council; chamber [TIAMORA]
čamzan - vt bite [OV čam, sound of a bite]
čamzel - bite
čana - pot [TUANA]
čanát - pottery
čanom - potter
časet - stamp, seal; logo, brand [from čas(ka) ‘flame’, i.e. a branding]
čascurec - vi hope [‘hold-flame’]
čascuro - hope
časka - spark [OV diminutive of čurasa ‘flame’, from TURAN ‘burn’]
časiššelát - despair, despondency
časiššelec - vi despair [‘lose-flame’]
čayma - tent [Barakhinei chaîma, from Western chaimba ‘portable (shelter)’, itself derived from Naviu kaya ‘shelter’]
če- - four (combination form)
čeču - candy, sweets [baby-talk for tsesul ‘sweet’]
čedec - forty [TIEDECT]
čedesnaga - centipede (pl. čedesnaži) [‘forty feet’]
čedešro - colonel [TIEDECTESCRION ‘master of troops,’ from TIEDECT ‘forty (men)’ + ESCRION ‘headman’]
čeďo - palm of hand [TIEŤUS]
čehát - sculpting, sculpture
čehen - vt sculpt [TEȞREN, through Ctésifoni dialect]
čehom - sculptor
čehoš - sculpture
čel - place [TIEL ‘point, entity’, from TIAN ‘exist, endure’]
Čel Šorui hell
čelt - evil [CŤELT]
čéltevar - archdemon [čelt ‘evil’ + efar ‘lord’]
čem - card
čemora - deck of cards
čen - the seventeenth letter of the Verdurian alphabet, Ç, transliterated Č
čen ismaë Verdurian name for the Œ (Ç) used in Ismaîn
čen vuáë Verdurian name for the J (j) used in Caizu, Ismaîn, Flaidish
čena - meal (especially a smaller one, not the prando) [TIENNA]
čerene - prudent [TIRENES]
čereon - prudence
čereon (cum kunan) frugal, thrifty
čésula - scale [diminutive of češa]
česura - bark (of tree)
češa - shell, skin (e.g. of fruit) [OV čureša, from TUESCA]
četve - fourth [TIETNES, from proto-Eastern *tyetenes ‘of the palm’, from *tyetau ‘palm’; the image being that of four fingers extended, revealing the palm]
Čey - Čeiy [Xurnese Čeiy]
- rib [TEILA]
čiam - forever; eternity [TIAUM ‘what will endure’]
čičaumát - variation
čičaumec - vi vary [OV expression či-ča-ču ‘all different ways’]
Čičaume po sues eden so dën It varies by six edĭ a day
čihan - vi sneeze [TIȞAN]
čil - each [TIL]
čilanë - napkin [‘each (one’s) linen’]
čildan - vt distribute; (math) divide (conj. like dan) [‘give to each’]
Čildanei soem luomem infátin Distribute the apples to the children
čildoni - distribution; division
el čildonë arithmetic mean
čilepdëne - weekly [‘each week’]
čiliažëe - monthly [‘each month’]
čilise - usual, ordinary
čima - pace (.758 m); musical note [TIMA ‘step’]
čimora - footprints; traces, spoor; musical chord
čimoren - vt track, trace, trail
čine - dish, plate [TINE]
čine ledli fine china plate
činecan - vt run, manage, boss
činek - boss [OV slang diminutive of činya ‘triangle’ (i.e. as military signal)]
činya - triangle (or other high-pitched percussion instrument) [TRINGA]
činzik - gooseberry [Barakhinei chinzikh ‘bride’s berry’, from a belief that eating them would attract a man; from GINA ‘maiden’ + ZIȞE ‘berry’]
činžeda - anchor [TINDIGEDA, from Meťaiun tind- ‘stay’ + geda ‘stone’]
čiplin - bugle [(CRUNGA) TIPELIN ‘(trumpet) for horses’]
čira - crack [TIRA]
čiren - vi crack
čirnu - deck (of a ship) [Kebreni cirnu, nom. of ciri ‘stand’]
čiron - elephant (very large, tusked, rideable herbivore, found in savannah) [TIROND]
čironduri - tusk; ivory [‘elephant tooth’]
čisiát - sharpness
čisčic - bauble, trinket [TICITIC ‘tinkling thing’]
čisy - sharp; discriminating, subtle [TISIS]
čisy labi a discriminating palate
čisy ambresa good taste
čiste - pure [TISTES]
čismiše - mocking, witty; cuttingly satirical [OV ‘sharpest’]
čisimen - vi make a pun; play with words
čisimen ak nomán make a pun on a name
čisimen ab ložin play with words
čisimotá - pun
čisuemse - sensitive, touchy [‘sharp-hearted’]
čište - Ismaîn guitar (rather like a mandolin) [Ismaîn çişte, from CISTA ‘box’]
čivi - pain [TIBRIS]
čivicole - sadistic [‘loving pain’]
čividonec - painful [‘giving pain’]
čivinye - sympathetic [‘gentle (amid) pain’]
čiža - cactus [TIGESA]
čoc - sling [CTUCOS]
čor - flow; (ocean) current
so zol čor (river) current
čoran - vi flow, run; cry [TUORAN]
čorec - flowing; fluent
- rhododendron (shrubs with a cluster of flowers) [‘cry, girl’]
čošava - mercury [TUORESAMBAS, from Cuêzi tōure- ‘flowing’ + sambas ‘bright stuff’]
credeca čošava mercuric chloride (corrosive sublimate)
čuca - spot, dot, mark (pl. čusĭ) [TUCA]
čuca calei degree of temperature
čucora - ruled edge; range, scale
čucul - freckled, spotted; leopard, panther (medium-sized, spotted predator) [‘spotted’]
čuč - (slang) bastard, asshole, salaud [older čucse ‘spotty’]
čuél - calx, the powder (generally an oxide) resulting from roasting a metal or ore [TUREL ‘result of burning’]
čuél plomei white lead (a compound of lead carbonate and lead hydrate)
čuél camside white arsenic (arsenic trioxide)
čuél čošave red precipitate (mercuric oxide)
čuél mlakonei coke
čuelan - vt/vi calcine, reduce to a calx
čuelát - calcination
čueže - stiff, rigid [TUGES]
čüma - plague [TIUMA]
čümána - hospital or sanitorium for treating the plague, leprosy, or other highly contagious diseases [TIUMANDA]
čumesa - (colloquial) smarts, brains
čume - (colloquial) smart, brainy
čümka - stink, stench
čümse - malodorous, noisome, stinking [‘plaguish’]
čümsen - vi stink
Čümsei ab alyon You stink of garlic
čun - oak (tall, very strong deciduous tree) [TUND]
čunanen - vt spot, mark, stain [TUCANDEN]
čunanul - stained; stain; something stained or spotted
čunašea - orthodoxy [‘oak-thought’]
čunido - acorn
čunima - shield; arms, noble emblem; card bearing such an emblem; a Caďinorian coin, still the unit of account in Žésifo [TUANIMA or *TUNIMA ‘small pot’, soldiers’ slang for ‘shield’]
čunimát - heraldry
čupát - idiocy [from TUP ‘dumb, mute’]
čupiser - daze, stupefy [TUPICER ‘make mute’]
- idiot
čupotá - an idiotic act
čuprášen - vi swoon, faint and fall down
čupre - unconscious, unaware [TUPRES, from TUP ‘dumb, mute’]
čuprec - faint, dizzy
- faint, fainting spell, loss of consciousness
čupren - vi faint, lose consciousness
čupse - idiotic
čura - pear [TURA]
čurarb - pear tree
čurata - hearth [from tšurát ‘burning’]
čusë - mud [TUSILE, from TUZA ‘shit’]
čustát - frequency
čuste - frequent; common, usual [TUSTES]
čüta - scales, balance [TINETA, from TINE ‘dish’ + collective -TA]
čuza - shit; by extension, goods, loot, share, money, trouble, shoddy stuff [TUZA]
čužát - rigidity [see čueže ]
čužec - starch [TUGENDEC, from TUGENDAN ‘stiffen’]


dabilen - vt undress [de ‘off’ + abilen ‘dress’]
zet dabilen take off one’s clothes
So suloro dabilne soa frälina The monk undressed the girl
dacdacir - vi babble [imitative]
daďuša - jade [DAŤUSIA, from DAŤUSOS, a mountain town where it was mined]
dafro - piece of furniture
dai - I give (cf. dan)
dah - the thirteenth letter of the Verdurian alphabet, D, transliterated D [DAȞ]
dallengát - reign [‘king-length’]
dalom - ambassador [‘king’s man’]
dalomnáe - embassy
dalu - king [DALU ‘prince’; the semantic change derives from the Caďinorian custom of appointing princes as governors; as royals they had more authority]
Dalĭ Epiphany
dalu maris prince consort
dálua - kingdom
dálues - jovial, good, strong— suggesting a powerful man in a good humor
dálugues - monarchy [‘king-power’]
dalumize - official, standard [dalu mis ‘the king says’]
daluy - adj royal; national; (slang) good in bed; n a gold coin of Solhai or Viminia
dan - vt give; spend; issue (pres. dai...; past donai...; past ant. donerai...; fut. domai...; cond. doncelai...; participles donec, donul, donäm) [DAN]
Done so ivram soán řezecán He gave the book to the laborer
dan - (archaic) village [DANDOS ‘settlement, (something) laid out’]
däri - seagull [DAURIS, from Meť.]
darove - healthy, wholesome [DOROVES]
darovë - health
daroveviso - medicine [‘study of health’]
das - board, plank [DASOS]
dasco - animal; Pagan given name [reborrowing of DASCO; cf. dašo]
dascora - bestiary; zoo [‘animal collection’]
dascoviso - zoology [‘study of animals’]
dasek - tray, panel; cutting board [OV dim. of das]
dašo - beast (OV name element) [DASCO]
dauš - tiger (large striped predator, related to čuculĭ ) [Rafsani dâwş]
dautë - one-eyed; Cyclops [‘gouged’]
dauten - vt chisel, gouge
dauto - chisel [DALTOR]
davonu - whale [augm. of DAVU, from Meť.]
dažika - sieve [OV dim. of dažy]
dažiken - vt sift
dažy - framework (of a house, ship, etc.); grid [DACTIS]
säten so dažim domei put up the framework of the house
de - of, from, off [DE]
tombir de mettan fall off the table
žanan de Deštain come from Deštai
kuna de pirodonin money from an inheritance
akprenan ontediďa de redelcén rob a woman of her watch
ana redelcë de muďe one woman more, one extra woman
Ilet tražne de sfeluca They dragged it from the cave (acc.)
Prenne so anelam de manam lië He took the ring off her finger (acc.)
Anelo e de manon lë The ring is from her finger
Zet fas de filán They make it out of wire
de - he/she gives (cf. dan)
deberan - vt unlock; reveal, initiate [DEBAERAN— see ber]
deberne soem tainem smericán lië he revealed the secrets (acc.) to his disciple (dat.)
deberát - initiation
debiyetan - vt (with acc.) remove from the electorship or from the nobility; vi (with dat.) remove from consideration [cf. biyeta]
debresen - vt unwrap [cf. bres]
Zen debrese so bres She unwrapped her breast-band
debút - beginning
debutan - vt start, incur [DEBUTAN ‘begin (a contest)’. Originally a command to the servants preparing an archery target to move away so the shooting could begin]
debutan šendum start a game
dec - ten [late Caď. DEC, from DECT]
decďún - twelve
decďín - thirteen
decë - tenth, tithe; tax
dechép - seventeen
decpán - fifteen
decpár - fourteen
decsenge - vicarate [‘ten presbyterates’]
decsués - sixteen
decyen - vt tax (also written decën) [‘(take) one-tenth’]
decyen so žen po decďún ořulen so bem tax the people at twelve ořulĭ the head
deczona - decade [‘ten years’]
dečelan - vt displace [‘out of place’]
dečia - binding, restraint
dečiplan - dismount [*DETIPELAN ‘from horse’]
dečir - vt bind, tie, restrain [DETIR]
zet dečir commit to (+ infinitive)
dede - shaky [synaesthetic]
dedoše - scallop [Ismaîn dedozişe ‘little button’]
deďëse - oblique, askew [DEĎIESES]
deëžan - vt pluck [de + ‘feather’]
defasadir - vi set out from, advance [‘forward from’]
defasadir is Verdurian-mažtanan set out from Verduria city
defucan - vi fade, discolor [DEFUCAN, from DE ‘away, off’ + FUCA ‘color’]
defucul faded, discolored
defulüren - vt erase [‘un-ink’]
degriman - vt deduce; infer [‘pull out’]
degrimeo - deduction, inference
dëguran - vi haggle, negotiate [DERGEN ‘tug’ + -URA]
dëguran cum Šustanan plough the sea, waste one’s time (lit., bargain with Šustana)
dekaši - revelation
dekašir - vt reveal [‘unhide’]
dëker - vt reciprocate, return a favor [DENKER ‘reciprocate, respond’]
dëker donul reciprocate a gift
dëkuir - vi thank
dëkuir drukán pro cuplian thank a friend for the hemp
dëkuy - thanks, a thank you [DENKUIS ‘reciprocal’; i.e. “It must be reciprocated”]
delädan - vi depart [‘go (away) from’]
delädan de scafin depart from the pier
delädan až vižulán depart from the ordinary
dëlaun - feeling despair or depression amid triumph or success [Cuêzi dunlāunas ‘movement in a circle’; i.e. feverish but pointless activity or emotion]
delažec - vt receive, inherit [‘acquire from’]
delendát - disorder, turmoil
prosec delendát disturbance of the peace
delendan - vt disorder, disarrange, scramble [DELENDAN ‘(put) out of line’]
delial - demotion
delialan - vt demote [‘un-raise’]
dembrea - existence
dembir - vi exist [DEMERIR ‘exist, create’]
- spring [DEMETRIA]
demedau - loss [Kebreni demedau, from demedu ‘subtract’, borrowed from DEMETTAN]
demeric - present (time) [reborrowing of DEMERIC ‘(presently) existing’]
so demeric dalu the current king
demetan - vt subtract; unload (an animal or wagon) [DEMETTAN ‘put off’]
demetan perem hicet de ftoren subtract the first number from the second
demeto - subtraction; unloading
demettene - money-losing, unprofitable
demeyan - evaporate
demëžen - emerge, surface [de + ‘sink’]
den - document; form [DAENOS, ‘paper’]
crivan den fill out a form
dën - day, date [DENNOS]
So dën nosei e ceďnare The wedding is set for ceďnare
déneca - persistence
deníe - (open) homosexual, gay [after Miluran Dení, an artist in Mëranac’s time]
denomát - dismissal
denomen - vt dismiss [de + ‘name’]
denomen so nrüsk munëin lë dismiss the fool from his job
zet denomen resign, renounce
zet denomen ižeďen elirán zë renounce one’s former life
denora - file; pile, sheaf (of papers) [collective of ‘document’]
denozir - vt undo (esp. a knot); detach [‘off-knot’]
dénuir - vi continue, keep on, persist [dynamic tenses of DENEC ‘persist’]
Sen dénue I’m used to it
dénuo - continually; habitually; repeatedly
densäte - archives [‘hall of documents’]
dënšadu - one day’s ride. By convention, 80 cemisĭ (60.64 km); this corresponds to a full day’s stagecoach travel— riding all day and all night, 240 cemisĭ could be travelled. Messages may be sent by relays of racing horses at a rate of up to 400 cemisĭ in a 24-hour period [‘day-ride’]
depiran - vt brew (beer) [‘ferment off’]
depirom - brewer
depiser - vt unfold [de + ‘fold’]
deprenan - vt remove, steal [‘off-take’]
deprene de soin bogatuin steal from the rich
deprenec - robber
deprosan - vt depend on; be subordinate to [orig. derprosan, ‘walk behind’]
deprosec - subordinate, dependent
derë - behind [DERILE ‘backup’]
derë soan pavona behind the wagon
derec - vi pledge; vt support (e.g. a claimant), serve; [DEREC ‘back up’]
zet derec dedicate or devote oneself (to)
Derao cum lonán dy e orest I pledge my honor it’s true
Et derao abbosan I’m determined to succeed
derel - pledge, collateral
- slum neighborhood of Avéla [derë ciman ‘behind the hill’]
derigime - a fast, noisy dance (originating in Derigima)
dernë - last, final, terminal [OV de renë ‘in the end’, from RENILES ‘exhaustively’, from RENES ‘again’]
deryolo - the back of the knee [‘behind-knee’]
deřaner - vt unleash [de + řaner]
des - several; various [DEIS ‘various’]
dësan - vi come into being [de + esan ‘be’]
desaten - vt demolish, wreck; abolish, repeal [‘unbuild’]
deseca - variety, diversity
descairon - a occasional; adv sometimes, now and then, several times [‘several opportunities’]
deseltaven - vt extinguish [de- + ‘light’]
dessuan - vt wipe, wipe clean [‘unwet’]
desi - bridge [DESIS]
desider - vt order, send for (use dat. for people) [DESIDER ‘select’, from SIDER ‘offer’]
desider zer send out for pizza
desider soan snucán send for the servant
desidi - order
desisir - vt oppose, contradict, take the other side [DECISIR ‘slide away’]
desisu on the contrary
desisec opponent; opposite
desisec fako The Opposition, in the Esčambra
desizer - vt quench (one’s thirst)
zet desizer refresh oneself; (colloq.) have a drink [de- + ‘thirst’]
deskuna - toll [‘bridge-money’]
desnév - nineteen [late Caď. *DEC NEBRI]
desüeca - prevention
desüen - vi prevent, block [dynamic tenses of DESIEN ‘stop’]
desüen tšurán prevent a fire
They kept me from eating the meat Sen desünu crežen so myasam
dësul - creature [‘that has come to be’]
desurčelan - vt distract [‘off concentration’]
zet desurčelan become distracted, lose one’s concentration
dešen - vi stop (doing something), quit [DESIEN]
Eluá činek, dešenei ďuďir Here’s the boss, stop babbling like an idiot
Et dešai [mizec] And so on— lit., I stop myself from saying (more)
Deši! Stop that!
detombe - decadent
detombir - vi decline, fall, become corrupt [de + ‘fall’]
detombo - decadence
detoš - fastener; buckle [*DETOSIOS ‘binding thing’]
detöšen - vt geld, castrate [DETUESCEN ‘unshell’]
detöšul - gelding
detranen - vt cut off, sever [‘cut off’]
deuligec - vt untie, unfasten, sever [de + oligec, join]
Deutaya - Goddess of Cities
deuveren - vt take off, doff [‘off-clothes’]
deuveren lanika take off one’s underwear
deväm - debt, obligation; by extension, sin, especially in reference to God
devec - debtor; sinner; (archaic) vassal
devhezát - indentured servitude
mevel devhezátei indenture
devhezec - indentured servant [‘must work’]
devir - vt must, have to; owe; to be sinful [DEBRIR]
devir lädan Deštain to have to go to Deštai
Deve soa muatä dimei He is liable for half the sum
Devu sues ořulem soán loëcán I owe six gold pieces to the landlord
Prĭ Aďán fsya devum Before God all of us are sinful
deyeen - vt blind [de + ‘eyes’]
deyodimo - mass [‘matter-amount’]
deyon - matter (as opposed to energy or spirit) [DEION, from Cuêzi deōn ‘raw materials, matter’, from dei ‘use’]
deyonise - material, physical
dezike - conj while, as [DE DIŤAN KEDA ‘at the time when’]
dezike dormru so naž as the nation slept
dezike siča prosmai while I was walking
dež - right (direction) [DEGES]
dežán - eleven [late Caď. *DEC AN]
dëžen - vt tug, pull [DERGEN]
dežóc - eighteen [late Caď. *DEC IOCI]
dicenarda - scurvy [DICENARDA ‘gum disease’]
dičura - zither, high-pitched stringed instrument
dičy - sweet, nice [DITRIS ‘gentle, innocent’ from DITOS ‘baby’]
didas - yogurt [Curiyan didaz, related to Cuêzi dēnedas ‘milk’]
- time; (grammatical) tense; stage of life m. [DIŤAS]
diďitise - delicate, pretty; ethereal, otherworldly [‘sweet and quiet’]
dimo - sum, amount, quantity; (grammar) number [DIMO]
so Dimo the Cosmos
dimšuten - vt exceed [‘spill an amount’]
dimšuto - excess
din - (archaic) triple [back-formation from dinë]
dinë - one third; (grammar) gender [*DINGAU, from DIMAGAU, from Cuêzi dīmagāu, from dīma ‘three’]
dinise - triple [din or Cuêzi dīma ‘three’]
dinkopey - balloon [after the brothers Dinkop, its inventors]
dinya - melon [DINGA]
dis - hate
disan - vt hate [DISAN]
disna - gum (part of mouth) [DICENA]
disnuria - resentment, bitterness
Mizeo ab disnurian? Are you speaking sarcastically?
disnurir - vi resent, be bitter [‘nourish hatred’]
disnurir piron zië eta šupoát resent one’s father because of his avarice
Fasseceo, disnuru You do it, I’m bitter
ditavan - vt like, prefer, favor (emphasis on emotion or choice; cf. ambrir) [DITAVAN ‘favor’, related to DITOS ‘baby’]
ditavea - liking, preference
ditavul - favorite, preferred
divea - choice, selection; election
diveir - vt choose, select; set (e.g. a time); elect [DIBREIR]
Lačam diveir dën We should set a date
divrec - vt learn [OV de ivroin, ‘out of books’]
divrec soa alaďea learn music
divreo - learning
Dizama - Cuzeian name [diazamē ‘promise’]
dižón - mustard [DICTONOS]
do - you (pl.) give (cf. dan)
doblädan - vi fit, suit; cf. mallädan [dóbrece lädan, ‘go well’]
doblädec suitable, appropriate
Len dobläde It flatters you
dobráš - wonderful, great
dobre - n, adj good; fine, righteous, wise [DOMERES ‘fine, handsome’]
dobrefassec - vi benefit (conj. like fassec) [‘do good’]
Řo dobrefas nikton It’s no good to anyone (dat.)
dobrefasco - benefit
dobrelóg - reputation (pl dobreloži) [‘good word’]
dobreložise - respectable, of good repute
dobrežanul - welcome [‘well come!’]
dobu - bloke, chap, type [‘good guy’]
dočatir - vt finger; (slang) to excite with the fingers
zet dočatir (of women) masturbate
doči - finger [DOTIS]
co-pava doči ring finger
ela doči middle finger
pava doči little finger
ďuna doči index finger
dočirís - millet (an Uytain grain) [‘finger grain’, from the appearance of its seed clusters]
dočuven - vt pilfer [‘finger’]
dodo - (baby-talk) sleep; nap
dodoir - vi (baby-talk) sleep; nap [simplification of dormir]
doligu - parish [dom ‘house’ + oligu ‘group’]
dolina - valley [‘hollow’ + fem. -ina]
doly - hollow [DOLIS]
dom - house [DOMOS]
dör domán in public
Dománavo - Cuzeian name [domānavas ‘generosity’]
dombričan - magnanimous, generous; large-hearted, noble [DOMERES ITIRAN ‘large heart’]
domil - domestic [DOMIL]
- snail (small, shelled slug-like creature) [‘house-slug’]
domsfahe - dialect, patois [‘house-speech’]
domyaso - bacon [‘back-meat’]
domžina - chambermaid [‘house-girl’]
don- - past root for dan ‘give’
donculë - hospitality, generosity [‘house-receiving’]
donculëse - hospitable
doni - giving; gift; a giving nature
dónia - wax [DONGA]
donta - block (of houses); cell (of living tissue) [DOMOTA, collective of DOMOS ‘house’]
donul - gift, present; spiritual gift [‘given’]
Donulĭ Pentecost
donyoš - candle
donyošom - candlemaker
dör - out; outside; outside of [OV deörn, from DE UERAN ‘on the outside’]
dörán - adv outward
döriasni - outer thigh
dörloën - vt rent (used of the lessee) [‘out-rent’]
dörloëc renter, tenant
dörloën atunim atüčin rent an apartment from a rascal
dörmetan - vt dismiss, put out (of one’s presence), send away [‘put out’]
Eř dörmetai You are dismissed
dörmeto - dismissal
dormi - sleep
dormir - vi sleep [DORMIR]
Dormreeu pro peren dënán You slept for the whole day
dorot - pleasant prophecy, omen; sign, signal [DOROŤ]
dörsemizi - outer arm
doršetir - vt spend [‘buy out’]
dos - back [DORSOS]
dosadan - vi turn around, reverse; retreat [dos fasadán ‘back to front’]
dosán - backward
dosic - corridor, hallway; aisle (pl. dosisĭ) [DOCIC ‘leading (between rooms)’]
dosmišu - backpack, knapsack [‘back-sack’]
dotoni - thumb [DOTONDIS ‘big finger’]
draba - horseradish (a thick, spicy root) [DRABA, from Munkhâshi drabma; the plant is native to Sarnáe]
drac - dragon (large flying reptile, lives in mountains and plains) (pl. drasĭ) [DRACOR]
dresir - vt train (animals) [DRAECIR ‘tame’]
dresom - trainer
drocen - vt pluck (stringed instruments) [imitative; attested in OV as tröcen, trocen, probably altered to fit with dronen]
droďë - auspicious [OV doroťiye ‘well-omened’]
droë - right, power, authority
droëë - rightful, lawful (having the right)
naž droëë rule de jure
drona - guitar [imitative]
dronen - vt strum, play (a guitar, violin, etc.)
dronul - stringed instrument
drote - gee! to the right!
drožy - yeast [DROGIS]
druk - friend [OV derúk, diminutive abbr. of deriyé ‘supporter’, from DEREC ‘back up, support’]
drukát - friendship
druke - friendly
drukul - (colloq.) friend, amigo
drukule - (colloq.) chummy, nice
dširen - vt/vi rip [imitative]
du - they give (cf. dan)
dubi - doubt [DUBITIR]
dubir - vt doubt
dugel - lure; bait
dugir - vt lure, attract [dynamic tenses of DUGER ‘desire’]
duhe - steam, vapor [DUȞE]
niru ab duhen steam engine
duisec - helmsman, leader; (Endajué) dzusey
duisir - vt lead, drive; steer; head for [DUCIR ‘steer’]
zet duisir behave; head for
zet duisir mesece (+dat.) treat someone well
Ce-imfát řo šri zet duisir That child has no manners
Duisiro soan nezin! Head for the island!
duisnáe - an Endajué seminary [nativization of dzusnar]
- driver
dul - given, gift (OV name element)
Dulau - Cuzeian name [dulāu ‘duty’]
dum - note, memorandum, annotation, thought [back-formation from DUMEC ‘think’]
dumora - notebook, folder; (commercial or bank) account
duna - chapter; scene [DUNNA, from Cuêzi dunnâ, a ‘movement’ of plot or character]
dunalál - planet (small, moving astronomical object) [DUNALALDOS, from Cuêzi dunalaldas ‘moving star’]
dunalál tšurec - comet
dunea - energy (movement and heat; as opposed to matter and spirit) [DUNEIA, from Cuêzi dunēyas, abstracted form of dunas ‘movement’]
duneise - physical
duneviso - physics [‘study of energy’]
dunetene - energetic
dungo - a small silver coin of Caizura and Lebcaizura [Caizuran, ‘one half’; cf. Cuêzi dunagāu]
dunise - double [Cuêzi duna ‘two’]
dupor - stork, heron [DUPOR]
dur - hard; crust (of bread, puddings, etc.) [DUR]
duresa - hardness
durgrimec - dentist, tooth remover [‘tooth-puller’]
duri - tooth; blade (of a sword) [DURRIS]
colir durem zië teethe
dürí - credit [Kebreni dyrḣi from dy ‘up’ + reḣi ‘count’]
dürio - asset [Kebreni dyriḣa ‘what is credited’]
Durion - God of Rock (1st Age mythology) [DURREON, from DUR ‘hard’]
durnë - bad [DURENGES]
durnëžánul - unwelcome [‘badly come’]
- malign, malicious, pernicious; malignant, virulent
durnkuna - extortion [‘bad money’]
durnkunom - extortioner
durok - wart [OV ‘little hard thing’]
duroš - toothbrush [‘thing for teeth’]
dus - rudder [DUSC]
dusom - pilot, helmsman
duše - fragrant, aromatic [DUSIES, from DUSIER ‘be fragrant’]
dušic - perfume, fragrance (pl. dušisĭ) [DUSIEC ‘something fragrant’]
duta - doll [babytalk for druk]
duya - therefore [DUHA]
dva- - two (combination form)
dvadec - twenty [OV ftedec, from PTEDECT, contaminated by tvedec ‘thirty’]
dvaředao - conversion
- vi convert (one’s beliefs) [‘second belief’]
- twin [‘two born’]
dvase - alter ego, twin self [‘two-me’]
dvažoc - (slang) menstruation [‘twenty-eight’]
dy - that, than [DIA]
dyušše - lustful
dyuž - lust, desire; urge
dyužer - vt lust (for), desire [DUGER ‘desire, covet’]
Dyužu ce-žayem I’m hot for that babe


ďac - wind (pl. ďasĭ) [ĎAIKOS]
ďacse - windy
ďalan - vt enrich, enhance [ĎALAN]
Soa alaďea er so zer ďalu so elir Music and pizza enrich life
ďalašte - elegant, stylish [ĎALASTES ‘finest, richest’]
ďalašteca - elegance, style
ďam - error, mistake
Ďamano - Eleďe name [OV Ďamiano]
Ďamari - Eleďe name [OV Ďamari]
ďamir - vi err, make a mistake [ĎAMIR]
Ďameu You are mistaken
ďamleleë - criticism, fault-finding
ďamlelen - vt criticize, find fault [‘see errors’]
ďampauto - sweater [‘woolen cloak’]
ďan - wool [ĎANNOS]
Ďanël - Eleďe name [OV Ďaniel]
Ďanëli - Eleďe name [OV Ďaniela]
ďaneme - velvet [OV ďannesme ‘wool-like’]
ďanvena - llama (large wooly herbivore, native to mountains) [‘wooly deer’]
ďaonáe - washroom [‘clean place’]
ďare - sober, even-tempered [ĎAHRES]
Ďarea - Eleďe name [OV Ďareia]
Ďareo - Eleďe name [OV Ďareio]
ďaresa - sobriety
ďarim - wild, untamed, natural [Barakhinei dharim, from ĎORIND, ‘suffering a god-induced insanity’]
ďárimac - wilderness; underground
ďarimát - grandeur, wild beauty
ďasc - bladder [reborrowing of ĎASCOS ‘pouch’]
ďascima - gland [reborrowing of ĎASCIMA ‘small pouch’]
ďaš - pocket [ĎASCOS ‘pouch’]
ďat - sign, omen [ĎAITOS ‘omen’]
ďaulát - cleanliness
ďaule - clean [late Caďinor *ĎAHULES ‘proper’, from ĎAHES ‘correct’]
Ďavíd - Eleďe name [OV Ďaviď]
ďaye - correct, right [ĎAHES]
soa ďaye the right way (of doing things)
suvan soa ďaya be right
ďayecrivan - vt spell [‘write right’]
šrifec ďayecrivan know how to spell
ďayecrivát - spelling
ďëfku - monster
Ďeknam - Dhekhnam [Dhekhnami Dhêçnam ‘pure land’]
ďekname - Dhekhnami
ďelát - difference, (a particular) change
Řo lelu suim ďelát I don’t see any change
ďeler - vi differ [ĎELER]
ďelec different
Bura ďele co Ertalan Bura differs from Ertala
ďeletá - dessert [‘what varies (in a menu)’]
ďeltan - vi change [OV ďeldan ‘give (make) to differ’, modified to fit ďelte, ďeletá]
Soa selta ďelte The light is changing
Řo epei šesan ďeltan redelcen You can’t change a woman
ďelte - changing, varying, changed [reborrowing of ĎELTES ‘differing’]
ďeltesa - change (in the abstract, or long-term; cf. ďelát)
Ďemečo - Eleďe name [OV Ďemetrio]
ďer - door [ĎER]
ďeratún - vestibule, antechamber, lobby [‘door-room’]
ďerul - hatch, hinged lid
ďes - several
ďëse - flat, horizontal; plain, homely [ĎIESES ‘straight, smooth’, from ĎIAN; cf. ďiec]
ďëska - tile [‘little flat thing’]
ďëslota - barge [‘flat boat’]
ďësura - paving, pavement; stone facing [ĎIESURA ‘smoother’]
ďësuren - vt pave, face with stone
prosia ďësurul paved street
ďeš- tattoo [Dhekhnami dhnêsh]
ďešan - vt tattoo
ďev - harm, damage, injury
ďevan - vt harm, damage, injure [ĎEBRAN]
ďezgorat - pyramid [‘flat tower’]
Ďic - a god of the underworld, entrusted with keeping the dead from the living
ďiec - race (pl. ďiesĭ) [OV ďiec, ďieca, from ĎIAN ‘extend in a straight line’]
ďiecer - vt race
ďiecnáe - racetrack
ďiloran - vt forgive, pardon [reborrowing of ĎILORAN ‘put aside’, from ĎILA ‘aside’]
Řo epne ďiloran řocepelát lië She couldn’t forgive his unfaithfulness (acc.)
Ac ďilorne miran lië But she forgave his mother (dat.)
ďiloresa - forgiveness, pardon
ďin - three [DIN]
ďinát - trinity
ďincota - triangle; the pubic hair
ďincotul - triangular
ďise - bat (small nocturnal, flying, rodent-like mammal) [DASCO ĎICEI ‘Ďic’s animal’]
ďitel - road [ĎITEL, ‘that which extends (in a straight line)’, from ĎIAN; cf. ďiec]
ďitelán - ahead, onward, forth
ďitelát - engineering [‘roadmaking’]
ďitelom - engineer
ďol - size [ĎOULOS]
ďoldimo - volume [‘size-amount’]
čima ďoldimei cubic čima
ďom - stone (OV name element) [ĎOMILE]
ďond - stillness
ďonde - still, quiet [reborrowing of ĎONDES]
Ďonušo - Eleďe name [OV Ďionusio]
Ďorca - Eleďe name [OV Ďorca]
ďorina - passion [ĎORINIA ‘insanity given by the gods’]
ďuďa - drool, dribble
ďuďir - vi drool, dribble [imitative]
ďul - smooth [ĎUL]
ďula [šerë] ale, a creamy, smooth-tasting, honey-colored beer
ďumát - masonry
ďumatom - mason
ďumë - stone; ballot (because stones are used in Verdurian voting) [ĎOMILE]
ďumëbenda - statue [‘stone-work’]
ďumëgórži - gargoyle [‘stone-throat’]
ďumete - stony, stone
ďumeza - quarry [ĎOMENSA]
ďumise - strong, determined, patient [ĎOMISES]
ďumpalel - lesbian lovemaking [‘two-fondling’]
ďun - two; pair; twins; both [ĎUN]
hicet ďunië even number
hicet ro ďunië odd number
ďuncöre - misanthropic, uncharitable, disgusted with the world [‘stone-hearted’, i.e. unempathetic]
ďuncrur - biped [‘two-leg’]
ďunitire - duplicitous, double-dealing; insincere [‘two-spirited’]
ďunmišekse - ugly as sin [‘two-bagger’]
ďunmizo - parallelism [‘say twice’]
ďunnenë - isosceles [‘two (sides) same’]
ďunröma - the plural number [‘two-count’]
ďunröme - adj plural
ďunvolemát - ambivolence
ďunvoleme - ambivolent[‘two-willing’, i.e. ‘of two wills’]
ďuro - flagon; Verdurian unit of volume, equal to 13.7 fluid ounces [ĎUROR ‘wide-mouthed flask’, from ĎUREC ‘widen, open out’]
ďuvë - frown [ĎUBRILE]
ďuven - vi frown [ĎUBREN, from ĎUOS ‘a frown’]
ďuvësäm - suspicious, untrustworthy, louche [‘to be mistrusted’]
ďuvëse - suspicious, mistrustful, hostile, on one’s guard [‘frownful’]
ďuvësë - suspiciousness, lack of trust, hostility
ďuvësir - vt mistrust, feel uneasy with; be on one’s guard against


e - is
E ďunĭ zonĭ Two years ago
Řo e isu čaë There isn’t enough tea
ë - the fourth letter of the Verdurian alphabet, E, transliterated E [IE]
ë- - seven (combination form)
Eärdur - the Eärdur river [ERAUDOR]
ebdu - troll [Barakhinei ebdûn, from Elkarîl ebdunmak ‘excavation-stealer’]
ebrák - apprentice [Kačanzayin ebrac ‘newcomer’, from LEBTRACTUL; see epražo]
voitec še ebrák become an apprentice
ebrakát - apprenticeship
cumpogan ebrakát zië to finish one’s apprenticeship
ebrene - Jewish
ebreo - Jew [OV Hebraios, from Greek]
ebreřon - Hebrew [‘Jewish language’]
ec - (interjection) hey! well!
Ecačine - Eleďe name [OV Aicaterine]
ecaë - horrible [ENCAILES]
ecai - horror [ENCAIS]
ecelóg - adverb (pl. eceloži) [‘word with -ece]
eceložise - adverbial
eciman - vi hiccup [dim. of HECCAN]
ecimul - hiccup
ëclaë - glaring; brightness, glare [‘eye-brightness’]
Ecuna - Cuzeian name (m) [ecūnas ‘hero’]
Ecune - Cuzeian name [ecūnei ‘heroine’]
ecunĭ - knights-and-kings, an ancient chess-like board game (pl.; compare acc. ecuni) [ECUNIT, from Cuêzi ecūni narrûi-to ‘heroes and kings’]
ečitan - vi awaken [HETITAN]
šesan ečitan wake (someone)
Ya ečitne He’s awake
ečom - grammar school [ETROMOS]
ečomoro - schoolmaster [ETROMORION]
ečomu - student, school child [‘school-child’]
ečomul - schooled, having completed grammar school (or most of it)
eda - Verdurian unit of length, equivalent to 3.51 mm [HAEDA ‘stem’]
ëdič - spell, enchantment [back-formation from ëdičan]
ëdičan - vt bewitch [ERDITREN ‘cast a spell’, from ERDIS ‘spell’]
Tu et ëdidne I’ve been bewitched
ëdiči - witch [ERDITIS]
edra - ivy [HAEDERA]
- the nineteenth letter of the Verdurian alphabet, Ď, transliterated Ď [Caď. ĎAȞ; modified to parallel koď in alphabet poem]
efar - (archaic) lord [AEFAR]
Efrat - Efrat river in Ismahi [EPRANTOS, from Meť. Evrandu ‘red water’]
eftäpu - tag (children’s game) [OV ef ataupu, babytalk for ‘catch me’]
eglér - praise
eglérec - vt praise [EGLEREC]
egleräm laudable
egre - sour; alchemy acid [AECRES ‘sharp-tasting’ from AECA ‘spike’]
egula - needle [diminutive of OV ega ‘spike’ from AECA]
egulát - sewing
egulen - vt sew
egusfer - hedgehog, porcupine (small herbivore defended with spines) [‘needle-beast’]
ehehe - neigh [imitative]
ehehen - vi neigh
ei - thou art
eidolo - form, outline, shape; idol; puppet [reborrowing of EIDOLO]
eidoloviso - geometry [‘shape-study’]
einalandaua - angel, eternal spirit [Cuêzi einalandāua ‘first spirit’]
Einatu - Einatu, the Archangel Michael [Cuêzi Einātu, from eine ‘first’]
ek - the seventh letter of the Verdurian alphabet, K, transliterated K [EK]
Ekaia - Ekaia, Satan, the leader of the fallen Einalandauĭ [Cuêzi Ecaîas]
el - n center; a central, medium [EL]
el čildonë arithmetic mean
el muatëi median
Elas - Greece [Greek Hellas]
elcar - dwarf, elcar [reborrowing of ELCAR, from Cuêzi elcár, from Elkarîl elkar]
elcarřon - Elkarîl, the elcarin language
elcarin - dwarvish, elcarin
(sel) elcarin blue vitriol, copper sulphate [supplied by the elcarĭ]
verde (sel) elcarin green vitriol, iron sulphate
elcarinul - sulphate [‘little elcarin’]
- Elkarinor, land of the elcarĭ [loan-translation of Barakhinei Elkarinor]
elčena - lunch (i.e. a light meal at noontime, typical of the city) [‘middle meal’]
elčenen - vi lunch
eldën - noon [‘middle of the day’]
ele- - free (OV name element) [ELEUS]
eléaku - substance, material; composition [Cuêzi elēacu]
eléaku [pro uveren] cloth
Eleď - Eleď, the Begotten of Iáinos; in Eleďát, the second Person of the Trinity, the Messiah [EILEĎAN, from Cuêzi Eīledan]
Eleďát - the religion worshipping Eleď and Iáinos, formed of the union of Arašát (the worship of Iáinos going back to Cuzeian times) and the Elenicoi of Érenat
eleďe - Eleďe, Christian
soa Eleďë tagia the Eleďe dynasty (3241-3301)
Eleďom - worshipper of Eleď; follower of Eleďát
Elena - Eleďe name [OV Helene]
elenice - a Greek
Elenico - n Greek; follower of Mihel before the Council of Avéla [Greek Hellenikós]
Elesa - Elesa, capital of ancient Cuzei [ELEISA, from Cuêzi Eleisa]
eleura - a silver coin of Guaya [Eř dialect, ‘freedom’]
eleutát - frankness, freedom, openness
eleute - frank, free, open, generous [reborrowing of ELEUTES ‘free’, from ELEUS ‘free man’]
eliá - olive [HELGAIOS]
Elia - Eleďe name (m) [OV Helia]
Elia - Eleďe name (f) [OV Elia]
eliata - olive grove [OV helata, modified to match ‘olive’; from HELGAITA, collective of ‘olive’]
elil - vigorous [ELIL ‘full of life’]
elilát - vigor
elir - life [ELIR]
elirát - vitality, liveliness, life; life essence, spark of life
eliril - alive, animate, vital
elirec - vi live [ELIREC]
eliriviso - biology [‘life-study’]
Elisave - Eleďe name [OV Elisaveta]
Eliveri - Midwinter’s Day [‘middle-winter’]
elnamë - platinum [ELEINAMIEIS, from Cuêzi elēinamiēi ‘mistress of elements’]
elnočy - midnight [‘middle-night’]
elnora - still, yet; some more [AELAN ȞORAN ‘to this hour’]
elnora er elnora again and again
tot elnora! do it again!
eloria - empire [ELORIA ‘kingdom’]
elordalu - emperor [‘empire king’]
elrise - imperial [ELORISES ‘royal’]
elrei - queen [ELOREIS]
elrei mare the wife of a king; the King’s Consort
Elšoru - Enddark (holiday) [‘middle-darkness’]
eluá - behold; here is, here are; so!, well [LEILUAT ‘let it be seen’]
Eluá fue nočy Night fell
Eluá ya läzne So he’s gone
eludëno - today [AELUDENNOŤ ‘on this day’]
elusir - vi vote [ELUCIR ‘mark, tag’]
elusigués - republic [‘vote-power’]
elusio - vote
elut - lawfulness, fair play, order; community; justice; ethics [AELUŤ ‘virtue’]
elutë - lawful; just, fair [AELUŤRES]
Eluyemakšy - Southern barbarian [Combination of Eluyet Eluyek and Makšik, names of the two principal Southern tribes]
Elzon - Midyear’s Day [‘mid-year’]
emai! - hello! [colloq. *EMAIT ‘greetings’, from *EMAOS ‘greeting’, from EMAO ‘I say’]
Emanél - Eleďe name [OV Emmanuel]
emayec - vi greet [from emai]
zen emayec greet each other
emayec pro Rahelin ask after Raheli
Emayao cira lë ab len Say hello your wife for me
embre - bitter; alchemy alkaline [AMRES]
embrezihe - raspberry [‘bitter berry’]
emel - purchase
emec - vt buy [EMEC ‘say’, later ‘haggle’]
Emcao ci-ris pro anán ořulan I bought this seed for one gold piece
Emia - Eleďe name [OV Aemilia]
Emio - Eleďe name [OV Aemilio]
emur - an alloy of silver and tin, often used for coins [HAEMUR]
emura - a small emur coin of Verduria, worth 1/12 fale; similar coins in Krasnaya, Viminia, Caizura, or Denisovič
enalir - vt (colloq.) go away [of unknown origin]
Enäron - God of Air and Lord of the Gods [ENDAURON]
endi - wood; woodwind instrument; violin bow [ENDIS]
endivyón - violin, fiddle [‘bow-lyre’; referring to the wooden bow]
endya - carpentry
endyom - carpenter
enil - quiet, shy, timid [ENDIL]
enkaš - fear (variant of nkaš)
Ënomai - Ënomai, the sun of Almea [IENOMAIS]
Enotivo - Cuzeian name [enōtivas ‘sojourner’]
enšeyne - duck (smaller relative of gäs ) [ENILA SCENGE ‘quiet fowl’ (ironic)]
enttrane - woodcutting [‘cut wood’]
enttranom - woodcutter
eo - you (pl.) are
-eon - clan (OV name element) [-(T)EION]
epan - vi can, to be able to [EPESAN]
Epei attróuen ce-scorsam? Can you reach that branch?
epesát - thickness
epese - thick [ESPICES]
epesec - conditional tense [EPESEC, present participle of ‘to be able to’]
Epete - Cuzeian name [epetei ‘singer’]
epöl - shoulder [ESPUEL]
epražo - newcomer [back-formation from OV eptražul, from colloquial Caď. LEBTRACTUL ‘newly dragged in’]
epüa - spear, lance [ESPUILA]
epüen - vt spear
er - and; both; plus [ER]
er so mudray er soa viminë both the wise man and the Viminian
ďun er ďun eu pan two plus two is five
er - south [AER]
Erasto - Eleďe name [OV Erasto]
ërece - in fact, actually, really [IERES ‘dull’]
erél - cranberry [ERESLOS]
Ereláe - the continent containing Verduria [ERAMALEIA, metathesis for ERALAMEIA ‘south Almea’, i.e. the southern hemisphere, or the human world as a whole]
erénica - purge; purgative [EREINECA]
(zen) dan erénica give (take) a purgative
Éres - Cuzeian name [Eressos ‘westerner’]
Eretald - the South of Almea; the Caďinorian plain [‘South-plain’]
ermát - shallowness
erme - shallow [EREMES]
ernum - south [‘south-direction’]
erotál - furthermore, moreover, as well as [‘and also’]
Erruk - the castle of Erruk [‘south-keep’]
erüza - cinnabar (mercuric sulphide) [*ERUIDIAS, variant of ERUIDAS, from Cuêzi ‘reddener’, from ruyisi ‘red’]
erüzula - litharge (lead oxide, PbO) [‘little cinnabar’, from its color]
erüzula ogudula minium (lead oxide, Pb3O4) [‘roasted litharge’]
Ervëa - (m) Caďinorian emperor, vanquisher of Munkhâsh [AERIVILEAS]
- you (acc.)
- the eighth letter of the Verdurian alphabet, Ř, transliterated Ř [by analogy with ek]
esan - vi to be (irregular: present ai, ei, e, am, eo, eu; past predicative fuai, fuei, fue, fuam, fuo, fueu; past existential esnai, esnei, esne, esnam, esno, esnu) [ESAN]
esli ešelai dalu if I were king
e ďinĭ zonĭ three years ago
Fuáy e, dy esne... Once upon a time there was...
E et It’s me
Esne mudray There was a wise man
Fue mudray He was wise
E řovižiäm dy pluyrete It’s unlikely that it will rain
E so uestu ke čümse ab porom This is the man who stinks of green onion
E uestu dy čümse ab porom There is a man who stinks of green onion
E dy vueu žöhei I would like some mead
esar - prefect of a district [ESARȞ]
escaë - carpet [Curiyan eskalge; originally a slang term]
escatelë - tapestry [‘fine carpet’]
esce - is it that; whether [ES KEDA ...? ‘it is when...?’]
Esčambra - the Verdurian Parliament [‘great council’]
esčambrom - senator, member of Parliament
esďitel - highway [‘great-road’]
esë - my (gen. of se)
esea - presence [ESEIA ‘being, existence’]
esec - present tense [ESEC ‘being’]
Eseo - Eleďe name [OV Hesaia]
esey - try
eseyer - vt try [ECILER]
eseyer tróuen so lukul try to find the guilty party
Eseyereu ci-zeri Try these flatcakes
esli - if
esta - (m) summer [AESTAS]
estair - vt/vi exult, exalt
estát - greatness
estát lë ‘your greatness’— form of address for nobles
este - great [ESISTES]
esteai - exultation [este ai, ‘great am I’]
estecäh - alligator (large, fierce, long-mouthed predatory lizard) [‘great-lizard’]
estitian - genius [‘great-spirit’]
estre - summery [reborrowing of AESTRES]
esyule - dear [‘my little one,’ from esë ‘my’ + -ul- diminutive suffix]
ešahe - sermon, address [‘great-speech’]
ešahen - vi preach
ešahen cum soan orestan preach the truth
ešcontana - grand county
ešcurana - primacy [‘great-curacy’]
ešcüre - primate
ešec - failure; dilemma, roadblock; stumbling block
Éšena - Goddess of Water (particularly associated with the Svetla) (1st Age mythology) [AESCENA]
ešenalt- the small silver coin of Svetla, Bažra, Lapiri, or Pakšohan
ešenë - the large silver coin of Svetla, Bažra, Lapiri, Pakšohan, Cerei, and Hežina (the latter is properly called ešcenile) [‘(coin) of Éšena’]
Eši - Goddess of Art [ESCIS]
ešinyát - lovingkindness [‘great-kindness’]
Ešra - Eleďe name [OV Esťera]
ešro - bully [ESCRION ‘foreman’]
eššanát - possibility
eššane - maybe; possible [OV epsesan ‘it may be’ = EPES ESAN]
ešuë - failing; substandard, unfit
- failure; defeat; lack of success, misfortune; bad luck
ešuir - vt fail; lose [dynamic tenses of HESCIR]
ešuir šendum lose a game
ešuir lelen soa aguma fail to see the problem
Ešureu prĭ piron esë I failed my father (lit., in front of my father)
et - me (acc.)
eta - prep about, concerning (takes nom.); n topic, matter [ETA]
eta šoĭ er dalĭ about cabbages and kings
etadan - describe [ETADAN]
etadec - descriptive; n attribute, property
etadel - description
etahicete - mathematical [‘about-numbers’]
etald - plain [ESTALDOS]
etalóg - adjective (pl. etaloži) [‘about-word’]
etaložise - adjectival
etama - pond, pool [AETANIMA dim. of ‘lake’]
etamizë - nominative case [‘talk about’]
etani - lake [AETANIS]
etaperë - general [‘about the whole’]
etaperece generally
etasfahen - vt refer to, speak of [‘speak about’]
etasosia - gossip
etasosir - vi gossip (ak) [‘whisper about’]
etasule - particular, specific, concrete [‘solely about’]
etasulece in particular
etaž - floor, storey
etec - dabbler, novice
etëlevi - gospel [OV estë levi, ‘good news’]
Eteodäole - Eteodäole (ilian language)
etertót - argument [eto er tot, ‘this and that’]
etertotan - vi argue
etertotan eta fsë argue about everything
Eteya - Cuzeian name [eteîa ‘flower’]
Eti - Cuzeian name [Āeti ‘lake’]
Etinë - Cuzeian name [Etiniē]
etir - vi dabble
etitrát - interest, curiosity
etitre - interesting [reborrowing of HETITRES ‘awakening (interest)’; see ečitan]
eto - this one (etë eto eton) [AETTOS, from AE- ‘near’ + TOTOS]
etol - warehouse [ESTOL ‘cellar’]
eu - they are
eucar - miner [ELCAR ‘elcar’, hence ‘miner’]
eucarana - mine [ELCARANDA ‘place for elcarĭ’]
eucarát - mining
Eva - Eleďe name [OV Eva]
evede - route, trajectory, course
Évetel - son of Iriam, conqueror of Škagon [AEVETEL]
Evnica - Eleďe name [OV Evnice]
evranka - realgar (arsenic disulphide) [EVRANȞRAS ‘realgar, minium’, from Meťaiun evranȟras ‘red mineral’, which comprehended also cinnabar]
ey! - hey! ho there!
eynleyno - an Eynleyni [Sarroc enlieno]
- poetry; eloquence; literature [‘lovely-writing’]
eyure - poetic; literary; lovely, adorable [EILURES]
eyuren - vt adorn
eyurotá - bad poem
Ezecio - Eleďe name [OV Ezecia]
- the 27th letter of the Verdurian alphabet, Ž, transliterated Ž [by analogy with ek]
ež ismaë Verdurian name for the Ȥ (Ȥ) used in Ismaîn
- a Xurnese gold coin, worth about 7.5 ořulĭ [Xurnese ej]
ežcud - ugly [OV slang ežekudse ‘homely’, from ežekud ‘home’, i.e. ‘the old familiar hole’]
Eženiy - Eleďe name [OV Evgenio]
ežes - neighborhood [late colloquial *HECTENSOS ‘haunts’, from HECTES ‘familiar’]
base ezeš bad neighborhood; slum, ghetto
ežesom - homeboy, someone from the same place
ežonde - the large gold coin of Svetla, Cerei, or Hežina (the latter is properly called eždonde) [‘(coin) of Aežon’]


f- - prefix applied to prepositions, meaning ‘all’: fne, throughout
fäb - paint
fäban - vt paint [FAUBAN]
fäbát - painting (art or action)
fäbom - painter
fäboš - painting (object)
fäbrau - cosmetics, makeup
fäbrauir - vt make up, apply cosmetics [jocular expansion of fäban?]
Ila zet fäbraue She’s putting on her makeup
fäbroš - a cosmetic article, e.g. a cream or powder
fäbšue - tacky, ugly [‘badly painted’]
fac - yoke; bridle [FUACOS]
fäce - the past [FAUCAE ‘it has left’]
fäcete - adj past
facora - team, crew (orig. of oxen; extended to people) [‘group of yokes’]
faďne - patient [FAĎENES, from FAĎAS ‘patience’]
faďnesa - patience
fähe - able, capable, proficient [FAUȞES ‘potent, able’]
fäheca - ability, talent
fai - the 24th letter of the Verdurian alphabet, F, transliterated F [OV fa, from FAS; altered to contrast more with sas, voi]
faitan - vt turn, make, make to become [FAET ‘he does’, used as an emphatic, esp. in legal language; from FAR ‘do’]
faitan plene to make full, to fill
zet faitan get, become
Ce-ivro et faitne gulere That book made me angry
Čečĭ faitmu azifse imfát lë Candy will make your child fat
fako - compartment, box; package; political party; jail cell [FAȞUS ‘type of box’, from FAȞ ‘box’]
desisec fako the (parliamentary) opposition
falaře - military [FALAȞRES ‘soldierly’]
falata - army [FALAȞTA collective of FALAȞ ‘soldier’]
fale - white; of skin, the color of Xurnese and others from the far South; common name for the large silver coin in Verduria and other countries (esp. Célenor, Viminia, Lebcaizura, and Caizura) (cf. aržent) [FALILES]
falek - pawn, game piece; (literary, historical) soldier [FALAȞ, reinterpreted in OV as a diminutive]
falen - vt launder
falez - cliff [FALENS]
faliöl - light (in color) [FALILUL ‘whitened’]
falilant - anemia [FALILANTOS ‘whiteness’]
faliorta - a type of Verdurian flower, similar to a daisy [‘white-flower’]
falis - laundry
falisom - launderer
falom - white man (colloq.); used by Verdurians of the Xurnese and Skourenes; men from Moreo Ašcai or Nan living in Verduria may call the Verdurians falomĭ, but it should be remembered that prejudice on Almea is religious rather than racial
falëpëža - dove (white, more man-shy relative of fëža ) [‘white-pigeon’]
fálšue - pale, whitish
fálšuec - vi cram, study
Fálšuao cum soan plesčuran I’m cramming history
fana - stream, brook [FANDA]
fandafro - cupboard, dresser, wardrobe [‘storage-furniture’]
- dimple [‘spirit-finger’, i.e. where a fant touched you]
fanir - vt store (things); save (money) [PENIR]
fanka - brooklet, streamlet
fannáe - closet, store-room, pantry [‘storage place’]
fant - ghost, phantom; departed soul (note that Verdurian connotation is numinous, not ethereal); scruple (once seen as a ghost’s prompting) [FANTOS ‘soul’]
Tenu fant ak corpin I have a scruple against bribery
fanul - cabinet, chest
färan - vt ferry, transport (over water) [FAURAN]
Fariseo - Pharisee [OV Farisaio]
farlota - ferryboat [färan ‘ferry’ + archaic lota ‘boat’]
fařima - cage [FAȞIMA ‘small box’]
farsir - vt stuff [FARCIR]
ferior farsul stuffed chair
fasad - front [FASAD ‘in front’: ablative of FASA ‘front’]
fasadán - forward
fasadia - advancement, progress
fasadir - vi advance progress
fasco - business, affairs; occupation, industry [reborrowing of FASCEO ‘things to do’]
niruy fasco manufacturing, the industrial sector (using machines)
fascom - manufacturer
fascoš - affair, item
fascotene - busy [‘having affairs’]
fasil - easy [FASIL ‘simple, straightforward’, from FASA ‘front’]
fasileca - ease, easiness, simplicity
fäsi - exit, leavetaking; breakup
fäsir - vt leave, abandon; drop out of school [FAUCIR]
fassec - vi to do that (used as a demonstrative verbal anaphor); vt create, manufacture; make up (pres. tense IIIsg fas; past, past ant., cond. root fašš-) [FAR (roots FASC-, FASS-)]
kiel zet fas how things are done
Ke fašše? Who did that?
Ilet dan frälinan óuandan? Se fasstao Give it to the girl next door? I’ll do it
Ihano čümse com šučan? Ar, fas Ihano stinks like a pig? Yes, he does
fäsul - left, remaining; other; reaminder, rest
fäsula šalea nitrogen
faš - anger
faše - angry [FASCISES ‘busy, agitated’]
fašer - vi be angry
fašer ak soán imloëcán be angry at the landlord
fayir - vi to be necessary [FAILIR]
Faye dy prošaleei It’s necessary for you to rest
Ďesĭ aricoi tan fayü We need some beans
fayul - necessary, essential, vital
fazis - deadbeat (slang) [fas-niš ‘does nothing’]
fažolo - round bean (e.g. something like a lima bean or navy bean); ticket (due to custom of distributing colored beans as entrance tokens) [FAGIOLO]
fel - sail [PELOS]
felánt - (Sarsfahe) a small silver coin of Hežina [dialectal form of felát]
felát - sailing; the name of a small silver coin of Krasnaya, Solhai, or Curiya; also used for coins named pelant or felánt outside the countries involved[PELANTOS]
felec - vt sail [PELEC]
Felic - Eleďe name [OV Felics]
felom - sailor
femát - roughness
feme - rough [FESMES]
fëon - platform [OV ferron ‘something that holds up’]
Ferénica - Eleďe name [OV Ferenice]
ferica - funeral (pl. ferisi) [PERICA ‘mourning’]
ferien - vt bear, hold, support; (grammar) modify [FERIEN]
ferior - chair
fëre - n solid [FERIRES ‘weighty’ from FERIEN ‘bear’]
fësil - parsley [PERSIL]
fëšo - ball, dance [FERSIO ‘party’]
fetöra - province, division, e.g. the primary divisions of the kingdom of Verduria; also ‘principality,’ used of some of the smaller states of the Plain [PEŤUERA, from PEŤEN ‘divide’]
fevát - (art of) carving
fevel - (a work of) carving
fevir - vt carve [PEVIR]
fevom - carver
feyasa - pity [PEILAICA]
feyel - alms, charity [PEILEL nom. of ‘pity, show mercy’]
feyen - vt pity [PEILEN]
feyäm pitiable, miserable, wretched
zet feyen complain
Raheli ilet feyne eta so glupát lë Raheli pitied him for his stupidity
Raheli zet feyne eta so glupát lë Raheli complained about his stupidity
fëža - pigeon (medium-sized, dull-colored, herbivorous, urban bird, well-adapted to cities) [PERICTA ‘pigeon’, orig. ‘funeral entourage’ (cf. ferica), because of the birds’ walking, flocking behavior]
fežir - vt hurl, hurtle [PEGIR ‘throw’]
fičide - irritating the skin by contact [FITIDOS ‘poison ivy’]
fičidedra - poison ivy [FITIDOS + ‘ivy’]
fičidel - skin irritant
Fidra - Goddess of Night [FIDORA]
fidren - the third day of the week [OV, ‘Fidra’s day’]
Fiemo - Eleďe name [OV Filemo]
fifačic - personal attendant (pl. fifačisĭ) [PIFATIC ‘attendant’]
fifačic ševië hairdresser
fifačic uverië dresser, valet
fifačir - vt attend, wait on; take care of someone’s hair, clothes, grooming [PIFATIR, from PIFIR ‘flutter’]
Fifel - god of sexual love [PIFAEL]
fifir - vt/vi flutter, flap [PIFIR]
fik - fig [FIKOS]
fikarb - fig tree
fikši - whip [imitative]
fikšir - vt whip
fil - thread, wire; string (for musical instrument) [FIL]
Filipo - Eleďe name [OV Filippo]
findan - vt split [FINDAN]
findise - divisive; schismatic, orthodox
fintát - quality
finta - top; tip, point; crime boss
firan - vi ferment [PIRAN]
šesan firan soen vinzihen let the grapes ferment
firát - fermentation
fírita - a courtship dance
Fírita Fírita, name of a religion emphasizing the Way or the Dance
firusta - maze [From the gardens at Firusta in Irvesi]
fitrau - tomcat, male cat
fiy - fern [FILIS]
fizë - seal
fizir - vt seal [FIDIR]
flaďomë - slate [FLANĎOMILE ‘flat stone’]
flane - smell; odor
flanát - the sense of smell
flaner - vt smell (through the nose); track (by smell; of animals) [PELASNER ‘flair the nostrils’, from PELASIS ‘nostril’]
flaner sa soán mišekán rummage through the sack
flave - yellow; a large gold coin of Célenor, equivalent to the [FLAVES]
flavë [šerë] lager, a light (German-style) beer made with less peza
flavéšue - yellowish
flayka - desk; by extension, workspace, office [OV diminutive of flaya, from FLAIA ‘counter, flat workspace’]
fleád - flaid [Flaidish flaid]
fleade - adj Flaidish
fleadřon - Flaidish (language)
flegát - nursing
flegan - vt nurse, suckle [PELEGAN ‘care for’]
flegoma - wet nurse
fne - throughout
fne soan scurin throughout the country
fodro - enchantress, witch; (vulgar) bitch
fond - bottom [FONDOS]
foračia - (obscene) anal sex
foračir - vt (obscene) engage in anal sex
foračul - (vulgar) homosexual
foraven - vi swing (e.g. a pendulum) [FORȞABREN ‘move while hanging’]
forë - (obscene) asshole [*FORILE, related to FORIA ‘diarrhea’, FORIUS ‘dung’]
forhan - vt hang [FORȞAN]
forhel - curtain, drapes
forheo - suspense; hanging [reborrowing of FORȞEIO]
fori - fertile (OV name element) [OFORIS]
formica - ant (wingless colony insect) (pl. formisĭ) [FORMICA]
forno - hay [FORNO]
forte - loud [FORTES]
fortesa - loudness
foruneo - balcony [OV forhundeo, augmentative of forheo ‘hanging thing’]
fose - crane (medium-sized, stilt-legged water bird) [FOSECA]
Fove - Eleďe name [OV Foive]
föy - leaf [*FUEILIS, variant of FUELIS]
föĭ salad
foži - blaze
fožir - vi blaze [Naviu fägia ‘burn in triumph’, a word imprinted in the Caďinorians’ memories during the Naviu occupation of Ctésifon (2435)]
fraga - strawberry [FRAGAS, feminized]
frälina - maiden, virgin [‘bloom’ + fem. -ina; i.e. ‘blooming girl’]
frälir - vi bloom [FRAULIR]
frälec blooming; flagrant, shameless
fréa - faith (OV name element) [FREIA]
frirec - vi crumble; disintegrate [FRIREC]
frirel - crumb
friseo - shudder, chill, trembling, shaking
friser - vi shake, shudder, tremble [PERICER ‘shake’]
šesan friser shake (something)
froát - cold
froďac - the eleventh month [‘cold-wind’]
froďe - grim, dismal, forbidding [back-formation from froďac]
froe - cold [FROHES]
Že froe It’s cold out
fron - a (rather phallic-shaped) type of mushroom [FRONDOS]
frond - penis [reborrowing of FRONDOS (see fron)]
frue - early; prompt [FRUHES]
fsë - pronoun everything (fsë fsëi fsë fsën); n the Cosmos [PSIES]
fsëgdá - always [PSIEKEDA]
fsernáe - observation post, place for watching the enemy (which can be anything from a momentary position to a permanent fortress [PSER- ‘watch’ + ‘place’]
fset - fart
fsetec - vi fart [PSETEC ‘burst’]
fsiduisi - deceit
fsiduisir - vt deceive [‘lead falsely’]
fsiüklo - fallacy [‘false-proof’]
fsitenec - vt to hold under false pretenses [‘hold falsely’]
fsitenë - impostor
fsiy - false; disloyal [PSIS]
fsižemna - doppelgänger [‘false-twin’]
fsora - romance; courtship
Ihano primete fsora Rahelin Ihano is courting Raheli (so far unsuccessfully)
fsorer - vt go out (with), date, carry on an affair; court [PSORER ‘attend, serve’]
dešen fsorer break up (with)
Raheli fsore Ihanam Raheli is seeing Ihano
fsorora - relationship, affair
fsorul - romantic
fsuda - everywhere [PSUDA]
fsur - hunger [PSUR]
fsuran - vt hunger (for), crave
fsuran yon hungry for bread
fsurë - hungry; starving artist
fsurona - famine [FSURONDA ‘big hunger’]
fsuršuščan - vi starve (conj. like šuščan)[‘hunger-die’]
fsya - everyone (fsya fsye fsya fsyan) [PSIAT]
ftacon - element, substance; intrinsic nature; created thing; atom [PTOCONDOS ‘building block’]
ftacon iseléaky the primordial substance, eagerly sought out by magicians
ftacu - elemental (a monster whose substance is a simple element)
ftalók - ceiling [OV nominalization of PTALAN ‘cover’]
ftena - plan, design, program [PTENA]
ftenen - vt plan, design
ftore - second [PTORES]
ftoremora - galley, bireme: a heavy coastal ship [PTOREMORA; cf. REMORA]
ftorlädec - doppelganger, double [‘second-goer’]
ftoron - billion [ftore- + Caď. augmentative -OND]
ftužia - offense
ftužieme - offensive
ftužir - offend [PTUGIR ‘shove’]
ftužë offensive
fuai - I was; the fuai... forms of esan are predicative; the esnai... forms are existential
fuáy - time, repetition [*FURAILES, emphatic slang derivation of FURAS ‘instance’]
fuáy e once; once upon a time
fuáy e, kiam fuai bogaty He was rich once
fuáyul - a while, a short time
fucec - consonant [reborrowing of FUCEC ‘coloring’, calque on Cuêzi fūcatēi]
fucoš - pencil [OV fucošc ‘darkener’, from FUCAN ‘color, tint’]
fucoš dónë crayon
fufur - timid [FURFUR]
Fuli - Cuzeian name [Fuli ‘fern’]
fulüra - ink [FULGURA, from FULGO ‘soot’, as ink was made of lampblack]
fulyo - soot [FULGO]
furan - vt act, play; perform, put on (a play) [FURAN ‘feign’]
furan soi Abolineroni play the Abolinerons
furát - drama, theatre; acting
furel - performance
furnáe - theater
furom - actor
furoma actress
furomora - cast; personnel of a theater (not rigidly divided into cast and crew)
futaš - interj, n (obscene) fuck
futruir - vt (obscene) fuck [dynamic forms of FUTREN ‘fill’, from FUTES ‘full’]
füzer - n mist
fužec - vt darken (in tone) [back-formation from fužul]
fužul - dark in color; of skin color, the coloration we would call ‘black’ [FUCTUL ‘colored’, from FUCAN ‘tint’, from FUCA ‘color’]
fužula [šerë] bitter, a dark brown (English-style) beer
fužulát - darkness


Ga - Mrs., abbreviation for Graženka
gagan - vi choke [GAȞGAN]
gagan ak hostán choke on a bone
gaiec - vt form (something) [GAHILEC]
zet gaiec (im) have the form (of)
gaiei - one of the Caďinorian pagan Furies (Midei, Bunori, Šustana) [GAHILEIS ‘(female) shaper (of lives)’
galen - vt bathe (someone or something)
zet galen bathe (oneself)
gali - bath [GALIS]
galumo - bathtub [‘bath-tub’]
gambra - sea turtle (sea-dwelling shelled reptile) [GAMERA]
gamerka - testicle [OV ‘little turtle’]
Gamlël - Eleďe name [OV Gamaliel]
gar - good sense (OV name element) [GAROS]
gara - (slang) tit, boob, breast [GARRA ‘swelling’]
gararda - swelling (esp. as a medical condition) [GARRARDA ‘swelling-illness’]
garardir - vi swell
gareme - sensible, reasonable, practical [GARESMES; cf. gar ]
garemora - good sense, common sense
garka - blister [‘little swelling’]
garlo - warlock, sorceror [OV garolo ‘trickster, con man’, from GARORION ‘wise or cunning man’, from GAROS ‘sense’]
gäs - goose (large grass-eating bird, fond of lakes) [GANSOS]
gascia - leprosy (medical term) [reborrowing of GASCIA ‘spoilage, leprosy’]
gasfir - vt waste (cond. gasficelai...) [GASPIR]
gasfiy - waste
gašia - spoilage, ruin, damage [GASCIA]
gašir - vt spoil, ruin; damage [GASCIR, dialectal variant of GASPIR ‘waste’]
Gavrël - Eleďe name; the angel of the Annunciation [OV Gavriel]
Gayo - Eleďe name [OV Gaio]
gazimia - suspicion, inference
gazimir - suspect, surmise, infer [GADIMIR ‘know by deduction’, dim. of GADIR ‘know by perception’]
gazimul suspected, supposed, alleged
gažë - outrageous, unjust, oppressive; horrifying, intolerable [GAGILES, from GAȞGAN ‘choke’]
gdeon - giant [Eř dialect; from Igdeon ‘a mighty hero’, from *AECTEION ‘clan of Aecton (Aežon)’]
gécul - dungeon [GAECULOS]
gečë - net, web [GAETILE ‘thing cast’]
gečia - throw
gečir - vt throw [GAETIR ‘cast’]
gečom - vanguard; soldiers send ahead of the main force [‘throw [forward]-men’]
gëf - the twelfth letter of the Verdurian alphabet, G, transliterated G [reborrowed form of GES (OV že)]
Gelalát - Gelalát, the worhip of Gelalh
Gelál - Kezul or Kezon, chief demon in both Kezonát and tësaďát [Munkhâshi Gelálh]
gelvo - moan, groan
gelvoir - vi moan, groan
gemár - unit of volume, ten ďuroi or 4.03 l
gëméša - mortgage, lien [Kebreni gemeśa (older giemeśa) ‘primacy (of access)’]
gen - master, conqueror (OV name element) [GAENIR ‘oppress’]
genda - (m) angle [GUENDAS]
genda řodeďëse right angle
geni - bother
genir - vt bother [GAENIR ‘oppress’]
Řo et genireu Don’t bother me
genře - lacquer, lacquerware [Belesao ŋɛŋhé ‘lacquer goods’]
gent - metal [GUENTOS]
gent meiladei cobalt
gent meuciborei nickel
gent samplomei zinc
gent yešorei antimony
genturoki - metalworking
genturokec - metalworker
ger - hardly (alone, or in negated sentences) [Curiyan waigero ‘a lot’]
Řo e ger šuščat He’s hardly dead
gerak - strait [GAEREȞ]
gerišer - alleviate, soothe
- balm, relief, alleviation [GAERISIU ‘ointment’, from Cuêzi]
ges - power (OV name element) [GUESOS]
geš - crush [imitative]
gešan - vt crush, squash
gesič - a Xurnese copper coin, worth 1/10 micuš [Xasengri géčič, Xurnese géčis]
geteme - strong, powerful, with the qualities of a leader [GUENTESMES ‘like metal’]
geteta - dice (the game) [GAETELTA]
gigit - caution, shyness [imitative of stuttering]
gigitse - cautious, shy
gimen - vi abound [GUIMINEN ‘swarm’]
gimec abundant
gimen cum lapisin abound with rabbits
gimesa - abundance
gintro - sash; the sash being the badge of office in Caďinorian lands, it has come to mean the office itself; hence, the crown, the kingship [reborrowing of GINTRO]
gintro daluy king’s sash; the right to the throne
dan gintram Vlaranán give the throne to Vlaran
gintrovelan - vi (archaic) usurp [‘take-sash’]
Gintrovelne im zonán 3128 He usurped the throne in 3128
gintrovelec - usurper
gitešeli - phosphorus [Tžuro gitlešeli ‘glowing wax’]
giuro - stallion [metathesis of OV guiro, from GUHIRO]
gläca - puddle (pl. gläsĭ) [GLAUCA]
glacu - beer mug [OV glacura ‘puddler’]
glašan - vt announce [GLASCAN]
glašul - announcement, notice
glavo - broadsword; the ancient Caďinorian coin stamped with a sword; modern silver coins of Ctésifon, Solhai, or Érenat [GLABRO, from GLABREN ‘shimmer’]
glaza - lamp, lantern; (in South) torch [GLANSA ‘torch’]
gleuma - mucus (medical term); vaginal lubrication [reborrowing of GLEUMA]
gličir - vt/vi stick (together); glue [dynamic tenses of GLITAN]
gličir so behdel soan dumoran glue or stick the picture to the notebook
Soa fulüra glidre dočin lë The ink stuck to his fingers
glinát - length
glindrel - cord; small rope; belt [OV nominalization from *GLINRES ‘rather long’]
soĭ glindrelĭ harp
gliny - long; (geometry) extended along one dimension [GLINIS]
glisia - slide, glide
glisir - vi slide, glide [probably gliny ‘long’ + sisir ‘slip’]
šesan glisir soan stekanan co mettan slide the glass along the table
glispava - sled [‘slide-wagon’]
glišy - sticky [gličir + -š(u)e]
glitoš - glue [GLITOSIOS ‘sticky substance’]
glöma - snot [GLEUMA]
glonyec - vi ring (also spelled glónëc) [GLONGEC]
šesan glonyec clošán ring a bell
glupát - stupidity
glupy - stupid
glure - the large silver coin of Ismahi, worth 1 fale [Ismaîn glure ‘sword’, from GLABRO]
gluti - swallow
glutir - vt swallow [GLUNTIR]
Gn - Mr., abbreviation for Graženom
gob - (obscene) penis [GOLB ‘type of mushroom’, possibly a variant of GRIBOS]
gobačir - vi (vulgar) ejaculate
gocrea - balance sheet [Kebreni gorkreha ‘weighing’]
golë - crotch, groin [from goly; i.e. ‘something in front’]
goler - vt loot [OV goluer ‘glance over’, from GOLGOS ‘face’]
goly - front, face (of a watch or instrument); muzzle (of an animal) [GOLIOS ‘face’]
hecu golii complexion
gološ - loot
gonicore - coherent, consistent [reborrowing of GONICORES; cf. gucöre]
gorat - tower (pl. goraďi) [GORAŤ]
gorži - throat [GORGIS]
gövec - vi panic [GUEBREC ‘fear, terrorize’, from GUESOS ‘power’ + -BREN ‘move, act’]
gövesa - panic, terror [GUEBREICA]
gövtene - terrifying
grak - a small round bean (something like a garbanzo) (pl. grahĭ) [GRAIȞ]
grakok - pea [OV diminutive of GRAIȞ ‘chickpea’]
gran - border [GRANDOS]
grannáe - borderland, marches; esp. the eastern reaches of Verduria province
graven - vt rake; pillage, plunder [GRABREN ‘rake’]
graveo - pillage, plunder; raking
gravil - rake
graženom - Mister; (archaic and dialectal) citizen [‘borderlander’, a status once contrasted with ‘foreigner’]
graženka - Mrs., Miss
grel - hail [GREL]
grelan - vi hail
grib - mushroom [GRIBOS]
griman - vt pull; milk [GRIMAN]
grimoš - drawer [‘something pulled’]
grise - gray [OV griese, from Eluyet griyes ‘dark-colored horse’]
grisruda - pyrite (iron sulphide) [‘gray ore’]
gríššue - grayish; the skin color characteristic of Monkhayu and Dhekhnami
griu - wheat [GRILU]
piďë griu little wheat, a Téllinorese crop related to griu
griužina - farm-maiden [‘wheat-girl’]
grogec - vt mill, grind; n miller [GROGEC]
grognáe - mill
grognáe ab meín water mill
grognáe ab ďacán windmill
grom - thunder [GROUMBOS]
gromnát - threat, menace (abstract)
gromne - threatening, menacing [‘thunderlike’]
gromnec - vt threaten (add unaccented i before consonants: past. gromnicao, etc.)
gromnel - threat, ultimatum (utterance)
gröse - powerful (OV name element) [*GRUESES, modification of GUESRES; cf. ges]
gřonë - gruff; grumbling
gronen - vi grumble [imitative]
gruřa - turnip [GRUKRA]
gruřa Cerei rutabaga [turnip of The Port, that is, Cerei]
Řo eu gruřĭ lë It’s none of your business
gucöre - having integrity, unduplicitous, uncorrupted, conscientious [GONICORES ‘coherent’, showing confusion from cör; from Cuêzi gōnicoro]
gucöreca - integrity, incorruption
gudun - antelope, gnu (large, fleet, herbivorous herd animal, native to plains or mountains) [Western gududuŋ]
guaža - very hard wood from the Rau jungle; chronometer made using it [Rafsani gwaja]
- ford [OV guende, from GURENDA ‘crossing’]
gués - power, might [reborrowing of GUESOS]
guesse - powerful
guésise - de facto; relating to power; used when the legitimacy of the authority is not claimed, not in question, or not possessed
reďréë guésise acting minister
dalu guésise de facto king, regent
guézzovë - political
guézzovi - politics [‘power-play’]
guézzovir - vi enter into politics; negotiate; sponsor, support (politically)
So reďréë zen guézzove The minister is making a name for himself
guéžžou - politics, political method, practical politics [‘way of power’]
gula - bile; bitterness, spite [GULA]
gulere - mad, angry, ticked off (colloq.) [GULRES]
gunát - armormaking
gunče - bump
gunčec - bump, jostle [imitative]
gunë - armor [GUNILE]
gunen - vt arm; equip, provide (with weapons or tools) [GUNEN ‘supply, arm’]
gunoro - armorer
gurë - lion; lioness (large, majestic maned predator, related to čuculĭ ) [GURIE]
gurfë - scowl
gurfec - vi scowl, glare [verbalization of dialectal gura ‘wrath’; cf. gula]
guríš - wrath, anger, ire [back-formation from guriše]
guriše - angry, furious, wrathful (compared with faše, has an intensive or archaic effect) [OV gulriše ‘very angry’; cf. gula]
guryon - male lion
güsce - jungle [OV güše, altered to conform to the original GUISCUE, from Cuêzi guiscue ‘swamp, jungle’]
gust - taste, flavor
gustan - vt taste [GUSTAN]
gut - rat (small, fierce omnivore, adapted to cities, related to surĭ ) (pl. guďi) [GUŤ]
gutia - epilepsy; a fit (of madness or sickness) [reborrowing of GUTIA ‘shaking’]
gutom - punk, a small but dangerous person [‘rat-man’]
guya - (slang) prostitute


h - hour; 3h = 3 h-u = our 9:00 a.m. [abbreviation for hora]
haďi - the small silver coin of Benécia, worth an aržentul; an emur coin of Barakhún or Elkarinor [Barakhinei khath from Elkarîl kphath ‘1/2 coin’]
haleza - (m) xaleza, one of the elite guards in Xurno; hence fighter [Xurnáš xaleza, originally xáleš zalay ‘spirited warlord’]
hamunáe - component Salon of Revaudo Xurno [Xurnese xamunar]
- vi dawdle, slow down [late Caďinor ȞAURER, from ȞAUR ‘slow’]
harige - the Ismaîn diacritic ı used in ŕ (ŕ) [Ismaîn ŕige, earlier hŕige, from HARICO ‘long bean’]
Harma - Eleďe name [OV Ȟarma]
härom - slowpoke
hasifa - sulfur [ȞAMSIFA, from Meťaiun ‘hot-springs sand’; cf. Kebreni ḣansiva]
hautát - height
haute - tall; erect [ȞALTES]
hautendi - oboe [‘high-wood’]
hauttroz - halberd (pointed pole with axelike blade) [‘high ax’]
havlu - towel
hecu - nature, character; philosophy immutable essence [ȞECU, from Cuêzi xēcu ‘kind’]
hecu golii complexion
hecuise - immutable, essential
hecuiseca - immutability
hecuiseca dimei conservation of mass
hecur - unit of weight, 1/100 süro, or .6071 kg [ȞICURA ‘weight’, from ȞICET ‘amount’]
heder - raid, pillage [Curiyan hede]
- raid, barbarian incursion
- shirt [ȞENDOS ‘tunic’]
hendana - blouse
henia - Caďinorian toga [ȞENILA, from Cuêzi xeunīllâ]
hep - seven [ȞAEP]
hepato - liver [ȞEPATO]
hepdën - week [‘seven-day’]
hetima - bran, rind [dim. of ȞAETA, from Meť. ‘little skin’]
hetitre - vigilant, wary [reborrowing of HETITRES]
heto - shrimp [ȞENTO, from Meť.]
hežaď - Guardian (Caďinorian myth) [‘guardian god’]
hežan - vt guard (a country, treasure, dependents, etc.; see akřaner) [ȞEGIAN]
hežan ak dascoin guard against animals
Eř hežanei! Watch out!
hežeo - guard
hežiosa - (m) Guardian (Eleďe angelology) [‘guardian power’]
hežom - guard, guardian
hicet - number; tally, score [reborrowing of ȞICET ‘sums’, from Cuêzi xicē ‘sum, amount’. Both words were generally used in the plural: compare our “What’s the results?”]
hicetan - vt count, sum; tally (up), score
hiceteviso - mathematics [‘study of numbers’]
hičeme - astute, shrewd [‘tending to craftiness’]
hičy - cunning, crafty, sly [ȞITRIS ‘dexterous’]
hifcu - hickory nut [ȞIVICU, from Cuêzi xiviciu ‘with claw’, after its shape]
hifcuarb - hickory tree
hinalek - the large silver coin of Benécia, worth 1 fale; an elcarin coin worth a bit less [Barakhinei khinaluk, with the ending reinterpreted as an OV diminutive; from Elkarîl nkhinîluq]
hinát - geography, anthropology [‘study of lands,’ from ȞUNOS ‘land’]
hip - prep below, under [ȞUPE]
hip soan mettan under the table
hip altun under a tyrant
hip ëdičán under a spell
hipán - adv downward; downstairs
hipbrak - armpit [‘under arm’]
hipco - prep down
esan hipco soan uletoran be down the stairs
lädan hipco soa uletora go down the stairs
hipcont - viscount
hipcrivan - vt sign; approve (a law or form) [‘under-write’]
hipcrivel - signature; (official) approval
hipcuraye - skeptical; jaded, world-weary; distrustful of people, received wisdom, or of human reason itself [‘subrational’]
hipcurec - vt uphold, support; finance, fund [‘under-hold’]
hipdalom - consul [‘under-ambassador’]
hipdalomnáe - consulate
hipeže - below average, substandard; (ratios) less than 1 [ȞUPEHECTES ‘under the ordinary’]
hiplädan - vt descend, climb down [‘go down’]
hiplädeca - descent
hiplimura - a dress exposing the breasts [‘under breasts’]
hipmizec - endorse, vouch for [‘under-day’]
hipmizo - endorsement
hipnaga - sole [‘under foot’]
hipom - underling
hiponto - homage [‘show under’]
hippoča - underground
hippoče - underground, beneath the surface [‘under soil’]
hipřanec - (colloq.) bather; (slang) lush, sot, drunkard [‘soaker’]
hipřaner - vi/vt soak; steep (e.g. tea); go wading, go bathing; (slang) get drunk [‘keep under(water)’]
hipsalďir - vt undergo, submit to, suffer, be subject to [‘under-feel’]
hipsalďir dabilát submit to undressing
hipsyele - earthly [‘under-sky’]
hiptošeo - deficit; (illness caused by) a lack of an element [ȞUPETOSCEIO ’deficit’]
hipzëre - submarine, underwater [‘under’ + ‘marine’]
Hírumor - largest of Ënomai’s planets [ȞIRUMOR]
hižena - row; (battle) front [ȞIGENA]
Hloe - Eleďe name [OV Ȟloe]
hočicu - locust (tree) [ȞOTILICU, from Cuêzi xôtilliciu ‘with teeth(-like leaves)’]
hora - hour; act (of a play) [ȞORA]
horora - timetable, schedule
horteleo - clock [‘hour-instrument’]
horže - barley [ȞORGE]
host - bone; (slang) nerve, chutzpah [ȞOSTOS]
hostidorde - socket (for a bone) [reborrowing of ȞOSTIDORDE, from Cuêzi xôtidorde ‘bone-hollow’]
hostora - skeleton [ȞOSTORA]
hornáe - hotel [because time was charged by the hour]
hotonen - vi stay, be staying [ȞONTONDEN ‘take shelter’, from ȞONTOS ‘shelter’]
mifan hotonen put (someone) up
hotonen ne domán dalomei to stay at the ambassador’s
hotu - guest [back-formation from hotonen]
hoyan - although
hozënát - trust, stewardship, duty
hozën - steward; host, head of a household; jefe; warden; prosecutor (official who argues the king’s case)
hozësan - vt entrust; put in charge; put in the hands of
hozësan so hutor meďán zië put one’s son in charge of the farm
hribret - permit, license (also spelled ribret) [ȞRIBET ‘permits’— how the permits typically begin]
h-š - PM [hora šveze, hour of the afternoon]
h-u - AM [hora utrei, hour of the morning]
hüan - vi sigh [imitative]
huca - oracle (pl. husĭ) [ȞUCUA ‘god’s lodging’]
huepát - equality; mathematical formula
huepe - equal [reborrowing of ȞUEPES]
huepen - vt equal; match
huepcot - balance; equal sign [‘equal sides’]
hum - passions; guts, cran; seat of passions, emotions and drive; intestines (part of quadripartite soul) [ȞUMOS]
so hum falate the morale of the army
humarda - mania, rage, frenzy [‘disorder of the passions’]
- peninsula [ȞUNODOTIS ‘land-finger’]
hundusil - caring only for material things; wordly, corrupt [‘hum-driven’]
hunnačal - spiritual discipline or observance; self-mastery
hunnačalan - vi observe spiritual disciplines; master oneself [‘rule (over) passions’]
hunsira - continent; mainland [ȞUNOCIRA ‘mainland’]
- excitement, eagerness
huntene - excited, eager; nervous [‘has passion’]
hupa - halfling, dwarf [ȞUPUA]
hupetan - compose (music) [ȞUPETAN, from Cuêzi]
- composition
hupibu - the great tufted owl (cf. sasavi) [‘tuft-owl’]
hupo - tuft (of grass or hair) [unknown origin; poss. from hupa]
hurin - an elcarin gold coin, worth about 1.5 ořulĭ; a similar coin of Hroth and Barakhún [Barakhinei, from Elkarîl khurind ‘that makes six’]
husil - genuine, real [ȞUCIL ‘prophetic’, from ȞUCUA ‘god’s lodging’]
E husilece žombrec It’s downright frightening
husten - vi cough [ȞUSTEN]
husti - cough
hutor - farm [ȞUTOR]
hutoran - vt farm
hutorát - farming, agriculture; peasantry
hutorom - farmer
hutorsnugá - farmhand [‘farm-servant’]
huvec - dyer
huven - vt dye, tint [HUBREN ‘immerse’, lit. ‘put under’, from ȞUPE ‘under’]
huvima - pill [medieval Caďinor ȞUVIMA dim. of ‘egg’]
huvon - egg [ȞUVONDOS, augmentative of ȞUVOS ‘egg’]
huvon pisul omelette
huvoš - dye
hüy - sigh [imitative]
huyomyaso - chicken meat [‘chicken-meat’]
huyon - chicken (domesticated grain-fed bird) [ȞUVILONDOS, augmentative of ȞUVIL ‘chicken’, literally ‘the eggy one’— cf. huvon]
h-v - hour of the evening [hora vëčerei]


i - of (takes nominative)
nabro i Sankaše captain of the ‘Dreadnought’
so Reďreo i Belgo the Minister of War
soa žuca i Elena the role of Elena
soa dálua i Célenor the kingdom of Célenor
i - the 5th letter of the Verdurian alphabet, I, transliterated I [I]
i brevë the 6th letter of the Verdurian alphabet, Y, transliterated Y
Iain - Iáinos, God [IAINOS, from Cuêzi Iáinos]
Iason - Eleďe name [OV Iason]
ibu - owl (large nocturnal predatory bird) [HIBU]
Icadita - Cuzeian name [Îcaditē ‘longed for child’]
icë - present, here [AIKEDIE, northern dialect form, from AE- ‘near’ + KEDIE ‘where’]
icëlan - icëlan (small, primitive, wood-dwelling human-like race)
icëlana - icëlana, nymph
Iceleď - Cuzeian name [Îcēiledan ‘desire God’]
Icovo - Eleďe name [OV Iacovo]
idiko - peculiarity [reborrowing of IDIKO ‘distinguishing feature’]
idikós - special
iduräm - desirable, attractive
Řo lele so iduräm cečel I don’t see the attraction there
iduran - vt desire [reborrowing of IDURAN; cf. zuran]
iduret - writ, court order [IDURET SUDROS ‘The court desires’, first words of many a court document]
idureo - desire
Iesu - Jesus; Joshua [OV Iesus]
Iesu Krist, Iesu Eleď Jesus Christ
iëžu - feather [IECTU]
if - whichever, -ever
ifcë - wherever (ifcëi ifcëm ifcën)
ifke - whoever (declined like ke)
ifkecot - person, verb form [‘whichever form’]
ifkiam - wherever, ever
ifkiel - however, in whatever way
ifkiel lelai so far as I can see, however I look at it
ifkio - whatever (declined like kio)
ifprokio - for whatever reason
igožë - slaughter
igožen - vt slaughter [IGOGEN, from Kaino igEgEn ‘kill many men’, cognate to KEKAN]
Ihana - Eleďe name [OV Ioanna]
Ihano - Eleďe name [OV Ioanno]
ihtüan - vi fish [IȞŤUIS ‘fish’]
ihtüec - fisherman
ikabe - stunted, runtish [intensive *ISKABES, from KABES ‘runt’]
il - it
ila - she [ILLA ‘that’]
ilacrio - lamentation
ilacrir - vi lament [‘make to cry’]
ilacrir eta lebi cry over the news
iladil - the large silver coin (worth about 3/4 fale) of Barakhún, Mútkün, and Hroth [Barakhainei ilôdil ‘silvery’,pronounced iládil in southern dialect.]
ilan - her (dat.)
ilat - her (acc.)
ilavren - vi stay, remain (something)
ilavri - stasis; stagnation; equilibrium
Ilávrinor - Limbo [‘place of stasis’]
ilë - ilian
ilëgárda - menstruation [ILIAGARDA ‘moon disorder’]
ilëgárden - vi menstruate
iler - it (acc.)
ilet - him (acc.)
ili - moon (OV name element) [ILIS ‘shiny’]
Iliacáš - Iliacáš, the lesser moon [ILIACOS + augmentive]
Iliažë - Iliažë, the greater moon; any moon [ILIAGILE, indirect form (due to taboo) of ILIAGES, name of a god and of this moon, from ILIS ‘shiny’ + GES ‘god’]
iliažyoš - month
caďinĭ iliažyošĭ Caďinorian calendar
ilisea - an iliu woman [iliu + -sea]
- iliu [ILIU, from Cuêzi]
ilon - it (dat.)
ilneo - prelate, bishop [Avélan dialect; from late Caďinor IRLEION ‘overseer’]
iloša - arch [ILOSCA]
ilošora - arcade
ilu - he [ILLU ‘that’]
ilun - him (dat.)
ilura - wrist [ILURA]
iluti - quartz [ILONTIS]
iluvan - vi shine [ILUBRAN, from ILIS ‘shiny’]
iluvan sur trava shine on the grass
iluve - shining, shiny
im - in, inside, into [IM]
im soan mažtanan in the city
im soa mažtana into the city
im zonán 3480 in the year 3480
im sramán in a state of shame
zet gaiec im launán have the shape of a circle
im- - (as pronominal prefix) just inside, on the inside of; as verbal prefix means ‘in’ or makes a verb transitive
imsur soan fakon just inside the top of the box
imagrenir - vt persuade, convince [‘make to believe’]
imalten - vi accede [‘make high’]
imalten ad gintron accede to the throne
imaltena - accession
imameto - investiture [‘bringing in’]
Imameto demeče Investitute of Spring (pagan festival)
imán - adv inward
imanen - vt unite (others), bring unity [‘into one’]
imanul united
zet imanen unite together
imanižen - vt cool, chill [‘make cool’]
zet imanižen cool down, get cold
imatunen - house, lodge [‘into a room’]
imazipan - vt fatten [‘make fat’]
zet imazipan get fat
imbarucir - vt lay down, set down, put [‘make to lie down’]
imbasen - vt lower [‘make low’]
zet imbasen abase oneself; squat
imbasulen - vt lower slightly
zet imbasulen crouch, stoop
imbeman - vt teach [‘(put) into the head’]
imbemát - teaching
imbemec - teacher
imbežir - vt fix, repair [‘make to move’]
imbinea - register
imbineyen - vt list, register [‘(put) into the list’]
imbineyul registered; incorporated
imbogatir - vt enrich (someone) [‘make rich’]
zet imbogatir get rich
imbolëo - enlargement, expansion; commentary
imbolyen - vt enlarge, expand [‘make big’]
zet imbolyen expand, spread, get bigger
imbolyec - commentator
imborden - vt frame [‘(put) within a frame’]
imbraki - vt embrace [‘in one’s arms’]
imbrakir - vt embrace
zet imbrakir embrace each other
imbresen - vt wrap; bandage [‘into strips of cloth’]
imbrevë - summary, outline, profile
- vt shorten; summarize [‘make short’]
imbrugen - vt twist; disturb [‘make twisty’]
imbrugul disturbed, neurotic
imbruse - famished, ravenous; consuming
imbruřen - vt devour, consume [‘into the belly’]
imbünát - the violence inherent in the system
imbušan - vt savor [‘in the mouth’]
zet imbušan be savory or tasty
imbušäm - tasty, savory [‘to be savored’]
imčelan - vt arrange [‘(put) into place’]
zet imčelan arrange itself, sort itself out
imčelát - arrangement [‘(be) in between’]
imčisir - vt sharpen [‘make sharp’]
imčor - confluence
imčoran - vt flow into, join (of rivers etc.) [‘flow into’]
imčuzát - rip-off, scam
imčuzen - vt screw, rip off; get into trouble; tick off; emmerder [‘(put or get) into shit’]
zet imčuzen get ripped off, be screwed
Et vuleu imčuzen? You trying to screw with me?
imčužen - vt stiffen [‘make stiff’]
zet imčužen get stiff
imegren - embitter, sour [‘make sour’]
imëlen - vt inspire, arouse [yela, idea]
imelilan - vt invigorate [im + elil ‘vigorous’]
imelirec - vt indwell [‘live in’]
Aď imelirë the Holy Spirit
imepan - vt enable, allow one to do
So ëdič tan imepe sfahen dascoin The spell enables us to speak to animals
imesan - vt occupy (regular verb), reside [‘be in’]
imesát - occupation, residence
imfalë - bleach, whitener
imfalir - whiten, bleach [‘make white’]
imfát - child [IMFANTOS, originally IMFANTUL ‘(newly) ensouled’, from FANTOS ‘soul’]
imfát (ya) prosec toddler
imfatë - childhood
imfayir - vt logically require; entail [‘in’, used as an intensive, + ‘be necessary’]
zet imfayir to make oneself indispensible
Ci-uleta imfaye soa prošä This step logically demands the next
Imfayu so alyom I can’t do without garlic
Soa reďréë zet imfayre dalun The minister made himself indispensible to the king
imgaran - vt talk sense into, set straight [‘make sensible’]
zet imgaran wise up, come to one’s senses
Imiri - a messenger of Išira, and the name of a planet [IMIRIDETE, from Cuêzi Rimidête (= the planet)]
imivren - vt register [‘(put) into a book’]
iml - abbreviation for imbineyul, registered
imlažel - detail, attribute [‘inside item’]
imlebát - renovation, renewal
imleben - vt renew, renovate [‘make new’]
zet imleben renew itself, be renewed
imlëdan - vt straighten (something), arrange
zet imlëdan straighten (oneself)
imleleë - appearance
imlelel - publication; exhibition, display
imlelen - vi appear, vt exhibit, display; publish; make to appear [‘make to see’]
zet imlelen show off, make a spectacle of oneself; self-publish
imlelul - exhibitor
imlëne - straight [‘in line’]
imlengen - lengthen, prolong (in time)
imletuen - precinct; grounds, lot [‘within the walls’]
imletuen imřemul consecrated lands; holy ground
imlicren - vt impoverish [‘make poor’]
imloën - vt rent out; what the lessor does [‘make to rent’]
imloëc landlord
immelioran - vt improve [constructed from Caď. MELIOR ‘better’]
zet immelioran improve oneself
immeliorát - improvement
immëria - encouragement
immërir - encourage; embolden, incite [‘make fiery’]
- vt stick, insert [‘put in’]
immeyan - vt baptize; immerse [‘(put) into the water’]
zet immeyan be baptized
immeyo - baptism; immersion
immezinen - vt set in order, ready; clean up [‘(put) into order’]
zet immezinen get oneself ready or in order
immišen - vt pack [‘into bags’]
Ya immišnai I’m all packed
immočir - vt corrupt; tempt, lead into vice [‘make rotten’]
zet immočir become corrupted
immolec - pusher, dealer [‘softener’]
immolen - vt soften [‘make soft’]
zet immolen become soft
immorzen - vt freeze
zet immorzen become frozen
imnišan - vt annihilate [‘make nothing’]
imnižny - overwhelming
imnižnyen - vt overpower, overwhelm, force to submit [‘make helpless’]
imocan - vi start, begin [‘make to become’]
imocan noyer begin drowning
imoligec - vt group, gather [‘(put) into a group’]
imoligec soi suspilaveci cum soin duavecin group the suffering with the sinful
zet imoligec get together, group (themselves)
imora - digestion [im- + ora collection]
impažaken - vt map [‘(put) into a map’]
impisel - envelope, folder
impiser - vt envelope, encompass, involve [‘fold in’]
impiteo - absorption, incorporation
impitir - vt absorb, incorporate [‘drink in’]
implican - vt imagine, picture [reborrowing of IMPLICAN ‘imitate inside’]
implicát - imagination
- image, picture; something imagined [IMPLICEL]
impočel - burial, planting
impočen - vt plant, bury [‘into ground’]
zet impočen (slang) pass out drunk
imprenan - vt concern, affect; embroil, involve [prenan ‘take’]
Řo eř imprene It’s none of your business
imprenát - concern, interest
imprilát - accomplishment, fulfillment
imprilen - vt accomplish, fulfill, realize, achieve [‘make real’]
improsiřan - scandalize, outrage
- vt print [‘press in’]
impuyát - printing
impuyec - printer
impuyoš - press
imretan - vi extend [‘into the distance’]
imriasni - inner thigh
imräfë - n reformer; adj progressive, liberal (concerned with rights or justice)
imräfec - vt reform, revolution [‘make just’]
So řucor řo zet imräfte nikagdá The government will never reform
imräfát - reform
imröma - customs [‘in-count’]
imrömora - customs-house
imřeman - vt consecrate, sanctify
aďnáe imřemula Iširan a temple dedicated to Išira
imřisan - vt free [‘make free’]
zet imřisan free oneself
imscrifel - thaumaturge, magician; apprentice; initiate [‘into knowledge’]
imseltan - vt admit, confess, profess, reveal, realize [‘(place) in the light’]
zet imseltan (of things) be revealed, come out, be exposed
imsemizi - inner part of arm
imseoran - vt purify [‘make clean’]
zet imseoran purify oneself
imseorát - purification
imsfëzan - freshen, refresh [‘make fresh’]
insiran - vi incarnate (in Eleďát) [im + Cuêzi sīra ‘flesh’, calqued on Greek]
- incarnation
imsisir - vt polish [‘make slippery’]
imsusan - vt dig, delve [‘into ground’]
imsuvan - vt affect, influence, change [‘make to follow’]
imšagir - vt empty, empty out; exhaust, deplete [‘make empty’]
imšešen - vt dry [‘make dry’]
zet imšešen dry, dry out, dry off
imšoruan - vt darken (remove light) [‘make dark’]
zet imšoruan get dark
imumbrir - vt steal (especially at night) [formation from imumbrom]
imumbrom - burglar [‘man in the shadows’]
imuran - vt obey [‘in the clay’; i.e. prostrate oneself]
imurát - obedience
imutoran - vt tame [im- ‘make’ + hutor ‘farm’; e.g. make suitable for the farm]
imuveren - vt put on, don [‘into one’s clothes’]
imuveren pautam put on one’s coat
imvalitan - vt knock down [‘make to fall’]
imvoitec - vt penetrate [‘enter in’]
imyasnát - explanation
imyasnen - vt explain, make clear [‘make clear’]
zet imyasnen become clear
imzolát - fortitude
imzolan - vt strengthen [‘make strong’]
zet imzolan become stronger
imzulen - rejoice
imželea - reassurance, confidence
imželen - vt calm; reassure, confirm [‘make calm’]
zet imželen become calm; reassure oneself, put one’s mind at ease
Řo vulu sul et imželen dy e oresta I just want to reassure myself that it’s true
imživát - animation, promotion
- animate, enliven; promote, campaign for [‘make lively’]
- vt execute (laws, plans) [‘make revered’]
incapiye - execution
inceldan - vt import [‘trade in’]
inclaë - famous
inclaesa - fame
inclair - vt publicize, make famous; brighten [‘(put) into brightness’]
zet inclair become famous or well-known
incoren - hostage [im coren, in the court]
increšir - vt grow, make larger [‘make grow’]
incretir - vt gladden [‘make glad’]
increžec - parasitic [‘in-eating’]
increžoš - parasite
incrivan - inscribe [‘write in’]
incrivel - inscription
incruyan - vt wind, coil, wrap [‘make tight’]
zet incruyan wind or wrap itself
incudec - vt intrude; interfere with; push one’s way into [‘elbow in’]
incudeca - intrusion
incučec - vt invade [‘attack into’]
incučeo - invasion
incurec - vt impress [‘hold in’]
ind - pepper [HINDOS]
indaluát - coronation [‘make into a king’]
indečia - constriction, tightening
indečir - vt constrict, tighten [INDETIR]
indësan - vt call into being, create [‘make exist’]
indobren - vt adjust, adapt [‘make good’]
zet indobren adjust or adapt oneself
indolir - vt dig [‘make hollow’]
induman - vt note, record, remark (to oneself) [‘into a note’]
induman soa celsfaha record the conversation
indunea - energizing, revitalization, replenishment; small meal
induneen - energize, revitalize, replenish [‘make energetic’]
induran - vt harden, strengthen [‘make hard’]
zet induran get harder
indurnen - vt worsen [‘make bad’]
zet indurnen get worse, fall off
inďayec - vt correct [‘make right’]
zet inďayec correct itself
inďësen - vt flatten [‘make flat’]
imďitel - intersection [‘in (both) roads’]
imďitelan - intersect
inďulan - vt direct, conduct, lead; tutor; smooth [‘make smooth’]
zet inďulan get smooth
inďulom - director, manager; tutor
ineča - astringent (a binding or tightening substance) [INDETIA; cf. indečir]
inglinir - lengthen (in space)
ingriman - vt draw; get, receive [‘pull in’]
innesan - vt found, establish [‘make to be born’]
zet innesan be founded
innülen - vt curl [‘make curled’]
inteno - ingredient, element [‘have in (it)’]
inteřen - vt solidify [‘make solid’]
intorát - division, partition
intoran - vt divide; share [‘(put) into parts’]
intosen - vt/vi condense; form dew; (genteelism) perspire [‘make dew’]
intošen - vt warm [‘make warm’]
zet intošen get warm
inyát - kindness
inye - kind [INGES]
ionile - feminine gender [reborrowing of IONILES ‘female’]
Iori - Cuzeian name [Yeōre ‘river’]
Iorio - Eleďe name [OV Georgio, Yeorio]
iortan - vi flower [reborrowing of IORTAN]
Iosif - Eleďe name [OV Yosef]
iosil - merciful
iosu - mercy; royal pardon or reduction in sentence [reborrowing of IOSU]
iosu! alas!
prodan iosum tyurmulán grant a pardon to the prisoner
iosul - favor; slang iosul [‘small mercy’]
onten iosul (+ dat.) do a favor (for someone)
gečir iosul (+ dat.) give (someone) a bribe
atäpan iosul (+ gen.) accept a bribe (from someone)
Vulu tun preser iosul I want to ask you for a favor
iovu - nomad [Western yowu, ‘horseman’]
ir - prep above, over; rather than; adj upper [IR]
ir etaldán above the plain
ir bemán (esë) over my head
ir ilon, ir totán instead (of that)
Ditavai esan ruket ir sfican I’d rather be a hammer than a nail
so ira Svetla the upper Svetla
iräme - insolent, impertinent, impudent, presumptious [IRRAUMNE ‘above one’s rank’]
irämea - insolence, impudence
- adv upward, upstairs
irbeďir - survey, review [‘observe from above’]
irbeďo - survey, review
irco - prep up [‘up along’]
lädan irco soa prosiam go up the street
irďa - crop [IREŤA]
irďimo - yield [‘sum of the crop’]
írece - up
irenža - savannah, veldt, tropic plain; in particular, the savannah west of Verduria [Irinja, name given to this area by a Rafsani tribe]
ires - control
iresan - vt control (regular verb) [‘be above’]
ireste - dominating, overarching, supreme; (being) a Great Power
irestát - greatness over all, domination; Great Power status [‘above-great’]
irestát lë your majesty (term of address for royalty)
iretaž - attic [‘floor above’]
irevolu - mustache [‘above beard’]
ireže - extraordinary, superb; uncommon, above average; (ratios) greater than 1 [IRHECTES ‘above the ordinary’]
irežer - vt highlight, feature, showcase
Iri - Eleďe name [OV Iri]
Iriam - Iriam Pere-iliu, Iriam the first of the iliĭ [Cuêzi Iriand]
iripan - vt capsize (something), turn over [‘over-under’]
iripul upside-down
zet iripan capsize, turn upside-down
irlädan - vt climb [‘go up’]
irlädeca - ascent
irlelë - oversight, supervision
irlelen - vt oversee, supervise; overlook [IRLEILEN ‘watch over’]
irprile - surrealist [‘beyond the real’]
irränë - superior [‘upper rank’]
Irrean - Irrean (Flaid philosopher) [Flaidish ʔirran]
Irreanát - Irreanism
irreanom - Irreanist
irtekát - rebellion
irteker - vi rebel, revolt [‘stand up (to)’]
irtëse - supreme [‘over all’]
irtošeo - (illness caused by) an excess of an element; overdose [IRTOSCEIO ’surplus’]
irzina - leech (eel-like, bloodsucking, swamp-dwelling fish) [HIRUDINA]
irzinen - vt bleed (a patient)
irzoväm - prize [‘to be won’]
irzovec - vt win; vi beat, defeat [‘overplay’]
irzovec šendum win a game
irzovec ecuni drukán zië beat a friend at knights-and-kings
irzovi - win, victory
iřodom - hallowed, holy [IȞODOM ‘sacred’, from IȞODEC ‘sanctify’]
is - prep out of (always takes dat.) [IS]
is mažtanan out of the city
is onoalen off the spectrum
so muďe bogaty is beomin the richest of the barons
druk is esë one of my friends
Isac - Eleďe name [OV Isaac]
isceldan - vt export [‘trade out’]
iscreniora - temperament, disposition
iscrenir - vi feel (with heart), act; vt appreciate, feel gratitude for (a gift or gesture)
iscreniy - feeling, sentiment [ISCRENILIS, from IS ‘out of’ + CRENIS ‘innards’]
iscruir - vt loosen [is + cruy ‘tight’]
zet iscruir get loose
iscun - simple, clear; prose; common, commoner [ISECUN]
iscuna - simplicity, clarity
iscuncrivát - prose, simple style; (prose) literature [‘simple-writing’]
iscunlerë - obvious, known to all ; commonplace, exoteric [see leria]
-ise - suffix often used to form adjectives; e.g. sirise physical
isecaiven - vi flee, escape [‘out of horror’]
isecaivec refugee
isecaiven až tšurán flee from the fire
isčešen - vt peel, shell, strip (remove hard or heavy covering) [‘(take) out of its shell’]
zet isčešen shed, strip off (a shell, armor, etc.)
isčuzen - vt save one’s ass, get the hell out (strong form of istusen) [‘out of the shit’]
iseléaku - source, raw material, matrix [‘out of element’]
iseléaky - elemental, primordial
isežesom - outsider [‘outside of the neighborhood’]
isfařimen - vt uncage, unleash; loose [‘out of cage’]
isfölen - vt peel, strip (remove a light or leafy covering) [‘(take) out of leaves’]
Soa frälina zet isfölne The girl stripped
isgriman - extract [‘pull out’]
isindolir - vt dig up, uncover [‘out-dig’]
- exclamation; exclamation mark !
iskričen - vi exclaim, cry out [‘cry out’]
iskuša - temptation [ISKUSIA, from IS used as an intensifer + KUSIA ‘bite’]
iskušen - vt tempt
islaunë - (grammar) infinitive [‘outside the circle’, that is, undeclined]
isleleë - disappearance
islelen - vi disappear, vanish [‘out of sight’]
isletuen - vt forbid [‘(put) outside the walls’]
isletuul forbidden
ismaë - adj Ismaîn
Ismaë - n Ismaîn
Ismaën - the Ismaîn language [Ismaîn Ismaîn]
Ismai - Ismahi [Ismaîn Ismahi]
ismarise - legitimate (child) [‘out of marriage’]
ismetan - omit [‘put out’]
ismetát - omission
isnečan - vt disenchant, dispel [‘out of spell’]
isoncre - irregular, exceptional [ISONCRES ‘eccentric’, lit. ‘out of the herd’]
isoncrel - an irregularity, an exception
ispolnir - vt skin [‘out of skin’]
ispuyan - vi ejaculate [‘push out’]
ispuyo - ejaculation
isscurin - abroad [‘out of the country’]
issirec - vt unroll; tell (a story) [is + siirec ‘roll’]
zet issirec unroll (itself)
issirula - fable, anecdote, story (with connotations of artlessness or improvisation)
istričec - vi protrude, stick out [‘poke out’]
istusen - vt unmire, disentangle [‘out of the mud’]
zet istusen get out of trouble (once or habitually), get by, se débrouiller, dar um jeito
istusse - resourceful, worldly, knowing a trick or two
isu - enough; such (that); (slang) very
isu...dy so...that
isuväm - payable [‘to go out’]
isuvát - date, rendez-vous
sudir isuvát make a date
imprilen isuvát keep a date
isuvea - departure, exit, launch
isuven - vi go out, leave [ISUBREN, verbal derivative of IS ‘out’]
isuvuan - vt release, let go; fire; launch [dynamic tenses of ISUBREN]
isvarëcan - vt rescue [‘(take) out of danger’]
isvarëcno - rescue
išan - vt search, search for [ISCAN]
išária - paradise (Caďinorian mythology) [ISCARIA ‘place to be sought’]
išát - search
išet - solemn, grave, serious [ISIEŤ]
išetát - solemnity
išfahec - vt predict [‘say before’]
Išira - goddess of Light [ISCIRA, from proto-Eastern asi-γīra ‘noble lady’]
Išire - a planet; the ninth month [genitive of Išira]
išísia - escape
išisir - vi escape [ISCISIR ‘slip out’]
išisec escaped, escaping; escapee, fugitive
išisir is tyurman escape from prison
išnugá - handmaid [‘before-servant’]
iššalea - vanishing, disappearance
iššalean - vi vanish; cease to exist [‘out of the air’]
iššelát - loss
iššelec - vt lose [‘out of place’]
zet iššelec get lost
iššelsira - leprosy [‘lose flesh’]
iššelsirom - leper
iššesán - adv out, from home [is žesán, out of one’s home]
iššor - outlet [is out of + čor flow]
iššrifel - guess
iššrifec - vi guess [ICTESCRIFEC ‘foretell, predict’]
išumen - vt exclude, shun [ISCUMEN ‘send away’ from IS ‘out of’ + CUMA ‘hearth’]
itësi - worry, anxiety
itësir - vi worry [ITENCIR]
itësir eta kiscarda worry about impotence
itësir and marisán zië worry about one’s husband
itëšše - anxious, worried
itian - spirit, soul, being (entire soul); will, heart (part of quadripartite soul) [OV ičan, ičyan, from ITIRAN ‘spirit’, from Cuêzi itīran ‘heart’ (believed to be seat of soul); modified to bring the word closer to its classical and Cuzeian origins]
Itian Nëron Holy Spirit
itian partore quadripartite soul
itianise - spiritual; immateral, relating to mind or spirit as opposed to matter
Iulia - Eleďe name [OV Iulia]
Iulio - Eleďe name [OV Iulio]
iveri - winter [HIBRERIS]
ivrec - vt read [IBREC]
ivro - book [IBRO]
ivrora - bookseller’s shop
ivrosäte - library
iy - or, either [ILI]
iyotra - otherwise [‘or-else’]
izbanen - vt confound, foil, screw up [‘(put) off the road’]
izgečë - n remark, comment; footnote
izgečir - vi remark, comment [‘throw out’]
izvlagen - vt unsheathe [‘out-sheathe’]
izziëcen - vt deprive, defraud [‘out of one’s property’]
izziëcsát - jealousy, envy
izziëcse - jealous, envious
- prep before (time) [ICTE]
iž prandon before dinner
ižcrifel - past anterior tense [‘before past’]
iždesider - vt prearrange, pre-order, reserve [‘order before’]
ížece - adv before
ižeďe - previous, prior, former [ICTEĎES, adjectival form of ICTE ‘before’]
ižefsë - adv especially, most of all [‘before all’]
ižlädan - vt precede [‘come before’]
ižlelen - vt foresee [‘see before’]
ižmetan - vt prepare [‘put before(hand)’]
zet ižmetan ak lancan prepare oneself for disaster
ižmetát - preparation
Ižoräne - Purgatory, in Eleďe doctrine [‘before Heaven’]
ižplatel - prepayment, advance
- vt prepay, pay as an advance [‘pay before’]
ižžoren - vi/vt take precautions, assure (by forethought); make arrangements (for) [‘before-secure’]
ižžoresa - precaution [‘before-safety’]
- foreplay [ ‘before’ + žovi ‘play’]
ižovir - vi indulge in foreplay
ižprando - cocktail [‘before meal’]
ižprandora - cocktail party
Ižžon - Foreyear Day [ ‘before’ + zon ‘year’]


kabakaba - noise [imitative]
Kabedor - a First Age archdemon
kačan - adj, n Kačanzan
Kačanza - Kačanza [from Kačanzan]
kadul - (slang) ass, behind [diminutive of KADOS ‘buttocks’]
kadulolf - (slang) brown-noser [‘ass-nose’]
kaduloma - (slang) piece of tail, girl with a nice ass
kadutoc - anal sex
kadutocan - vi have anal sex [‘touch ass’]
kaë - who (pl.) [KAHE]
Kahinisa - Kahinisa, the language of ancient Kaino [reborrowing of KAHINISA, from Kahinisa Kahina (cognate to Caďinas) + nominalization -isa]
kai - lucky (OV name element) [KARIU]
kal - forum, assembly [KAL]
Mažtane Kal Verdurian City Forum
Kaino - Kaino [KAHINO, from Kahinisa Kahina, cognate to Caďinas]
kallogát - rhetoric, oratory
kallogi - speech [‘forum words’]
kallogom - speaker, orator
kaltén - thief [Elkarîl nqîltêm ‘burglar’]
kaltenát - thievery
kanheu - outlander [Barakhinei kankhu ‘stranger’, ultimately from Cuêzi cānexe ‘odd’]
kansile - (grammar) correlative; (publishing) index [reborrowing of KANSILE ‘pointer’, from KANSEC ‘point’]
kapro - goat (medium-size, wooly domesticated omnivore; natural habitat: hills and mountains) [KAPRO]
Kano - Eleďe name [OV Luciano]
karim - n, adj Qarau
Karimia - land of Qaraus; Verdurian colony within it
karyu - grace [KARIU ‘blessedness, favor’, from KAR ‘happy’]
karyu ženei general welfare, the common good
kascia - eclipse [reborrowing of KASCIA ‘hiding’]
kascir - vt eclipse
zet kascir be eclipsed
kasten - leap-day [‘hidden day’]
zon kastenei leap-year
kašeza - screen; panel, partial wall [KASCENSA, from KASCIR ‘hide’]
kašir - vt hide [KASCIR]
zet kašir be hidden
kašir ak vrakán hide from the enemy
kašlelel - a peek, a sight (of something hidden or hard to see)
kašlelen - vi peer out, peek [‘hide-see’]
kašuek - hide and seek [KASCU EK ‘hide yourself’]
katy - spittoon [KATTIS ‘jar’]
kazčal - nasty, horrible; (colloq.) monster [probably from kečežil]
kazë - pointer, label [KANSILE]
kazeca - accusation
kazec - vt point at; accuse [KANSEC]
kazec so syel point at the sky
zet kazec confess, admit
kazec soa reďréä eta maupredesa accuse the minister of dishonesty
Kazao! J’accuse!
kažgouka - veil; disguise [‘hide-face-dim.’]
kažina - mistress [‘hidden girl’]
kažiorta - violet (plant with small, hidden purple flowers) [‘hide-flower’]
kďuzec - vt stab [synesthetic]
ke - who (sing. ke kë ket ken, pl. kaë kaëne kaëm kaën) [KAE]
- whose (gen.)
kebrén - Kebreni [Kebreni kebren]
Kebri - Kebri [Kebreni, from Meť. Kevrei]
kečežil - pornography [*KAETIECTU ‘indecent pen’]
kečežise - pornographic
kedimo - adv how much, how many; n bill, check [late Caďinor KET DIMO ‘which amount’]
voyir kedimam snucämán send a bill to a customer
Kedimo platreu? How much did you pay?
Kedimo uestom ya cumnuvne? How many men has she slept with?
Kedimo řo dormu, otál suspilavai The more I don’t sleep, the more I suffer
keďäm - fetus, embryo [‘to be borne’]
keďen - vt produce, yield; bear (children) [KEŤEN ‘bear (crops or young)’]
keďeo - parturition, giving birth, time to give birth [KEŤEIO]
- production
keďnáe - factory
keďuta - generation [KEŤULTA, collective of KEŤUL ‘offspring’]
kef - ashes [KEVER]
kef steklei potash (potassium carbonate) [‘glassmaker’s ashes’]
kef lezüny soda ash (sodium carbonate) [‘ashes of Leziunea’]
kefmey - lye [‘ash water’]
kekan - vt kill, murder [KEKAN]
kekát - assassination, killing
kekom - assassin
keks - cracker [Flaidish kex]
kela - stake, interest, share or stock in an enterprise [KELLA ‘share’]
keladan - vt invest (conj. like dan) [‘give a stake’]
keladonec investor, stakeholder; interested party
Keladone kuna zië im so cumbutát He invested his money in the business
keladoni - investment
Kentunór - Khemthu-Nôr, the God of the dwarves [Elkarîl ‘first spirit’]
ken - whom (dat.)
kena - flute, tube, reed [KAENA ‘reed’]
kenula - piccolo, fife, high-pitched flute
kenek - camel (large, rideable, desert-adapted herbivore) [Barakhinei kêntek, from kênt ‘desert’, from KENTOS ‘plateau’]
kensa - stratagem, trick, scheme [reborrowing of KENSA ‘how’]
kensen - vi scheme
kensen ceštan so dalum scheme to overthrow the king
kensen and soin suloroin scheme on behalf of the monks
kensora - strategy [‘collection of stratagems’]
kent - plateau [KENTOS]
kesel - with associated lands, landed [‘landed’]
kesát - possession; trance
kesir - vt possess (as by a god or demon) [KECIR]
kest - sort, kind, species, type; description; nature [KESTOS]
so Kest Platonic Form
kest ložië part of speech
soĭ kestĭ lesünĭ the Thinking Kinds
kestora - natural philosophy [KESTORA ‘the Categories’]
kesuë - land; real estate, territory (emphasis is precision and legality; cf. pážian) [KESUILE ‘owned’]
keša - stop, halt [KESCA]
kešana - borough, ward [KESCANDA ‘jurisdiction (for arrest); borough’]
kešarát - logistics
kešaro - steward, chief of a borough; (mil.) quartermaster [KESCARION]
kešen - vt/vi stop, halt; camp (mil.) [KESCEN]
kešaš - pause; punctuation mark , [‘big stop’]
bolyáše kešaš full stop .
kešašdan - vi pause (conj. like dan)
kešnáe - camp
kešuát - arrest
kešuen - vt arrest [dynamic tenses of KESCEN ‘stop’]
ket - whom (acc.) [KET]
ketu - brothel [OV slang abbreviation for ketnare, ‘brothel, immoral house’, from KAETES ‘indecent’]
ketuom - pimp
ketuoma - madam (in a brothel)
keye - knock
keyen - vt knock [imitative]
keyepila - knockball, a game involving hitting balls with a stick
Kezon - God of Fire turned demon (First Age mythology) [KAEDUN, probably related to KAETES ‘indecent’]
kezonát - demon worship, Dhekhnami paganism
kezonul - demon
Kezul - Chief of the Demons
keža - zeal, fervor, enthusiasm; (strong) morale [back-formation from kežul]
kežul - zealous, enthusiastic [KECTUL ‘possessed (by a god)’]
- which [KET]
kiam - when
kibi - shout
kibir - vt shout
kiel - how
kiel-e - puzzle, riddle (invar.)
kielsfahe - tone of voice [‘how-speech’]
kies - to do what; irregular verb: pres. kiai kiei kiet kaiam kaio kaiu, past kaivai...; fut. kaimai...; cond. kešelai...; participial root kaiv- [KES]
kiei? what are you doing?
kio - what (kio kiei kiom kion)
Totei kio? So what?
kirka - rag
Kírumor - alternate name for Hírumor
kiscarda - impotence [modern formation from KISCIS ‘weak’ + -ARDA ‘disorder’]
klevan - vt demean, slander [KLESCEBRAN ‘clash, jangle’, from KLESCA ‘cymbals’]
klevotá - slander
kleš - cymbals [KLESCA]
klok - blocks (instrument which can make a knocking or rasping sound) [imitative]
klokan - vi knock
Eluá, klokai ne ďerán Behold, I knock at the door
kluš - splash [imitative]
klušan - vi splash; (slang) piss
kob - heading, headword (of an article); by an extension, an entry or article in an onemu [reborrowing of KOBOS ‘head’]
köbát - meanness
kobom - sergeant, ensign [OV ‘headman’, from KOBOS ‘head’]
köbu - meany
köby - mean [KUEBIS ‘cruel’]
kodäm - abomination [‘to be shunned’]
kodan - vt avoid [KODAN ‘shun’]
koď - the 21st letter of the Verdurian alphabet, H, transliterated H or (Caď.) Ȟ [ȞOŤ]
köh - tail [KUEȞOS]
kol - iron [KOL]
kolë - steel [KOLILE]
Koleva - legendary female warrior [KOLLEIVA ‘iron she-wolf’]
konsec - councillor, advisor
konsél - advice
konsir - vt advise [reborrowing of KONSIR ‘protect, advise (as a cousin would)’]
Len konsu faďnesa I advise that you be patient
konsit - a parliamentary bill before it becomes law; a resolution [KONSIT ‘advises’, the first word of a resolution]
Konselora - King’s Council
kop - the large silver coin of Curiya [KOBOS ‘head’, from the figures stamped on it]
kop - drip, dripping; the sound of a drip
kopan - vi drip [KOPAN, imitative]
kopurát - distillation
kopuren - vt distill [from KOPAN ‘drip’]
kopurul - distilled; liquor; distilled drink
vin kopurul brandy
körum - cinnamon [Nanese köürum ‘peeled bark’]
köřát - cowardice
köřom - coward
köřy - cowardly [KUEȞRIS, from KUEȞOS ‘tail’; i.e. ‘showing one’s tail’]
kořu - leather [KOȞU]
kořuec - vt tan (leather)
kořuom - tanner
koška - female cat; (colloq.) broad, chick [OV diminutive of koša ‘cat’, from KOSCA]
köti - squirrel [KUEȞANTIS ‘big-tailed-one’]
koup - fruit [KOLPOS]
koza - kid (goat) [CONSA, altered to alliterate with kapro ‘goat’]
kozuát - exile
kozuir - vt expel, cast out, exile, excommunicate [dynamic tenses of KODAN ‘shun’]
kraita - interior, insides [reborrowing of KRAITA, from KRAIS ‘limit’: ‘what’s bounded’]
kraitise - internal, interior
Krasnaya - Krasnaya
kreba - vessel, ship [reborrowing of KREBA ‘keel, spine’]
- vertebrate [modern Caď. KREBUL, from KREBA ‘spine’]
- wife of Škagon (1st and 2nd Age mythology)
kriča - cry [imitative]
kričen - vt cry
kričen iosun surrender [‘cry mercy’]
Krist - Christ, Messiah; note however that in most instances Eleď is used to refer to Christ [Greek Ȟristos]
Kristnes - Christmas
kroďi - interj damn! [krof aďië!]
krof - blood [KEROVOS]
krof flave lymph
krofse - cruel, bloody
krofseca - cruelty
krovan - vi bleed
krovuresa - sacrifice [KEROVEI UREICA ‘blood rite’]
dan krovuresa (make a) sacrifice
křumbil - bomb
křumban - vi explode [imitative]
křumbeo - explosion
křumprak - black powder (explosive) [‘exploding powder’]
ktë - where [KEDIE]
ktëlog - preposition (pl. ktëloži) [‘where-word’]
ktuď - wrath [back-formation from ktuďe, replacing earlier OV ktod, from CTODOS]
ktuďe - wrathful [CTUĎES; c → k synaesthetically]
ktüec - vt suck; cheat, gouge [imitative]
šesan ktüec piďan give suck to a baby
ktuvóc - ktuvok, demon (nasty swamp-dwelling overlords of Munkhâsh and Dhekhnam) [Barakhinei ktuvôk, from Elkarîl ktuphuq ‘swamp thing’]
kud - hole (pl. kuzĭ) [KUDOS]
kuda - (obscene) vagina, pussy
Küiza - archdemon, wife of Kezon (1st age mythology) [*KUIIDA, variant of KUIDIA]
kumpa - boot [OV kumpka ‘stamper’]
kumpát - stamping, thumping; approval, ‘applause’
- vt stamp, thump, trample; express approval by stamping the feet [imitative]
kumpulen - vt stamp, tap
kuna - money [KONNA]
Kunaša - the Treasury, the Exchequer
Kunaše Fako The governing party in the Esčambra
kunát - economics
kunete - financial, economic, monetary
kunnáe - bank, brokerage
kunnaom - broker, banker
kunondise - expensive [*KONNONDA, augmentative of KONNA ‘money’]
kundimo - expense [‘money-amount’]
kunvule - greedy [‘want money’]
kunvulea - greed
Kurya - Eleďe name [OV Kuria]
kusizan - vt chew [KUSINSAN, prolongative of KUSAN ‘chew, bite’]
kušak - ogre [KUSCAȞ]
Kuro - Eleďe name [OV Kuro]
Kutro - cupbearer of Enäron
kuza - cousin (f) [KONSA]
kuzo - cousin (m) [KONSO]
kuzula - second (or more distant) cousin (f)
kuzulo - second (or more distant) cousin (m)
kuzulora - extended family (jocular)
kyodo - clove [from Trêng, a language of Téllinor]
kyole - dress


la - the 22nd letter of the Verdurian alphabet, L, transliterated L [LA]
la ismaa Verdurian name for the Ł (Ł) used in Ismaîn
labi - tongue [LABANIS]
labir - vt/vi (colloq.) kiss
lácati - cotton [LACATUREI ‘(substance) from Lācatur’ (where it was grown)]
lacri - tear [LACRIS]
lacriete - teary
lacrir - vi cry; become teary
lacuan - vt settle, occupy, colonize [dynamic forms of LACEN ‘dwell, occupy’]
lacuec - settler, colonist, immigrant
lačan - vi ought, must, should [LATUAN]
Lačai voitec ličín I should sue
lačeo - duty
lädan - vi go, depart [LAUDAN]
lädan (ad) Deštain go to Deštai
lädan sa elirán earn a living
Kiel läde? —Dobrece. How’s it going? —Well.
lädeca - departure [LAUDECA]
ladriyo - brick [LADRILO]
ladriyom - bricklayer
lädros - peach [Sarroc laudroȟ, from LUDROŤ ‘from Ludro’]
lagana - place, square, plaza [LARGANDA ‘wide place’]
Lago - a mischievous sprite, the Puck of Almea [LAGO]
lagu - income [Kebreni lahgu]
lainec - (medical) patient [reborrowing of LAINEC ‘sufferer’]
laitón - brass; brass instrument [LAITONDOS, from LAITA, the city in Kebri associated with its manufacture]
laitonora - brass band; brass section
Laleda - Cuzeian name [laleide ‘youth’]
lambra - sheet, cloth [LAMIRA, from Cuêzi lâmiras ‘linen’, from lâmas ‘flax’]
lan - flax [LANNOS]
lanca - troubles, trials, tribulation [LAINEICA ‘suffering’, from LAINAN ‘suffer’]
lanë - linen [LANNILE]
lanika - underwear (for either sex) [OV lannilka ‘little linens’]
lanyom - mercer, merchant of fine cloths— linen, velvet, silk, etc.
lapis - rabbit (small, fast-breeding, cute herbivore, sometimes domesticated); freshman, cadet [OV lapris ‘the runner’, from LAPREN ‘run’]
lapiskusku - bunny suit [‘rabbit-silliness’]
lapiskuskuom - maker of bunny suits
lapoc - radish [Sarroc, from Munkhâshi lapok]
Lare - Cuzeian name [Lāure ‘pretty’]
laržát - width
larže - wide [LARGES]
laržise - liberal; free or broad in interpretation (cf. ložise)
las - fatigue, tiredness
tenec las to be tired of, to tire of
lase - tired [LASSES]
lätát - sports, athletics
lätan - vi compete in athletics [LAUTAN]
lätan ak Ihanon compete with Ihano
lätec - sportsman, athlete
lättom - arena, stadium [lätdom ‘sports-house’]
laun - circle; (grammar) paradigm [reborrowing of LAUNOS, from Cuêzi lāunas; OV was län]
gliny laun oval
launes - circular; smooth, flowing, wavelike; moving in circles
laungorat - cone [‘circle tower’]
launivát - rotation, gyration
launiven - vi/vt rotate, whirl [intensive verbalization of ‘circle’]
launlädan - vi circulate[‘circle-go’]
launlädeca - cycle, circulation
- vt wash; clean [LAVAN]
lavisát - dance; choreography
lavísia - (one) dance
lavisic(a) - dancer [LAUBRISIC]
lavisir - vi dance [LAUBRISIR, from Cuêzi lāubrissâ, earlier lāunibrissâ ‘circle dance’, from lāunas ‘circle’ + brissâ ‘dance’]
Lavreto - Eleďe name [OV Lavrentio]
Lazaro - Eleďe name [OV Lazaro]
lažar - lapis lazuli, lazurite [LADZUAR, from Munkhâshi lajwar (gem found in Ctelm)]
lažec - vt get, acquire, obtain [LAGEC ‘snatch’ (colloquial)]
lažel - object, item
lažna - bottle; a unit of volume, 10 veraĭ or .806 l [LAGENA]
le - you (sing.) [LET]
- your (sing.)
Leanota - the shaping aspect of the creator (1st age mythology)
leb- - (of relations) step-, half-; (other) new-, neo-
lebe - new [LEBES]
lebesa - newness, novelty
lebeřaner - vt maintain [‘keep new’]
lebi - news [lebĭ ‘new things’]
lebivro - novel [‘new book’]
leblirát - conception
leblirec - vi conceive [‘new life’]
leblirec imfatán conceive a child
lebmare - bride [‘new wife’]
lebmaris - groom [‘new husband’]
lebnáe - colony, new settlement [‘new place’]
lebom - novice, apprentice
lëc - link, bond [LENCOS]
lečir - vt fling, cast, scatter [dynamic tenses of LETAN ‘fly’]
lečel - fling, cast
lečen - bourgeoisie [leta ‘money’ + žen ‘people’]
lečenete - bourgeois, middle class
lečenom - bourgeois, middle class person
ledli - adj. invar. of porcelain or fine china
ledliát - the art of manufacture of fine china [after Ledley, Flora, a center for its manufacture]
ledliom - porcelain maker or seller
leďa - example, sample [LEŤA ‘lot, sample’]
leďan for example (Avélan usage)
griman leďa to take a sample
ašir leďa to consider an example
leďad - for example [LEŤAD, ablative of LEŤA ‘example’]
leďise - representative, typical, normal
So luom e leďise koup. The apple is a good example of a fruit.
leďul - representative (one selected to do a task for a group)
lef - wolf (medium-size, fierce, carnivorous pack animal) [LEIVOS]
leful - (colloq.) pimp [‘wolfie’]
legan - vi lie, mislead [LEGAN]
Řo leganei piron lë Don’t lie to your father
legua - soup [Curiyan dialect; from Curiyan leigua ‘broth’]
leh - one hundred thousand [LEȞOS]
este leh a leh squared, 10 billion; used for Caď. LEȞONDOS
lëka - drug [LENKA ‘remedy’]
lekadan - vi drug, medicate; treat (conjugated like dan) [LENKADAN]
lekádec - drug-seller, apothecary
lekadoni - treatment, therapy
lekadnáe - apothecary shop
lekaro - physician, doctor [LENKARION]
lekise - medical, apothecary
leilát - sight, vision
lele - visible
leleë - sight, scene, view, vista
leleë poče landscape
lelen - vt see [LEILEN]
Ya lelne Vlerä He’s fallen hopelessly in love (lit., he has seen Vlerë and gone mad)
lelesë - faithful
lelesa - faith [LEILECA ‘seeing’]
leleza - microscope [‘seeing tool’]
lelima - impression [*LEILIMA ‘glimpse’, a dim. of ‘sight’]
E soa lelima ket prenai That’s the impression I get
lelitse - realistic, accurate, resembling its model [*LEILIŤSE adjectivization of LEILIŤ]
- masterpiece, classic, great work [LEILIŤ ‘precisely accurate’, literally ‘from sight’]
lelitsala - art [OV leylitsala, showing assimilation from earlier leylit(s)ana, from *LEILIŤANDA ‘realm of great works’]
lelitsalom - artist
lemäm - scrap, slag, dross, chaff [‘to be discarded’]
leman - vt discard, get rid of [LAEMAN]
leme - milk [a babytalk form of LEMMA ‘milk’]
leme bulondula custard
lememan - vt beget; vi reproduce [‘new self’]
Lememul Iainei The Begotten of Iain; a title of Eleď
lememát - reproduction
len - you (dat. sing.)
lën - line; stripe [LENNOS]
lenanë - Lenani
lengát - length
lenge - long (in time); long mark "
a lenge long a, i.e. ä
lenge cuzëa Cuzeian length diacritic ` as in à ā
pro lengen for a long time
lengul - phase
lenocse - blond
lëpa - petal [LERPA]
leprosan - vt invent, devise [‘walk new’]
leprosel - invention, device
Lerete - Cuzeian name [lerete ‘clever’; see lerte ]
lerezícue - mocking, amusing, witty [‘happy-mocking’]
lérežan - happiness
lereže - happy [LEREGES]
leria - understanding, perception (part of quadripartite soul) (f); also a Cuzeian name (m. or f.) [LERIAS, from Cuêzi lerias ‘seeing’, from lerê ‘see’]
iscuna leria conventional wisdom, what everybody knows
peuë leria esoteric knowledge; what is known to an élite
Leritene - Cuzeian name [loan-translation of leribodê ‘full of understanding’]
lertáš - (colloq.) genius, brain
lerte - clever, smart [LERETES, from Cuêzi lerete ‘skillful,’ from lerê ‘see’]
lertlog - maxim, aphorism (pl. lertloži)
lescom - merchant, merchantwoman [LESCEN ‘sell’]
lescoma - prostitute
lescomáš - merchant prince
lest - unit of distance: the Cuêzi lestas, about 2 km; the Barakhinei lêsht, 3 cemisĭ (about 2.25 km) [LESTOS]
lesteo - restaurant [LESTEIO ‘place for meeting friends’]
lestuát - flattery
lestuen - vt flatter [from dynamic forms of LESTEN ‘talk with friends’]
lesüas - rational being, person; personality [reborrowing of LESUIAS, itself a confused borrowing of Cuêzi elerisuas, from lerisuê ‘understand’]
lesüne - rational, personal [LESUINES]
lešel - price (amount of sale) [LESCEL]
lëšu - straightedge, ruler [LENISIU, from Cuêzi ‘straight-tool’]
leta - coin; (slang) penis [LETA]
letan - vi fly [LETAN]
leti - wealth (OV name element) [letĭ ‘coins’]
lëtyora - glasses, spectacles
lëtiy - lentil, lens [LENTILIS ‘lentil’]
Letnüme - archdemoness (1st Age mythology) [‘flying dread’]
letuë - wall
letusca - butterfly (fancy-winged insect) [OV ‘little flight’ (f)]
letusia - flight
letusok - kite [OV ‘little flyer’ (m)]
šesan letan letusokán fly a kite
Leuletánia - Goddess of Mixed-Media
leurec - vt sip; draw off; pour [LEOREC ‘draw off a glass’]
leurula - sip, taste, saucerful, a bit
leusia - marsh [LISUCIA, from LISU ‘slime’]
leut - slime, mud [OV lisut, from LISUTES ‘slimy’]
levati - kiss
levatir - vt/vi kiss
leve - lip [LEBRE]
levivrec - vt lip-read
levuestu - werewolf [‘wolf-man’]
lezunë - shorts [from lezüny as these were characteristic of Leziuneans]
lezüny - (OV) of Leziunea, modern Ismahi/Azgami [LEZIUNIS, from LEZIUNEA, from Meť. Lezyna ‘big forest’]
ležel - lie [LEGEL, from LEGAN ‘lie’]
ležiren - vt wait for (someone), wait up (cf. vižien, used more for expected events) [*LESOGIREN ‘offer friendly comfort’]
lial - rise; promotion
lialan - vi rise [LIHALAN]
lialec - lever
lialuan - vt raise; promote [dynamic tenses of LIHALAN]
licre - poor [LICRES, from LICIS ‘barren’]
licun - hazelnut [LICUNOS]
licunarb - hazel (tree)
licreca - poverty
ličicole - litigious [‘lawsuit-loving’]
ličy - lawsuit; case; trial [LITIS ‘quarrel’]
ličy orivul an appeal
orivan ličim appeal (a suit)
lië - his, her, hers, its
lihse - soprano [LIȞASES, from Cuêzi līxase ‘higher’]
lim - slug (small, soft, slimy creature) [LISMOS ‘slug, snail’, from LISU ‘slime’]
limura - breast [LIMURA, harmonized form of earlier *LEMURA, from LEMA ‘milk’]
limurbres - a band of cloth supporting or binding the breasts, either a part of a dress or an undergarment [‘breast band’]
Lino - Eleďe name [OV Lino]
lir - measure, melody [LIR ‘melody’]
lirát - poetry
lirnora - lyrics; song; movement [sulírnora ‘poem’]
lirom - poet
liroš - poem
lisy - barren; bald [LICIS]
litne - pesky, annoying [LITNES ‘quarrelsome’ from LITIS ‘quarrel’]
litno - pest; beast; parasite
livan - vt pour [LIBRAN]
livom - servant who pours drinks; bartender
livoš - container, vesssel (for liquids) [‘pour-thing’]
lodimo - wages, salary [‘payment amount’]
colir lodimam earn a wage
loën - vt rent [from loy]
Loyam ci-atunim suleomán We’re renting this apartment to a young man
Loyam atun bomei cähei We’re renting a room from an old lizard
log - word (pl. loži) [LOGOS]
loglaun - conjugation, declension [‘word-circle,’ after a Caďinorian system for arranging the forms in a circular diagram]
loglaunan - vt conjugate, decline
logora - dictionary
Loi - Eleďe name [OV Loi]
lökol - black manganese (manganese dioxide) [LEUKOL ‘iron for (making) glass’]
lomo - type of fish
lon - honor, esteem, prestige [LONDOS]
Ontenei lon piram lë Honor your father
Donei lon soan ženatán You have brought honor to the family
lonëglér - acclamation [lon er eglér, honor and praise]
lonëglérec - vt acclaim
lonse - honorable
lonyolë - challenge
lonyoler - vt challenge [‘face-honor’]
loryo - overseer of lands [BANLORION]
Loscuna - Cuzeian name (m) [Lôdicūnas ‘honorable deed’]
lösélta - reflection
- reflect [LEUSELETER ‘reflect’, from LEUS ‘mirror’ + SELETER ‘light’]
losu - moose, elk (large, horned animal, native to southern forests) [Axunašin losu, from Wede:i]
lotka - boat [diminutive of OV lota]
lotom - boatwright
loy - rent; renting, hiring [LOIS ‘payment’]
mevel loii lease
ložise - literal; narrow in interpretation [‘word’ + -ise]
ložiur - Xurnese court magician [Xurnáš lojur]
luana - (colloq.) fox, looker [beluana, ’beautiful’]
luát - voluptuousness
lübec - vt love [LIUBEC, erotic love]
lübec im nuven make love to (+ acc.)
lübise - erotic, sexual, romantic
lübor - romantic love [LIUBOR]
sirise lübo sex; the relations between men and women, especially the physical
lübotene - passionate
Luc - Eleďe name [OV Luca]
Luca - Eleďe name [OV Luca]
luco - bushel; unit of volume, nine gemárĭ or 36.27 l [LUCUS]
lučen - vt miss [LUTIAN]
Lúďia - Eleďe name [OV Luďia]
Luďuca - Eleďe name [OV Luďuica]
lue - voluptuous [LURES ‘beautiful’]
lufe - loose
luka - bend, bow; anatomy joint [LUKA]
lukan - vt bend [LUKAN]
zet lukan bow
lukona - chin [late Caďinor *LUKONDA ‘big bend’]
lukulát - guilt, fault
lukul - guilty [‘bent’]
lunuran - vt appoint, assign [LONDURAN ‘appoint’ from LONDOS ‘honor’]
lunurul officer
So dalu et lunurne še reďréen The king appointed me as a minister
Tu et lunurne reďreon i Belgo I was assigned to the ministry of War
lunurát - (act of) appointment or assignment
lunureo - assignment (area of responsibility); bureau, department
luom - apple [Svetlan dialect (Svetla is known for its apples), from LOMOS]
luomarb - apple tree
lupek - fox (small, red, forest-dwelling predator) [LUPEȞ]
lür - woe [Kebreni lyr ‘sadness’]
lüra - bassoon, low-pitched woodwind [LIURA]
luria - wrestling (m) [LURIAS, from Cuêzi lurias, from lure ‘twist, wrestle’]
lurer - vi wrestle [LURIR]
lurer ak lebomán wrestle a newcomer
lüssë - insane [Cuêzi lūssa ‘insanity’]
lüsi - Glade (Eleďe consecrated ground, usually outdoors) [Cuêzi lūsi]
luteon - orchard [LUTEION, from LUTIS ‘meadow, glade’ + -EION grouping suffix]
lutuli - meadow [Late Caďinor *LUTULIS, diminutive of LUTIS ‘meadow, glade’]
luyšor - a hearty red wine (especially those from Luyšor)
Lúvore - Cuzeian name [lūvore ‘love’]
lüvrec - vi run, seep; glide smoothly between notes [modification (possibly by analogy with lübec) of LIUBRAN ‘glide (between notes)’, from LIURA ‘low-toned flute’]
lüvrug - diarrhea
lužura - affection, love, family feeling [LUIURA]
lužure - affectionate, loving
lyö - very


maco - dough; pasta [MACO ‘paste’]
macre - thin [MACRES]
macrete - rare, scarce
macua - pop music; a type of common pasta dish
mačal - an elcarin gold coin, worth about 2 ořĭ [Elkarîl machîl ‘of 18’]
mädörn - powerful, triumphant, jovial [MAUDUNOR superlative of ‘giant’]
mafla - a blue flower yielding a soporific drug, “Almean poppy” [MAPOLA]
mafloš - the drug obtained from dried mafla flowers, intoxicating in small quantities and sedative in large quantities, an alkaloid resembling opium [‘mafla stuff’]
magen - stomach [MAGNOS]
magena - a dress which exposes the midriff
magnotibri - nausea [reborrowing of MAGNOTIBRI ‘stomach pain’]
mahia - jaw [MAȞILA]
maíz - corn [MAHINS]
mal - poor; bad; wrong [MAL]
malát - illness [‘wrongness’]
maladnáe - hospital
malamórë - lustful; loving perversely or wrongly [‘bad love’]
malbenda - inefficiency [‘bad power’]
malbendre - inefficient
malbema - headache [‘bad head’]
malbosa - ill fortune, bad luck; a bad turn [‘bad luck’]
malbostene - unlucky, unfortunate
malbundrul - ne’er-do-well, schlimazel [see Bunori]
malcoli - discord, conflict [‘bad reception’]
maldobre - n hypocrisy; adj hypocritical [‘bad-good’]
maldroďë - inauspicious, ominous [‘bad omen’]
malduisir - vi lead astray [‘bad lead’]
zet malduisir misbehave
- (legal) complaint; protest; (medical) symptom [reborrowing of MALEMEL ‘complaint’, from MALEMEC ‘speak badly (about)’]
malemec - complain (legally), protest [reborrowing of MALEMEC]
- plaintiff, complainant [reborrowing of MALEMILES ‘complainer’]
malene - distorted, warped, deformed [MALLENES ‘bad-mirror-like’]
malenia - distortion, deformation
- distort, warp, deform
- ineffectual, weak, incapable of leadership [‘bad leaderish’]
malgiveca - sleeping sickness [reborrowing of MALGIVEICA ‘unliveliness’]
malhume - temperamental, moody [‘bad hum’]
malionile - venereal disease [reborrowing of MAL IONILES ‘womanly ill’]]
mallädan - vi go badly with, not suit, clash [‘go bad’]
mallädec unsuitable, unfitting, inappropriate, unflattering
So odaivun malläde so gintram. The tie doesn’t go with the sash.
mallóg - bad repute [‘bad word’]
mallon - dishonor, indignity [‘bad honor’]
Dei mallon nomán i Nařo You dishonor the name Two-Sheds
mallonse - dishonorable
malložise - disreputable [‘bad words’]
mallübor - sexual immorality [‘bad love’]
malmagen - stomachache [‘bad stomach’]
malmizec - vt speak ill of [‘bad-say’]
malmese - frivolous, light-hearted; silly, foolish [‘bad-wise’]
malnes - miscarriage, abortion [‘bad birth’]
malnesan - vi miscarry
šesan malnesan abort
malse - ill, sick (popular term; cf. mön)
malsfaom - barbarian [‘one who speaks badly’]
malvižul - surprising; surprise [‘wrong expectation’]
malvižir - vt surprise
malvolemát - unwillingness; ill will
malvoleme - unwilling; with ill will [see voleme]
mametan - recommend, advocate, promote [OV manmetan ‘put in one’s hands’]
mametec - advocate, proponent
mameto - recommendation; advocacy, promotion
manačel - gesture
manačir - vi gesture, gesticulate [‘use hands’]
mancan - vi lack, require [MANCAN]
Susluomĭ can mancu We’re out of potatoes
Len mance čaë? Do you want some tea?
mancu - lack; a rhetorical figure consisting of a sulirul missing an accent
maneseyer - grope; manipulate, handle ['hand-try']
mano - hand; a unit of 3.3 inches [MANUS]
manora - caress
manoren - vt caress [mano ‘hand’]
manoricole - affectionate
maramo - penguin [Tžuro maramu, from OS maragmu ‘it waddles’]
Maranë - capital of Viminia [‘(city) of Maranh’]
Maranh - a legendary Caďinorian hero [MARANȞ]
Marco - Eleďe name [OV Marco]
mare - wife (legal term) [variant of maris]
Margite - Eleďe name [OV Margarite]
Maria - Eleďe name [OV Maria]
marian - vt/vi marry [dynamic tenses of MAREC ‘be married’]
Raheli marine Ihanon Rachel married John
So aďom marine Ihanam Rahelin The priest married John and Rachel
marilešel - bride-price [‘marriage price’]
Mario - Eleďe name [OV Mario]
maris - husband [MARIS ‘marital; spouse’]
marisa - marriage
marisa išire arranged marriage (Išira is the goddess of marriage)
marisa fifelei marriage for love (Fifel is the god of sexual love)
marmo - pudding [Flaidish ‘something put’]
maršo - beaver (small dam-building herbivore)
Martina - Eleďe name [OV Martina]
Martino - Eleďe name [OV Martino]
maslo - butter [MACELO]
masloföy - lettuce (small roundish plant with soft, edible leaves) [‘butter-leaf’]
mašir - vt master [MASCIR]
mašrát - mastery
mašre - masterful [MASCRES]
mašre mey acqua fortis (nitric acid) [‘master water’]
mašrom - master
mat - capture, seizure [ȞMAT]
matela - chamberpot [MATELLA]
Mateo - Eleďe name [OV Matťaio]
Matia - Eleďe name [OV Matťia]
matica - purse, wallet (pl. matisĭ) [MANTICA]
maticom - pickpocket
matuäm - warrant [‘to be seized’]
matuan - vt capture [dynamic tenses of ȞMATAN]
maubruhan - vt abuse, misuse [MALBURUȞAN]
maubruk - abuse, misuse [MALBURUȞ]
maucrusan - vt/vi fail to reach, fall short; fail, be defective [mal- + ‘reach’]
maucruseo - defect, failing
mauduše - skunk [MALDUSIES ‘stinky (animal)’]
maukonsul - ill-advised, unwise [‘badly advised’]
maumec - gripe, bitch [MALEMEC ‘complain’]
maumel - gripe, bitching [MALEMEL]
mauprade - dishonest [‘bad honest’]
maupradesa - dishonesty
mauprenan - misunderstand [‘take ill’]
mauřusy - sore, tender, irritated [‘bad muscles’]
mautruir - vt destroy [dynamic forms of MALTREN ‘make worse’, from MAL ‘bad’]
mautruisa - destruction
mäzun - adj giant [MAUDUND]
mažtana - city [MACTANA]
mažtansäte - city hall, town hall [‘city-hall’]
mažtanul - civilized
mažula - town
me - the 23rd letter of the Verdurian alphabet, M, transliterated M [ME]
meas - relation, relationship [reborrowing of MEAS]
meban - canal, channel [‘water-way’]
mebanul - gutter
mebrugë - whirlpool [‘water-twist’]
meca - daughter (pl. mesĭ) [NECA, assimilated to MEĎOS ‘son’]
mecin - a large Floran silver coin, worth 1.2 falĭ; a similar coin of Denisovič [Flaidish meckin]
meclir - vt mix (past meclir-) [MECLER]
meclir sel cum tsesin mix salt with sugar
mecliviso - chemistry [‘study of mixtures’]
Meconso - the Keeper of Knowledge; a Caďinorian godling
mecredimo - ratio, proportion [‘mixture amount’]
mecrel - mix; mixed-media; half-breed [MECLEL ‘mixed’]
mecrelise - mixed; in mixed upper and lower case
meči - unit of area, 12,230 square feet [METIS, from Arániceri, cognate to MESTIS ‘field’]
medeta - pedestal [reborrowing of MEDETA ‘table’]
- nobility; dignity; greatness of heart [MEDRO]
medrë - noble, great [MEDRILES]
medrësát - pompousness, pretentiousness
medrëse - pompous, pretentious
meď - son; the Son (Eleďát) [MEĎOS]
meďi - job; profession [MEŤIS ‘task’]
meďiát - craft
meďina - tomboy [fem. nom. of meď ‘son’]
meďiom - craftsman
mëf - wondrous, childlike; loving; tearful
megua - period; specifically a time measurement of 6 minutes [reborrowing of MEGUA]
meilad - cobaltite (cobalt sulpharsenide, CoAsS) [Barakhinei mêlilôd ‘fool’s silver’, from MUEL ‘blunt’ + ILALDE, Eärdur dialect ‘silver’, from Cuêzi ilaldê, a nominalization of alaldas ‘star’: the starry metal]
gent meiladei cobalt
Mélanë - Eleďe name [OV Melania]
melažanen - be convenient [MELA CTANEN ‘happen auspiciously’]
Melažane That’s convenient
melažano - convenience
- bee (pollen-seeking, honey-making colony insect) [MELIE]
melašte - noble [MELASTES ‘best’]
meláštegues - aristocracy
melaštora - aristocracy, nobility
meli - way (OV name element) [MELIS]
Meliďéc - Eleďe name [OV Melȟiseďec]
melis - tactic(s); plan of attack [reborrowing of MELIS ‘way’]
melnitát - gratitude
mélnite - thankful, grateful [MAELNITES]
meloš - honey [MELOSIOS]
meloš asënei maple syrup
melürec - vi go on one’s rounds (like a housewife or a doctor); search here and there; pollinate, go from flower to flower [MELIUREC ‘flit to and fro like a bee’]
melüreo - one’s usual rounds or routine; shopping; pollination
lažel melüreei errand, routine task
mem - self [MESMOS]
memaďne - narcissistic [‘self-god’]
memaďnesa - narcissism
Meme - the brightest star in the sky [MEMEI, alternative form of MENEU, from Meť. Menewa ‘great center (star)’]
mémia - turkey (large, stupid, forest-dwelling, herbivorous bird) [MAIMENIA]
mena - wave [MEINDA]
menca - form, school; style; paradigm, model [reborrowing of MENCA]
mencise - cultural
mencora - culture
mener - vt/vi wiggle, wriggle [MENENER]
Menla - Menla river [MENELA, from Meť. Meneula ‘slow’]
mense - loose [‘wigglish’]
meplavë - solvent, substance which dissolves another
meplavec - vt dissolve (in a liquid) [‘water-melt’]
meplavel - solution
meplavul - solute, substance dissolved in another
mepuyan - vt pump [‘push water’]
mepuyoš - pump
Mëranac - God of Fire [MIERANAC]
merel - measurement
meremát - moderation
mereme - moderate, measured [MERESMES]
mëril - fiery, bold, energetic [MIERIL, from MIERA ‘fire’]
mëriparna - volcano [‘fire mountain’]
merir - vt measure [MERIR]
merul well-proportioned, elegant
mers - market [MERAST]
merok - brain [MERUKOS]
merra - phenomenon; circumstances, situation [reborrowing of MERRA, from Cuêzi merrâ ‘thing considered’]
merššäte - agora
merteleo - gauge, measuring instrument
meřa - a type of herb, slightly bitter, similar to oregano [MEKRA, from Meť. meγra]
Mesát - Mešaism [from MESA, from Axunašin Meša]
- benevolent, wise, tender; playful, happy [MEISES, from MEIS ‘water’]
Mesia - Messiah, Christ [Greek Messía]
mesmere - substitute, alternate [reborrowing, as a legal term, of MESMERES, lit. ‘sameish’, from MESMOS ‘same’]
mesmeran - vt substitute or alternate for
mesocrico - hamster, guinea pig (rather small, playful herbivore; sometimes domesticated)
mesti - field; diocese [MESTIS]
mesti kesela landed bishopric
mestináe - cathedral
mesuy - the small gold coin of Svetla, Bažra, Lapiri, or Cerei [Eř dialect form of metuy]
mešu - the small silver coin of Ismahi or Denisovič, worth about an aržentul [Ismaîn meşu ‘half’; it was originally 1/2 glure]
metan - vt put; place, position [METTAN]
zet metan meddle, intervene
Metayu - the ancient kingdom of Meťaiu [Caď. MEŤAIU, from a southern Meťaiun language; cf. northern Meťaiγo]
metešenë - the small silver coin of Cerei [‘half ešenë’]
metoř - the small gold coin of Curiya [‘half-gold’, since its value is .5 ]
metta - table [MEDETA]
metteza - tablecloth
metulerec - vt analyze
metuleria - analysis [reborrowing from METULERIAS, from Cuêzi mētulerias, nominalization of mētulerê ‘see the roles’]
metuy - the small gold coin of Hežina or Hroth (and formerly other countries) [METUIS ‘half’, since it was originally half a bes in value]
meu - furrow [MEHU]
meucibor - niccolite, copper-nickel (nickel sulpharsenide) [Barakhinei mêlkibor ‘fool’s copper’; cf. meilad and civru]
gent meuciborei nickel
méunen - vt plow; till [MEHUNDEN]
meuoš - plow
mev - act, action; verb [MEBROS]
mevan - vi act [MEBRAN]
mevan travëtei commit a crime
mevan še altomán serve as leader
mevdonec - participle [‘giving action’]
mevdonec etamizë present participle
mevdonec opfëe past participle
mevdonec silorei gerund
mevel - legal document; contract; treaty
mevel devhezátei indenture
mevel loii lease
mevel pugeei bankruptcy agreement
mevlog - verb (pl. mevloži) [‘action word’]
mevložise - verbal
mey - water [MEIS]
mey vežë sap
Prenanei meim Take some water (to refresh yourself after travel)
meyan - vt water, irrigate; coddle, spoil, indulge
zet meyan indulge oneself
meyan hum zië lose one’s temper, give in to one’s feelings
Meyec mira nure meyul imfát An indulgent mother raises a spoiled child
méyšue - liquid; coddled, spoiled [‘waterish’]
meytrava - meigrass [Uyseʔ mey + ‘grass’]
mezine - ordered; natural; planned by God; necessary, logical, obvious [MEDINES]
mezinë - order; the Divine Order; nature [MEDINILE]
mezinen - vt order, rank, set in order
mezinen ab znakin sort alphabetically
mëžen - vt/vi sink, immerse [MERGEN]
mi- - maternal, mother’s side
mico - mold (fungus) [MICO]
mičy - urine [MITIS]
šalea mičii ammonia
beh mičii acqueous ammonia
Midei - one of the Fates; (lower case) birth, station in life [MIDDREIS]
miďë - celebration [MIĎILE]
miďen - vt celebrate [MIĎEN]
Miďai cum len [mun]! Congratulations!
mierile - tritonid (the ktuvoks and their relatives) [modern Caď. ‘fire-thing’]
mifan - vt allow [Curiyan mife ‘speak (approvingly)’]
mifano excuse me, let me through
mifan fäsir soi šuščati bury the dead
mifanul allowed, permitted
Len mifai crežen ďeletá lë You may eat your dessert
mifát - permission
Mihel - Eleďe name [OV Miȟael]
Miheli - Eleďe name [OV Miȟaela]
mika - unit of volume, 1/2 miy, 0.11 fl. oz. (about 1/4 tablespoon) [OV dim. of miy]
mil - thousand [MIL]
milka - sausage [OV milyka, diminutive of milyaso ‘meat’]
milüür - sad, poignant, full of longing [Kebreni milyyr ‘with great sadness’]
mily - legion [MILGIS ‘unit of 1000 men’]
milyö - the underground; the criminal world or underclass [back-formation from milyöse]
milyöřon - lower-class speech; criminal argot
milyöse - underground, criminal [MILGUESES ‘military’]
milzona - milleniuim [‘thousand year’]
mima - mommy, mama
minë - paper [MINGILE, from MINGA ‘mat’]
minka - mat [OV ‘little mat’, from MINGA]
minyón - cute [OV mingondul ‘beggar’, thus, ‘pitiable, helpless’; from MINGONDA ‘large mat’, the only possession of many a beggar]
mira - mother; alchemy ore or raw material for refining a metal [MIDRA]
mira plomei galena (lead sulphide)
mira vué larynx
mirtë - blueberry [MIRTILE]
miscu - scrotum [reborrowing of MISCU ‘bag’]
mísia - fun [Cuêzi mīsia ‘joy’]
misotá - joke [‘thing of fun’]
misoten - vi joke
misura - silence [MESURA]
misuril - silent
mišek - sack, bag, pack [OV mišok, diminutive of mišu ]
Mišicama - the Mišicama Ocean [Meťaiun Mičiaγama = mi- honorific + čia γama ‘around the lands’]
miškičy - (colloq.) delicious, yummy
mišu - large sack or bag; piece of luggage [MISCU ‘bag’]
mišu caizure bagpipe
mittir - vi urinate [MITATIR]
miu - meow [imitative]
miuan - vi meow, mew
miura - wonder [reborrowing of MIURA ‘stupefaction’]
miuräm - wonderful, marvelous [‘to be wondered at’]
miuren - vi wonder, marvel; gape
miuren prĭ soán dekašin wonder at the revelation
miy - unit of volume, 1/12 verae (0.46 tbsp); a spoon of this size [MIHIS ‘spoon’]
miyire - natural, only to be expected [MIHIRES ‘straight, proper’, from MIHIA ‘ruler’]
miyirece of course
mizec - vt say, tell; recite; mean, signify (mizao mizeo mis mizom...) [EMINSEC ‘prattle on’, prolongative form of EMEC ‘talk’]
mizec com ženán speak in popular or idiomatic terms
Zet mis dy... It is said that...
Len mizeo dy žanme? Do you reckon he’s coming?
mizeta - topic, subject [mize- + collective -ta]
so uestu mizete the man under discussion, said man
mizo - expression, tournure, turn of phrase, way of saying something, rhetorical technique [abstraction from various words in -mizo]
E urze mizo dy bruhnei That was a funny expression you used
mižao - theory [‘I said’]
mlake - black [MELANKES]
mlakon - coal; deep, glossy black (of hair) [MELANKOND]
elirë mlakon ember, (glowing) coal
šuščat mlakon charcoal
čuél mlakonei coke
mlakon yešorei grey antimony (antimony trisulphide) [‘coal of kohl’]
mlakonia - (chemical) reduction
mlakonir - vt reduce, heat with carbon so as to derive an element from its oxide
mlákšue - blackish
mlužir - vi loom, lurk [MELUGIR ‘approach’]
moano - pineapple [Lé `^ ‘hard-fruit’]
möca - sparrow (small, very common brown bird) [MUECA]
möcre - jittery, agitated, upset; unruly [*MUECRES ‘sparrowish’]
močát - corruption
moči - rot, mold
močil - rotten, corrupt
močinec - v pick, pick at, poke, hoe [MOTINEC]
močir - vi rot, spoil [MOTRIR]
močüka - hoe [OV močinka]
moitu - theatrical agent, impresario [Kebreni moiteu ‘finder’]
mokan - a hallucinogenic drug (notorious for causing only bad trips) [Rafsani]
möl - blunt, dull [MUEL]
mole - soft; soft mark , [MOLLES]
i mole soft a, ĭ, transliterated ĭ
molë - the second highest of the five singing tones; alto [MOELILES, from Cuêzi moêlille ‘womanly’]
moleza - hammer [colloq. *MOLLENSA ‘softener’]
molezen - vt hammer
molir - vi get high [jocular formation from mole ‘soft’]
molul high
mólnia - lightning [MOLENIA]
molnir - vi rain with thunder and lightning [MOLENIR]
Molne It’s thundering out
mölšue - vague, unclear [‘bluntish’]
molya - moth (duller relative of the letuscĭ ) [MOLGA]
molyuazo - hummingbird [‘moth-bird’]
mön - sick, diseased (medical term; cf. malse) [MALNES]
mönát - disease, medical condition
mondan - vt hire, employ [‘give work’, from MONNAN ‘work’ + dan]
mondát - hiring, employment
mondec - employer, patron
monë - pocket watch [after its inventor, Claibrac Mony]
zërë monë marine chronometer
ab monen Mažtane in standard time (that of Verduria city)
mony - brilliant, striking; salient [MONNIS ‘hard-working’]
mör - custom, way; (courtly or official) protocol; (scientific) rule, law [MUEROS]
mörĭ verdúrĭ Verdurian ways or culture; the Verdurian way of life
so mör appakan dalun the protocol for approaching a king
mora - delay [MORA]
moran - vt/vi delay, postpone
morea - tuna (large ocean fish) [MOREIA, from Meť. morea]
morgarda - agony; medical death spasm [reborrowing of MORGARDA]
morge - morbid, unhealthy [reborrowing of MORGES ‘deathly’]
morut - carrot (pl. moruďi) [MORUŤ]
Moseo - Eleďe name [OV Mouse]
moštol - feldspar [Barakhinei mushtol, from MUSTOLE, from Cuêzi mûsstole ‘common crystal’]
mot - sheep (medium-size, dumb, wooly, herbivorous pack animal) [MOTOS]
motana - sheepfold
motmyaso - mutton [‘sheep-meat’]
motucöm - shepherd
möy - squid [MEUIL]
mu - you (pl.) [MUȞ]
- you (pl. acc.)
- moo [imitative]
muán - less [MURANA ‘middlingly’]
muane - minor
muanát - reduction, decrease
muanen - vt reduce, decrease, lessen
muatë - half; sex, gender (quality) [OV muantile, concretization of muanát ‘a small quantity’, from MURAND ‘middling, disappointing’]
el muatëi median
muatëpula - dome [‘half-sphere’]
muatëra - sex (group of people)
soa timely muatëra the gentle sex
mučir - vt borrow [dynamic tenses of MUTEC ‘be lent, borrow’]
mudraë - wisdom [MUDRAILE]
mudray - wise [MUDRAIS]
muďe - more [MUSCEĎES, comparative of MUSCES ‘many’]
de muďe spare, extra
muďe rožy dy Abend more crazy than Abend
soa muďe beluana is frälinen the most beautiful of the maidens
pro 10 ořulin er muďen for more than 10 ořulĭ
muďen - vt increase, make more numerous
muďnirtey - general
muďnirto - generally, usually, in general [‘most often’]
mügu - chasm, abyss [MINGU]
müguy - profound, deep; thorough [‘abysmal’]
muhnar - adj Monkhayu, Monkhayic
ül muhnar (ancient) Monkhayic
muhnaru - n Monkhayu [MOȞNARU, from a southern Monkhayic Monȟaru ‘the People’]
muë - your (pl. gen.)
müen - vi moo [imitative]
mulua - saddle (Curiyan dialect) [from Curiyan; cf. Cuêzi mōllâ, from mōle ‘soft’]
mun - you (pl. dat.)
munëi - position; career; job, task, role [MONNILE ‘work’]
suvan munëa še alaďeomán have (pursue) a career as a musician
munëom - official, functionary
- habileté
munénë - habile, clever, worldly, skilful, adroit [MUNENGES ‘suited for public life’]
munese - civic, public [MUNEISES]
munifa - splendor; (drama) spectacle, extravaganza [OV ‘worldliness’, from MUNEOS ‘public life’]
munifse - splendid, magnificent
munizát - creativity; fanciness, complication
munizul - fancy, elaborate; creative
yon munizul cake
Munkeaš - Munkhâsh [MUNȞAS, from Munkhâshi Munkhâsh]
munkeašise - Munkhâshi
mur - ripe [MUR]
mura - wonder (OV name element) [MIURA]
murca - magnet [TASIMURCA, from Cuêzi tâsimurga ‘pull-stone’]
murebode - fantasy; fantastic, fabulous [Cuêzi mūreboede, from mūra ‘wonder’]
Murere - Cuzeian name [Mūrorē ‘wonder’]
mürič - a Xurnese silver coin, 1/12 ej [Xazengri myurič, Xurnáš miuris]
murna - dinghy [MURINA ‘small boat’]
Muroro - Cuzeian name [Mūroros ‘wonder’]
múrtany - murtany, goblin [NMURŤANIS, from Elkarîl nmurthankh ‘one who denies elcarin solidarity and is ugly too’: n- agentive + murth ‘community’ + -ban ‘anti’ + -kh depreciative]
müsa - cape, point
musca - fly [OV, diminutive of musa ‘flying insect’, from MUSA]
muše - many [MUSCES]
mušcote - complex [‘many-sides’]
mušorale - polychromatic [‘many-colored’]
mutec - vt lend [MUTEC ‘be loaned’]
zet mutec be lent, be on loan
mutec soa pavona drukán lend the wagon to a neighbor
Soa pavona zet mutce drukán The wagon was lent to a neighbor
muteo - loan [MUTEIO]
Mútkün - Mútkün [Central dialect Barakhinei, ‘land of terror’]
mutkünise - Mútküni
muyo - peril [MULGO]
muyotene - perilous
mužo - roar [MUIO]
mužoan - vi roar
myasnáe - butchershop
myaso - meat [MILASO]
myaso ogudul a roast
myasoát - butchery
myasocreže - carnivorous [‘meat-eat’]
- butcher
myassose - gravy [‘meat-sauce’]
myasulo - meatball


nabiratei - shipyard [Kebreni nabiratei, from nabira ‘ship’]
nabro - ship captain [Kebreni nabreu ‘shipmaster’; see navira]
nacuy - manhood, adulthood, maturity [NACUIS]
nacuyát - manhood ceremony (Caďinorian paganism)
načal - rule, administration [NAITEL, northern dialectal form of NACTEL ‘government’]
načalan - vt rule, administer (the distinction between načalan and nažan is similar to that between head of government and head of state)
načalát - authority
načaúl - ruler; administrator, manager
Naďanél - Eleďe name [OV Naťanael]
-náe - place (suffix) [NAURE]
naga - foot; paw (pl. naži) [NAGA]
nagacot - infantry [‘foot side’]
nagana - delta (of a river) [NAGANDA ‘footlands’]
naglädec - pedestrian [‘foot-goer’]
- tramp, hobo [‘foot’ + pejorative suffix -obo]
Namašo - Cuzeian name [Namāsio ‘lordliness’]
nameran - vi intend [NAMAERAN]
namerec - intentional
namerece intentionally, on purpose
namerát - intent, purpose
nan - north [NAN]
nana mažtana the north part of the city
mažtana nanán a city to the north
až Vyatán nanán north of Vyat
nanilo - n person from Nan
napa - dregs, lees, sediment [NAPPA ‘dirt, dregs, crust’]
narnë - n orange; breast; adj orange [NARANGE]
naroda - crowd; the masses [NAURONDA ‘world, populace’, from NAURE ‘place’]
nařo - two-sheds (OV name element)
nasčura - burden; freight; fee, charge [NACITURA]
nasinnáe - cargo hold
nasitan - vt carry, transport [NACITAN]
Siča nasitai I’m pregnant
nasitát - pregnancy
nasitel - cargo, load; transportation
nasitse - pregnant
nasitul - passenger
Nasuael - Nasuael Swamp [NANSUUELOS, loan-translation of Cuêzi (guiscue) Lacatosūelo, ‘North Sūelas (Swamp)’]
naštory - the title of the ruler of Mútkün; the large gold coin of Mútkün [Barakhinei nashtorî ‘ruler’, agentive of NACTAN]
Natalia - Eleďe name [OV Natalia]
Naunai - the smallest of Almea’s moons [NOUNAHIS ‘rain-moon’]
naurondise - global, universal; (religion) Catholic [*NAURONDISES, ‘of the world’]
Aďeton Naurondise i Avéla Avélan Catholic Church
navira - ship [Kebreni nabira, from nabru ‘to sail’]
navirora - navy
navirora celdonisë the merchant marine
naž - realm, state, nation [back-formation from nažan, replacing OV nažel]
naž orayec vassal state
naž satre sovereign state
nažan - vt rule, reign [NACTAN ‘govern’]
naždenë - n postal service (generally, only for government or nobles’ documents); adj postal [‘state document (service)’]
dan pisá naždenen mail a letter
lažec pisá naždenëi get a letter
nažeza - couch [NAGENSA, i.e. a place for the NAGET ‘feet’]
ne - prep at, by
ne kunnáen at the brokerage
ne šriftanáen at the university
ne ďerán at the door
esli esmei ne susaren if you’ll be by the store
ne - the 25th letter of the Verdurian alphabet, N, transliterated N [NE]
në- - nine
necöd - white of an egg; flesh of a fruit [‘by the core’]
nëcto - someone [NIES ‘someone’ + -kto pronominal suffix]
nečan - vt enchant [NETUAN]
Nečeron - God of Craft [NECŤERUON]
nedizi - banana [from a Rafsani language]
neletan - vt pounce, spring, swoop down (on) [‘fly at’]
Soa gurë nelete so gudun The lion pounces on the antelope
neletel - pounce
neletse - aggressive, in your face
nema - niece [NECIMA ‘little daughter’]
nemo - nephew [OV meďmo, memo, from MEĎIMA ‘little son’, altered to match nema and nepo]
nenalte - repetition of the same accented syllable [‘same accent’]
nenapiye - simultaneous [‘same-time’]
nenavuá - alliteration [‘same sound’]
tene nenavuá com ‘Corona’ alliterates with ‘rožy’
nenavuora - a dictionary of alliteration
nenë - adj same; n something which is the same, a match [NENGES]
nënë - invar. adj. naughty, bad, mischievous [baby-talk for durnë ‘bad’]
nenëcote - equilateral [‘same side’]
nënësa - naughtiness, mischief
neneresau - rhyme [reborrowing of NENERESAU, from Cuêzi nēgerêsāu ‘same ending’]
nengeca - grammatical agreement [reborrowing of NENGECA ‘sameness’]
nepa - granddaughter [NEPA]
nepo - grandson [NEPO]
neron - guild [NERONOS]
nëron - n saint; adj saintly; holy [augmentative of NIER ‘holy’]
nërona - n female saint
nëronát - holiness, sanctity; sainthood
Néronden - the sixth day of the week, generally market day [‘Nečeron’s day’]
neronë - masterpiece (i.e. work required for guild membership)
- guild member
voitec še neronom be accepted as a (guild) member
neronsäte - guild hall [‘guild hall’]
nes - birth [NESSOS]
čel nesei birthplace
-nes - born to; e.g. Nanes ‘north-born’ (OV name element) [OV nesc, from NESEC ‘being born’]
nesan - vi be born [NEN (root NES-)]
Nesnai im Pelymán I was born in Pelym
nesčena - birth celebration; birthday [‘birth-meal’]
Nesina - the Goddess of Birth [‘birth’ + fem. -ina]
Neskaryu - Christmas [‘birth of grace’]
nesë - native, innate [NESISES, from NEN ‘be born’]
nesšrifta - instinct, innate knowledge (first s is silent) [‘born-knowledge’]
nesšrifec - vt know by instinct [‘born-know’]
neššrifë - instinctual, innate
netrogan - vt contact [‘touch at’]
netrogulo - contact
nev - nine [NEBRI]
neyže - snow [NEICTE]
neyžen - vi snow
nezi - island [NEZIS]
neziom - islander
neziora - archipelago
soa Neziora the Nesian Archipelago
nežesán - adv at home [ne žesán]
nežne - delicate [NEGINES]
nežnesa - delicacy
nežura - blizzard, snowstorm
ni - neither, nor [NIS]
nib - any [NIB]
nibcë - anywhere (nibcë nibcëi nibcëm nibcën)
níbece - at all
nibke - anyone; declined like ke
nibkiam - anytime
nibkio - anything; declined like kio
nibktë - (archaic and dialectal) anywhere
Nicano - Eleďe name [OV Nicanor]
Nícolo - Eleďe name [OV Nicolao]
nid - nest; hive; lair (pl. nizĭ) [NIDOS]
nidip - croak, ribbit [imitative]
nidipan - vi croak
niëma - park [NIERIMA ‘shrine’, diminutive of NIER ‘holy’]
nikagdá - never [NIKEDA, influenced by fsëgdá]
nikto - no one [NIKTO]
nikudá - nowhere [NIKUDA]
nilne - skirt; (slang) woman [Ismaîn nylne, from nyln ‘wrap’, from NIULEN; originally the word referred to an Ismaîn style of dress]
sevan nilna redelcëi to sleep with a woman
sevan nilna uestun to give oneself to a man
nilnura - womanizing
nilnurec - womanizer
nimašea - assumption
nimašir - vt assume, presume [‘plan to think’]
nimea - dare
nimec - vi dare [NIMEC ‘plan to’]
Len nimao eseyer I dare you to try it
Niore - Cuzeian name [niōre ‘beauty]
niru - machine, engine [NIRUS ‘machine, contraption’]
So niru beže/bošne The machine is on/off
nirul - device, apparatus [dim. of ‘machine’]
niruom - robot
niruisát - folly
niruise - foolish [reborrowing of NIRUISES; see nrüsk]
niruy - mechanical, industrial
nirto - often
nise - gnome [NISSE]
niš - nothing; zero; as interjection, fine, OK, great (nišei niš nišán) [NISIOS]
niš fleade Verdurian name for the Q (q or ʔ) used in Flaidish
niš er niš absolutely nothing
Řo e niš It’s nothing, forget it
nišnoš - tangle, snarl [synaesthetic]
nivo - level; stage; place, job [NIVUS]
niza - fairy; a mythical race generally paired with the piza [variation on piza]
nizenäm - grudge [‘something to be avenged’]
nizener - vt take revenge [NIZANDER ‘cast down’, from Cuêzi nizanda, from nize ‘low’]
Ya nizendreu so kekom pirei esë I have taken my revenge on my father’s killer
Ya nizendreu and piron esë I have avenged my father
Ya nizendreu pro kekatán lië I have avenged his death
nizenesa - revenge
nizontu - nightmare [‘niza -showing’; i.e. dream given by nizĭ]
nizze - the lowest of the five singing tones; bass [NIZASES, from Cuêzi nizase ‘lower’]
niž - smoke [NICTOS]
nižen - vi smoke
nižeza - chimney [NICTENSA]
nižnise - miserable, pitiable
nižny - n subject; adj prone; subject; submitted; unresisting; (slang) wiped, exhausted [NIGENGIS ‘helpless’]
nižnyát - submission, humiliation; the state of being prone; misery
nižnyen - vi submit, grovel
nižnyen soán vencecán submit to the conqueror
šesan nižnyen force to submit, humiliate
nkaš - fear [Ismaîn îcaşe ‘terror (sown by advancing troops)’, from îcaşŕ ‘terrorize’, causative of ‘hide’, from IM + KASCIR]
nkašan - vt fear
nočula - together [NODATULA ‘(as if) tied up’]
nočy - night [NOTI, northern dialectal variant of NOCTU]
noďony - salmon (river-spawning ocean fish with orange flesh) [NOŤONIS, from Meť.]
Nóe - Cuzeian name [Nōue ‘rain’]
nogačia - usury, interest
nogačir - vi charge interest [NOGATIR, from NOGEN ‘squeeze’]
nolek - the large Floran gold coin [Flaidish nolleck]
nölne - lily (plant with deep, showy flowers) [NUELEN, changed to feminine]
nom - name, title; noun; given name [NOMOS]
ab nomán dalui in the name of the king
nom [ctelei] given name; (grammar) proper noun
nom anisei a name of a class with one member, such as priroda ‘nature’, or Almea
nom čelei place name, toponym
nom kestei common noun
nom mevei verbal noun
nom promevec pronoun
nomako - nickname [‘name’ + nicknaming suffix]
nomelĭ - weather (f. pl., -i declension) [NOUMELIAT ‘the ways of rain’]
nomen - vt name, call; deem [NOMEN]
nomen so sefam i avo lië name the boy after his grandfather
Zet nome Fon-atcê-siumé She calls herself Fon-atcê-siumé
nomise - nominal; by name (cf. guésise, amrábise)
nomisece namely
nora - daughter-in-law [NOSERA ‘one who weds’]
noroum - vast [OV nolruom ‘giant’, Flaidish noller ‘gigantic’ + -om]
nos - wedding [NOSOS]
nosäm - engaged [‘to be wed’]
nosan - vi wed
Ihano er Raheli nosnu Ihano and Raheli got married
nosnočy - honeymoon [‘wedding night’]
nou - rain (archaic; also an OV name element) [NOU]
noyer - vt drown (someone) [NOER ‘rain’]
zet noyer drown (by oneself)
noyra - yam, sweet potato [Flaidish niira, from Nanese nyara]
- vt knot
nozu - knot; trouble [NODU]
Ei tana im nozun You’re in a bind, all right
nožea - squeeze
nožen - vt squeeze [NOGEN ‘press’]
nožranen - trim, cut (hair) [back-formation from nožranoš]
nožranom - barber
nožranoš - scissors [‘squeeze-knife’]
nožu - night (OV name element) [NOCTU; compare nočy]
nožulea - pinch
nožulen - vt pinch [‘little squeeze’]
nožuven - vi stay, remain, lodge [NOCTUBREN ‘spend the night’]
So oraž mifne nožuven ďuni huyoni taë The storm spared two of our chickens
Piro esë sen šesne nožuven cum vlaín My father left me with my uncle
nožuvulen - vi (colloq.) spend time, hang around
nrüsk - fool; dwarf [OV nirüsok, diminutive of NIRUISES ‘foolish’, originally ‘mechanical, contrived, over-elaborated’; from NIRUS ‘machine’]
nrüske - foolish
nu - interj well!
nuconi - ramp [NUCONDIS, augmententative of NUCIS ‘ramp’]
- seal, otter (small, playful shore-dwelling omnivores) [NUTRIA]
nukan - flip, jerk; shift [imitative]
nüle - curl
nülen - vi curl [NIULEN ‘wrap’]
nültene - curly [‘has curl’]
num - direction, heading, bearing [NUMOS]
nümäm - awesome, awe-inspiring
nüman - vt dread [NIUMAN]
numícoro - the leader of the Arašei church [Cuêzi numīcuras ‘prophet’, reinterpreted as ‘lord of direction’]
nümin - awe, dread [NIUMIS]
numonten - vi direct; address [‘show-direction’]
numonten uestun (ad) Vyatán direct a man to Vyat
numonten pisán dalun address a letter to the king
numontu - directions, address
nun - now [NUNC]
nun iy žanmen sooner or later
núnece - adv (with past) just; (with future) about to; (with present) right now
Núnece crežnai I just ate
Núnece fäsretum We’re about to leave
Immezinai núnece atún esë I’m cleaning my room right now
nuncre - (law, philosophy) state, status, condition; (Caď. grammar) static tense [NUNCRES ‘current’, from NUNC ‘now’]
nuncreisa - (grammar) aspect
nunei - henceforth
nuotan - vi swim [Viminian dialect, from NOTAN]
nuotu - swim
nurir - vi develop; vt nurture, nourish, foster; raise, rear [NURIR ‘develop, nourish’]
nurža - food [NURICTA ‘provisions’, from NURIC ‘providing’, from NURIR]
nuržoš - manger, trough
nüs - nut [NINSOS]
nusse - determined, dedicated, tenacious [NUSISES, from NUSIAN ‘be set on (something)’]
nüstrava - nutgrass, a Téllinorese crop [‘nut-grass’, from its taste]
nusy - wedge; prism [NUCIS]
- frost [NUSCOS]
nušan - vi freeze, experience a frost
Ci-nočin nušme We’ll have frost tonight
nüt - scum, foam [NINTOS ‘foam’]
nuva - bed [NUBRA]
lübec im nuvan Rahela make love to Raheli
nuven - vi go to bed
nuvenda - loose tunic to wear in bed; nightgown, pajamas [nuva + hemd 'bedshirt']
nuvnáe - bedroom
nuvora - dormitory, barracks


o - the third letter of the Verdurian alphabet, O, transliterated O [O]
obad - prosperous [Caizu obad; from OV opát ‘richness’, from OPOS ‘wealth’]
obadan - vi prosper
obadát - prosperity
obela - nebula [reborrowing of OBELA ‘cloud’]
obelne - gloomy; dismal
Obenzaya - Obenzaya (a Naviu nation on the southern edge of the Plain) [Curiyan; from Obenzayet Ubiŋkayaz]
obenzaye - adj Obenzayan
obika - cloud [OV obelka, diminutive of OBELA ‘cloud’]
obleme - cloudy; blurry, diffuse; unclear
obly - wild boar (large, tusked, wild, forest-dwelling scavenger, related to the šuča) [OBELIS ‘tusked one’, from OBA ‘tusk’]
ocan - vi get, become, turn (temporary change of state) [OLOCAN]
ocan ošte to get drunk
ocát - state, status
ocdurnen - vi deteriorate [‘get worse’]
ocorbi - insult, outrage
ocorbir - vt insult, outrage [UCORBIR]
Odaivu - O-Dayevu (capital city of Nan) [Nanese O-Dayevu]
odaivun - tie, cravat; of or relating to O-Dayevu
- an obsolete letter of the Caďinorian alphabet, Ú, transliterated Ḣ
oďi - clitoris [OĎIS ‘knob’]
ofóriza - fertility
ofóry - fertile [OFORIS]
oge - ferocious
ogón - flame, fire [OGONOS]
ogorék - cucumber; knickerbockers [OV diminutive of UGOR ‘squash’]
ogudia - roasting
ogudir - vt roast, broil [OGONDIR, from OGONOS ‘flame]
oh - gold (OV name element) [OȞ; cf. ]
Oikumene - the Earth, the homeland of the Eleniki [Greek Oikouméne ‘the habitable world’]
oimorë - feces, excretion
oimorec - vt/vi excrete, defecate [reborrowing of OIMOREC, from Cuêzi ōimôurê ‘push out’]
oir - vt listen (to a sound) [OHIR]
oir so grom listen to the thunder
oiro! well! now then!
cot oecei second person
okronte - hideous [Okron, name of a monster]
Olašu - First month; also God of Beginnings [OLASCU]
Olesama - Cuzeian name [Olesāma]
ole - crystal [Cuêzi ole]
olf - nose [OLVOS]
olfkud - nostril [‘nose-hole’]
oligec - vt tie, fasten; group together
oligec so imfát ad soán feriorán tie the child to the chair
Soĭ zutĭ zam oligu The wicked flock together
oligom - partisan, supporter
oligu - group; faction, clique [OLIGU]
oligugués - oligarchy
olior - terrible, awe-inspiring [HOLIOR, from Cuêzi xōliore ‘thunderous’, from xōliu ‘thunder’]
olocec - (Caď. grammar) dynamic tense [OLOCEC ‘becoming’]
Olon - Cuzeian name [oluon ‘buttress’, from olue ‘hold’]
olotan - vt feel (in guts or hum ) [OLONTAN]
olotë - feeling, emotion [OLONTILE]
olotëte - emotional, passionate, turbulent
olute - fair [OLONŤES]
olotražec - vt deserve, rate [‘fair-get’]
olotražel - desserts, reward
-om - (suffix) man [OV -uom]
omár - lobster (large, sea-dwelling, clawed crustacean— on Almea, eight-legged) [HOMARDOS]
ombežel - resumption; sequel
ombežir - vt/vi resume, continue [‘move again’]
ombrili - navel [OMRELIS]
on - again; back to [RENES; from expressions like FAR ER RENFAR ‘do and do again’, misinterpreted (with dissimilation) as FAR ER ONFAR]
Ihano et gene on Ihano’s bothering me again
on- - child of: e.g. onkuzo ‘cousin’s son’
onäm - rations, provisions [ONDAUM ‘what is to be issued’]
- bring back, recall [‘bring back’]
- adoption (of a child)
onaudec - vt adopt (a child) [ONALDEC ‘home-receive’]
onavulo/a - great-uncle’s son, daughter
ondan - vt return, replace (conjugated like dan) [‘give again’]
óndelan - vt yearn for, long for
onegulen - mend, patch [‘sew again’]
onegulel - patch, mended place
onela - bath, spa [ONELLA ‘hot springs’]
onemu - book, treatise, essay [Cuêzi onaēmu]
onfasco - repetition
onfassec - vt repeat (an action); do that again [‘do again’]
zet onfassec repeat (intransitive)
onkusan - chew the cud, ruminate [‘chew again’]
onkusel - cud
onkuzo/a - cousin’s son, daughter
onkuzulo/a - second cousin’s son, daughter
onlažec - vt regain, recover, get back [‘acquire again’]
onlel - subsequent meeting [‘see again’]
ad onlelán goodbye
onleta - change; (slang) tit for tat, the action paid for by a bribe [‘back-coin’]
onmetan - vt replace, put back [‘put again’]
onmizo - refrain [‘say again’]
onnemo/a - nephew’s son, daughter
onnepo/a - great-grandson, -daughter
onnes - rebirth [‘born again’]
onoale - rainbow, spectrum [‘the colors again’]
orale onoalei a color found in the spectrum (red through violet)
orale is onoalen a color not found in the spectrum (e.g. pink, olive, brown, grey)
onoteran - vt recognize; confirm, acknowledge [‘know again’]
onoterul - attribute, property, characteristic; accidence
onotery - recognition; acknowledgment
onrälul - biscuit, biscotto [‘cooked again’]
onrëcen - vt meet (not for the first time), get together (with) [‘meet again’]
Onrësnu im ivrosäten They met in the library
Cam onrëcenam Let’s get together again
onsaten - vt rebuild; restore, re-establish, re-enact [‘build again’]
onšatabi - reconciliation
onšatašir - vi reconcile [‘love again’]
onteca - demonstration, proof, experiment; (school) exercise, homework, rehearsal; draft (of a book or drawing)
žuyse onteca scientific method
ontediďa - watch, timepiece [‘show-time’]
onten - vt show, demonstrate; rehearse, do exercises or homework [OV onden ‘repeat’, from on ‘again’]
Len ontmai soa aguma I’ll show you the problem
ontnáe - gallery
onumnë - fierce [Southern dialect onumnlës ‘fear-causing’, from NIUMIS ‘dread’]
onvižiát - induction
onvižien - vi induce, conclude by induction [‘expect again’]
onžanen - vi return (conjugated like žanen) [‘come again’]
onžanen soan mažtanan return to the city
onživen - vt cure [‘back to life’]
onživesa - cure
op - prosperity (OV name element) [OPOS; cf. opon, obad ]
opfë - victim; (grammar) direct object [OPSEL]
opfëë - adj accusative, passive
opon - wealth [OPONDOS, augmentative of OPOS ‘wealth’]
ora - collection, group, set [from the suffix]
-ora - (suffix) group of; e.g. uleta step, uletora staircase [-ORA]
orale - color [ORARE]
oräna - heaven [URAUNA]
oränise - heavenly
oray - estate, fief [ORAIS ‘obligation’]
orayan - vi owe feudal service to someone; by extension answer to, be responsible to
orayan soán šohán be a vassal of the duke
orayec - vassal, fiefholder
orayul - overlord, lord
oraž - storm [OV uoraš, augmentative of UORA ‘storm’]
oražan - vi storm, rage
orát - prayer
orel - ear [OHEL ‘thing for hearing’]
oreloš - pillow
orer - vi pray; (archaic) ask, request (of an equal) [OV orelačir ‘bend the ears’]
orer Mëranacán pray to Mëranac
orer and ciran pray for one’s wife
orer pro ciran pray for a wife
orest - true; loyal [back-formation from oresta]
oresta - truth [OREISTA]
perë oresta principle, basic truth
orestaše - veritable
orgöl - pride [ORGUEL]
orgölse - prideful, proud
oribrel - stanza, several connected lines of verse [reborrowing of ORIBREL ‘a turning’]
orivan - vt turn (something); (legal) appeal [ORIBRAN ‘turn around’, from ORIS ‘round’]
orivul turned around; troubled
zet orivan turn (around)
orivoš - tiller (lever for turning the rudder) [‘turner’]
orivura - worry, concern [nominalization of orivan]
orivuran - vi care about
orivuran and soán imfatán care about the child
örn - eagle (largeish, swift, majestic bird of prey) [UERONOS]
Óromo - Cuzeian name [Oromo]
oronde - diameter (of a circle) [reborrowing of ORONDE; OV orone]
orondei - 1/pi [mecredimo orondei po siturátein ‘ratio of diameter to circumference’]
orto - toe [HORTO]
co-pav orto third toe
ďun orto second toe
pav orto
little toe
pere orto big toe
trogan so el ortam do the impossible [as Almeans have no middle toe]
Oruseon - God of Wisdom [ORONTEION]
orusse - melancholy, pessimistic [‘like Oruseon’]
- gold; golden; a large gold coin of Verduria, worth 12 falĭ; similar coins of Caizura or Curiya [OV oh, gen. ořei; from OȞ]
ořek - the small gold coin of Barakhún or Mútkün [Barakhinei ôkhek ‘small gold’, from OȞ]
ořfäben - gild [‘gold-paint’]
ořil - the small gold coin of Benécia [ + the Benécian diminutive]
ořiznakir - vt emblazon [crivec oři znaki ‘write in gold letters’]
ořón - the large gold coin of Benécia [ + the Benécian augmentative]
ořpitë - strong white wine [‘gold drink’]
ořula - the Verdurian gold piece, worth 1/3 or 4 silver falĭ; a similar coin in Célenor, Krasnaya, Guaya, Solhai, Viminia, Caizura, Érenat, Denisovič, and Benécia
ořurokec - goldsmith
ořuroki - goldsmithing [‘gold-working’]
osän - master, teacher, tutor, doctor, guru [so san’ ‘the lord’]
osina - swallow (bird) [OSINDA]
osiresa - meditation [OISIREICA ‘spirituality’, from Cuêzi, lit. ‘away from the body’]
osiresan - meditate; deliberate, ruminate
oska - louse [UOSA + OV dim.]
- badge, medal [OSINDANTOS ‘state of having the eagle award’, from OSINDA ‘swallow’, slang for UERONOS ‘eagle’]
osol - donkey (smaller relative of šual) [HOSOL]
-oš - (suffix) thing [-OSIOS ‘substance’]
ošai - haven [OSCAIS]
ošora - pile, jumble, heap [‘collection of things’]
oštát - drunkenness
ošte - drunk
otál - as, also, too, furthermore, so [otre ‘another’ + tal ‘such’]
otál ošte dy so šoh as drunk as the duke
otál dy faye as much as is needed
otalmizë - witness; (Eleďe) martyr
- vi bear witness, attest, confirm [‘also say’]
otalmizo - witness, attestation, confirmation; (Eleďe) martyrdom
oteran - vt know (well), connaître [ALTERAN]
oterise - grounded (philosophical term)
otery - (deep) knowledge, understanding; specialized or occult knowledge; intimate knowledge (of a person) (cf. šrifta)
oti- - -able [Cuêzi oti-, passive of ties ‘can’]
otibeže - movable
otibruhe - useful
oticreže - edible
oticumprene - understandable, comprehensible
oticunëse - trustworthy, reliable, dependable [‘trustable’]
otidive - eligible, authorized
otiďeve - helpless, vulnerable [‘harmable’]
otiferë - portable [‘bearable’]
otifeye - pitiable
otinimašát - probability
otinimaše - probable, likely [‘assumable’]
otipitë - drinkable
otisible - avoidable, easy to miss or to lose [‘missable’]
- available [‘can be had’]
otitroge - touchable, not immune [‘touchable’]
otitšure - flammable, burnable [‘burnable’]
Otra - Goddess of Other Natural Functions
otre - another [ALTRES]
ktë de otren somewhere else
óuand - n neighbor; adj neighboring, next door
ovnel - judgment [OBRENEL, from OBRENIR ‘judge’]
ovnelaď - one of the gods of judgment in the Caďinorian pagan afterlife
ovnelan - vt judge (pass judgment on an accused person)
ovnelan ličim judge a case
ovnelan soán durnilán judge an evildoer
ovnelom - judge
ovnelse - judgmental; severe, strict [‘judgish’]
ozë - thus [ODIA ‘so’]
ožra - wing [OGIRA]


pa- - five (combination form)
pacpace - regular, rhythmic [imitating rhythmic sound]
pače - type of fish [PAITRE]
paf - swat [imitative]
pafan - vt swat
pag - rural district (Caďinorian law) (pl. paži) [PAGOS]
pak - near, close [PAIȞ ‘neighbor’]
so pak foreground
pakfäce - the recent past [‘near past’]
- recent
- barely dressed; scanty, revealing (of clothes) [‘near-naked’]
pakrihan - vt attend to, regard [‘look closely’]
pakrihát - attention
paktrogise - intimate
paktrogulo - intimacy; sexual favor [‘near-touching’]
Mife paktrogulam zië Ihanon She gave herself to Ihano
Prenne paktrogulam soe žine He took advantage of the girl
palán - broom [PALAZNOS ‘gorse’, from Monkhayu; cf. Meť. palajno ‘thorn-bush’]
palanir - vt sweep
palanul orderly, neat
palanu - gorse bush [derivation of palán]
pale - friendly (OV name element) [PALLES]
paléty - pathetic, sad, sorrowful [OV palletis ‘touching’, from PALLEN ‘curry favor’]
paluen - vt fondle [dynamic tenses of PALLEN ‘curry favor’, from PALLES ‘well-disposed’]
pan - five [PANŤ]
panföy - marijuana [‘five-leaf’]
papapir - mutter, murmur, mumble [imitative]
par - four [PAHOR]
parcota - quadrilateral [‘four sides’]
parcota nenëcotë rhombus
parë - bet [PARILE]
voitec/fäsir paren make/end a bet
irzovec/iššelec parä win/lose a bet
parënáe - casino
parëom - gambler
paretir - vi seem [OV parestir ‘be a great bet, be likely’]
parir - vi bet, gamble [PARIR]
parir cum drukán bet with a friend
Pareu dy nikagdá řo fäsrete I bet she’ll never leave
parna - mountain [PARENA]
parnahireo - earthquake [‘mountain-shaking’]
parnise - mountainous; (of language— due to the reputation of the Barakhinei) laconic, terse
parnora - mountain range
partore - quadripartite, in four parts; intense (i.e. the focus of all four parts of the soul)
parvunde - miniature [PARVUNDES augm. of ‘small’]
pařa - adv about, roughly, approximately [PAIȞA ‘nearby’, from PAIȞ ‘neighbor’]
Pasáu - Pahsau [Kebreni Paḣsau]
Pasca - Passover, Easter [OV Pasca]
paseti - visit
pasetir - vt visit; (colloq.) sleep with
Et pasetireu ticairon Come up and see me sometime
pattea - calamine (zinc carbonate) [PAŤETA, from Meťaiun]
pauto - coat [PALTO]
pav - little; (colloq.) child, kid [PARVES ‘small’]
pavdormi - insomnia [‘little sleep’]
pavičan - petty; having a selfish, unkind, resentful spirit [‘small-spirit’; cf. dombričan]
Pavel - Eleďe name [OV Pavlo]
paveta - mention, reference [‘a little about’]
paveten - vt mention
pavona - wagon, car [PAVONDA augmentative of PAVA ‘cart’]
pavonka - toy wagon
pavonora - train
paž - fish [PAIOS]
pažaka - map, chart (a schematic representation; cf. risunë, behdel) [OV pažyanka diminutive of pažyand ‘land’]
pažakát - mapmaking
pažakom - mapmaker
pažakora - atlas [‘map-collection’]
pážian - land, region; area, place (cf. scuri) [OV pažyand, from late Caďinor *PAGIANDOS ‘country’, augmentative of PAGOS ‘district’]
pážiom - citizen
pažusec - fishmonger, fish-seller [‘fish-seller’]
pe - the 9th letter of the Verdurian alphabet, P, transliterated P [PE]
- peace (regular, but in poetry sometimes declined pé péei péa péen) [PEOS]
pëč - stove, oven [PETROS]
pegeo - force (scientific concept) [reborrowing of PEGEIO ‘throw’]
peil - peaceful
pel - pell, a Uytainese grain [Uyseʔ phel]
pela - shovel [PELLA]
pela prozeca - spade (shovel for digging)
pela nasiteca - shovel for moving or carrying
pelánt - a Caďinorian silver coin (the price of a loaf of bread); a modern coin of similar value in Ctésifon, Mútkün, Hroth, and Barakhún [reborrowing of PELANTOS, (Bar. pelant) augmentative of PELOS ‘sail’; the coin was stamped with the picture of a ship, the symbol of the Caďinorian state]
pelec - street cleaner [‘shoveler’]
pelen - vt/vi shovel
pelerin - cape
peleti - fall, autumn
pelvo - bowl [PELBRO]
penda - stern (of ship) [PINDA (from Meť.; cf. Kebreni piit), modified to match teba]
penil - jam, preserves [Ismaîn penił, from PENIR ‘keep’]
- vowel [reborrowing of PENTEC ‘coloring’, calque on Cuêzi epâti]
peny - comb [PENGIS]
penyen - vt comb [PENGEN]
zet penyen comb oneself
për - rock, mineral [PIEDROS]
perař - patriarch, cardinal [PIDRARȞ]
Perař Avéle Patriarch of Avéla (Eleďe)
Pere Perař First Patriarch (Caďinorian pagan)
perařát - patriarchate
Peravon - God of Iron and of war (1st Age mythology) [PERABRON]
perčena - breakfast [‘first-meal’]
perčenen - vi breakfast
pere - first [PERUES]
perë - n whole; entirety; one; adj whole, entire
përecai - the Përecai, the Fellrock or Rock of Horror [‘rock-horror’]
perecrivel - preface, introduction [‘first-text’]
perelädec - president (of a guild or association) [‘first-goer’]
Diverum Poruy še perelädec We elected Poruy as president
peremora - a small galley [by analogy with ftoremora, tveremora]
përmácen - cement
përmáco - cement [‘rock-paste’]
permizec - vt suppose [‘say first’]
permizo - supposition
përnápa - saltpetre (potassium nitrate) [PIEDRONAPPA, ‘rock crust’]
pernese - firstborn [‘first born’]
perräme - eminent, prominent, distinguished [‘first rank’]
- rocky
përšruma - bitumen, coal tar [‘rocky pitch’]
pertróuen - vt discover [‘find first’]
pertrouul - discovery
perue - preliminary, introductory [reborrowing of PERUES ‘first’]
- million [pere ‘first’ + Caď. augmentative -UND]
perunec - superlative (adjectival form in Caď.) [reborrowing of PERUNEC ‘excelling’ from PERUES ‘first’]
peržanise - original, earlier
- source; place of origin; source of an idea or opinion [‘first-coming’]
pëse - sad [PERISES ‘mournful’, from PERIR ‘mourn’]
pësesa - sadness
Pësi - Eleďe name [OV Persi]
peš - crash [imitative]
pešan - vi crash
pëtan - vt play (an instrument) [PENTAN ‘sing’]
pëtát - playing, musical skill; concert, musical performance
Petinuma - Cuzeian name [Petinūmē ‘sing to God’]
Petra - Eleďe name [OV Petra]
Petro - Eleďe name [OV Petro]
petúk - rooster [OV diminutive of PETTOS ‘male bird’]
pëtul - musical instrument
pey - few
peylerë - esoteric, élite, secret [cf. leria]
peza - a type of vine whose flowers yield a bitter oil, used in flavoring beer, in the manner of hops [PEIDA, from Meťaiun peida]
pezer - vi weigh [PENSER]
pezy - weight
pi- - (prefix) paternal, on the father’s side
pica - m scorpion [PICCAS]
piďa - baby [from piďë]
piďë - n anecdote, trifle, story; adj small [PUŤIES]
piďiser - vt shrink, make smaller [PUŤICER, causative of PUŤIES]
zet piďiser shrink, get smaller
piďnuva - crib [‘baby bed’]
piďivolemát - reluctance
- reluctant, not very willing [‘little willing’]
- flirtaciousness, coquetterie
piflec - n flirt, coquette; adj coquettish
pifler - vi flirt [from PIFAEL, god of sexual love]
Soa šoha pifle and Ihanon The duchess is flirting with Ihano
piflora - flirtation
piflul - someone in love
pigre - lazy [PIGRES]
pigresa - laziness [PIGREICA]
pilači - blink, wink
pilačir - vi blink, wink [PILLATIR, from PILLIS ‘eyelash’]
pilava - glance
pilaven - vi glance [*PILLABREN ‘move the eyelashes’]
pilaven ad ďerán glance at the door
pili - eyelash [PILLIS]
pilke - ball [OV pulke or pilke, diminutive of PULA]
pipo - Daddy, Dad
- patronymic
piro - father [PIDOR]
piroi sen my parents
pirodan - bequeath, endow
pirodoni - inheritance, bequest [‘father-gift’]
pironáe - fatherland
pitir - vt drink [PITTIR]
pitu - tip, gratuity [‘drink!’]
pityo - drink [PITTEIO]
pisá - letter; review, report [Cuêzi pissâ, from pisî ‘write’]
pisadan - vi review, report [‘give a letter’]
pisadoni - reviewing, reporting; the cultural section of a newspaper
pisel - fold
piser - vt fold [PICER]
pisora - scientific journal [‘collection of letters’]
- smash [imitative]
pišan - vi smash, shatter
zet pišan shatter, become smashed
piya - a time unit of 3 seconds; metaphorically, an instant [PILEA ‘eyeblink’]
piyaviso - calculus [calque on Flaidish korbit ‘study of instants’]
- moment
piza - fairy, pixie (a mythical race; cf. niza) [PINSA]
pizarda - sexual desire for children or icëlanĭ [‘piza disorder’]
pizufëa - peony (plant with ball-like flowers) [‘piza-face’]
pkekpe - mosquito (biting insect) [Rafsani pkepke]
plasy - nerve [PLASIS]
platel - payment
- vt pay [PELANTIR ‘give coins to’, from PELANTOS; see ]
plavec - vi melt; disappear, fade away [PLAVEC]
šesan plavec melt (something)
plen - fullness
plencunëse - well beloved; plenipotentiary [‘fully trusted’]
plendën - afternoon [‘full day’]
plene - full [PLENES ‘crowded’]
faitan plene fill (+ dat.)
plenšrifta - knowledge, mastery of a subject; scholarly prestige [‘full knowledge’]
plenuestu - adult [‘full man’]
plenuestuë - adult
pler - pleasure
pleran - vt please; give pleasure [PLERAN]
plero - pleasure; especially sensual pleasure
pleronáe - pleasure dome
plesčë - spindle
plesčëníru spinning jenny, spinning machine
- vt spin (cloth, webs), draw out [dynamic tenses of PLESTEN]
zet plesčen be spun, be drawn out
plesčura - history [PLESTURA, from PLESTEN ‘spin, tell’]
plesčurise - historical
plic - copy, imitation
plicäm - model [‘to be copied’]
- vt copy, imitate [PLICAN ‘imitate’]
plinudan - embroider
- embroidery [PLINDUDO, from Axunašin palindudo ‘addition’]
plisel - vocal part; range, register [PLICEL ‘copy (of a scroll of music)’]
plom - lead (metal) [PLOMBOS]
mira plomei galena (lead sulphide)
mole plom graphite
plomul - pewter [stan plomul ‘leaded tin’]
plóe - bashful [PLOHES ‘retiring’]
plupauto - raincoat [‘rain-coat’]
pluy - rain
pluyešui - drought [‘rain-failure’]
pluyir - vi rain [PLUHIR ‘drizzle’]
pluyše - wet and rainy— the state before or after a rain, or during a light rain [‘rainish’]
pluyšel - a shower or drizzle; a spray of water
pluyšir - vi to be pluyše; drizzle; vt spray
po - prep by, per, at the rate of
po cemisan per kilometer
po anán fuaín soa semana (at the rate of) once a week
až Verdúrian po sues cemisen six kilometers from Verduria
covaler po dec ořulen to be valued at ten gold pieces
retdimo po diďan distance divided by time
Bogaty ešelai, esli et platcele po šeren I’d be rich if I were paid by the beer
Sotru po muaten čime I jumped a foot
poča - ground, earth surface; the land (as opposed to the sea) [*POTRIA, from *POTLIA, variant of POLITA ’bases’, collective of POL ‘floor, base’]
podimo - rate [‘per-amount’]
podline - authentic, real, essential, quintessential
pol - floor; ground; logical basis, evidence [POL]
polfond - foundation [‘ground-base’]
polfutruir - vt (obscene) give head to, go down on, have oral sex with
poln - skin [POLNOS]
polne - nude
pomäe - tale, myth, chronicle; epic literature, mythology [POMAURE]
pon - manly (OV name element) [PONOS ‘strong man’]
pona - (exclusive) lesbian, dyke; mannish woman [fem. of PONOS ‘strong man’]
Poncuna - Cuzeian name (m) [Pomicūnas ‘manly deed’]
pondrát - boldness
pondre - bold, audacious [PONRES ‘manly’ from PONOS ‘strong man’]
ponyore - the second lowest of the five singing tones— a baritone or low tenor [POMIORES, from Cuêzi pomioro ‘manly’]
pória - liability [Kebreni poriḣa ‘what is debited’]
poro - green onion, scallion [PORRO]
estë poro leek
porocesa - massage [‘kneading’]
porocesen - vt massage
porocan - vt knead [POROCAN]
porui - debit [Kebreni porḣi from po ‘down’ + reḣi ‘count’]
porute - marble [PORUNTE, Cuêzi poronte, from Poron, site of famous marble quarries]
poša - goosedown [POSCA]
pošáš - mattress
pošoš - pad, padding
potát - depth
pote - deep; square, two-dimensional [POTES]
čima potë square čima
potmese - navigable [‘deep-water’]
- position, location [POLEGES, from POL ‘ground’]
prade - honest [PRADES]
pradesa - honesty
prak - dust, powder [OV purek, diminutive of PUR ‘dust’]
prander - vi dine [PRANDER]
prando - dinner (largest meal of day, at whatever time) [PRANDO]
prannáe - dining room
praten - vi talk, chat, causer
praten cum drukin talk with friends
pratecole - talkative
precáš - peach [augmentative (to contrast with precok) of PRECOS]
precet - legal petition [PRECET ‘it is asked’, beginning word of such petitions]
precok - apricot [OV diminutive of PRECOS ‘peach’]
precu - beggar [PRECURILES]
predava - great-grandmother
predavo - great-grandfather, or any direct male ancestor [PREDABRO ‘(one who stands) before grandfather’]
predavoi taë our forefathers
3e predavo great-great-great-grandfather
prembušoš - corkscrew [‘thing for taking out corks’]
prenan - vt take; surprise; (colloq.) understand, get it [PRENAN]
Soa šoha prenne maris zië cum domžinan The duchess surprised her husband with the chambermaid
prenec - n indirect object; adj dative
presel - request
preser - vi request, beseech, ask a favor [PRECER ‘request (of a superior)’]
preser drukán pro meďin ask a friend for a job
presizer - vi beg, plead [PRECINSER, intensive of PRECER]
presizel - plea
pretäro - valet, manservant, personal attendant [PRED ‘before’ + TOTAUROS ‘servant’]
prezuden - passport [‘pass-document’]
prezuir - vt pass (by); skip, overlook, fail to perceive [PREDURER ‘pass in front of’, from PRED ‘in front of’]
prezuec passerby
prĭ - prep in front of, before; in the presence of [PRED]
prĭ soan šeíran in front of the palace
prĭ soán dalun before the king
miuren prĭ anëlin gape at the angel
pricurec - vt beg [PRECUREC, formation from PRECER ‘ask’; modified to suit folk etymology ‘hold (a cup) in front of (someone)’]
pricurec prezueci beg alms of the passersby
pricurec pro leten beg for coins
pricuro - begging
pridel - a Floran emur coin [Flaidish priddel]
prige - vicious, immoral, nasty [reborrowing of PRIGES ‘vicious’]
prigët - vice (state), viciousness
prigy - (one) vice
prile - real [PRIRES]
prilicole - realist
prilise - (grammar) definite, realis [prile ‘real’ + -ise]
priliseca - (grammar) mood, whether a verb is definite (indicative) or remote (subjunctive)
prilora - reality
primetan - vt offer [‘put before (someone)’]
Ilun primetnai kuna I offered him money
primeto - offer, offering; serving, course
primeto Decanei a Trojan horse, a seemingly fair offer that hides a capitulation
prinimea - acceptance, adoption, consent
prinimec - vt accept, adopt, consent [‘plan before (someone) (i.e. publicly)’]
Prinimao primetam lë I accept your offer
priroda - nature [OV prirodna, from PRIRONDA ‘what is real’, from PRIRES ‘real’]
prirode - natural
Priša - Eleďe name [OV Prisca]
pro - prep for, in return for; during, through; in order to; because of [PRO]
pro zet rizuir to amuse oneself
pro dy soa laitonora žanene so that the band would come
pro soan čenan during the meal
pro diďan for a time, for awhile
pro iverin for/through the whole winter
pro arašó eseyer from much trying
hostĭ pro leguan bones for soup
dyužer pro serán lust after a man
preser pro kunan ask for money
Fässce pro kunan He did it for money
Kedimo platreu pro ci-domán? How much did you pay for that house?
probendre - efficient
probenda - efficiency [‘for work’]
probesir - vt serve, follow (a king or other leader) [medieval *PROBAESIR ‘be sworn to’, from PRO ‘for’ + BAESIR ‘promise’]
probesom - loyal follower
procadë - prescription, formula
- vt prescribe [reborrowing of PROCADIR ‘order for (someone else)’]
- oracle; spokesman [PROCLIŤILE ‘one for speaks for (another)’]
- adj everlasting; adv forever [‘for forever’]
prodan - vt grant, award (conj. like dan) [‘give on behalf of (someone)’]
prodoni - grant, gift, award
prodoni nažei pension (yearly income granted by the state)
proetec - vi swear, vow; assure
proetec ab Mëranacán swear by Mëranac
Proetce nizener pro ci-meván He swore to avenge this deed
Len proetao dy e oresta I assure you it’s true
proeto - oath, vow; assurance [‘by this’]
profäsec - disciple (Eleďát) [fäsec pro Eleďan, one who leaves all for Eleď]
profura - pretext (m) [reborrowing of PROFURAS ‘case for (doing something)’]
prokena - because [PRO KETTAN ‘for what’]
prokibi - proclamation
prokibir - vt proclaim, declare, promulgate [‘shout on behalf of’]
prokel - curse [PROKEL ‘croaked’ (i.e. by an old magician)]
prokio - why; reason; so that [‘for what’]
proklir - vt curse [verbalization of prokel]
prolažec - vt earn [‘get by’]
prolesse - charming
prolesta - charm [‘for flattery’]
proletka - whore [‘for money’]
proma - two čimĭ, or two paces, a unit used in racing, etc. (1.516 m) [PROSIMA ‘little walk’, i.e. the smallest unit of walking; from PROSAN ‘walk’]
promevan - vi serve as a trustee [‘act for’]
promevec - agent, trustee; (grammar) pronominal
nom promevec pronoun
pronimec - vt propose, suggest [‘(put forward) for planning’; cf. prinimec]
Pronimeo irketát? Are you proposing a rebellion?
Pronimao dy pitum I suggest we have a drink
pronimel - proposal, proposition, suggestion
pronun - meanwhile [‘for now’]
pronunete - temporary
propreser - vi intercede on someone’s behalf [preser + benefactive pro]
propuyan - vi/vt drive forward, struggle, contend, campaign (for), strive to capture; insist [‘push for’]
propuyo - drive, campaign; insistance
prorivan - vi advertise, tout [‘in order to turn (i.e. persuade)’]
zen prorivan be advertised, be touted
prorivan and šeren advertise some beer
prorivel - advertisement
prosan - vi walk [PROSAN]
proseo - midday break, siesta; dinnertime; promenade, passagiata
prosfahen - vt speak on behalf of; represent, work for [‘speak for’]
prosia - (main) street, boulevard [PROSILA ‘boulevard’]
prosia Ilošora Ilošora street
prosice - adv almost [PROCICUE ‘nearly’]
E prosice eldën It’s almost noon
Ilet prosice atäpnei You almost caught it
prosiec - vi stroll, promenade
prosiom - city slicker [‘street-man’]
- outrage, furor, scandal, fuss
- outrageous, scandalous, deplorable
prosiřan - vi deplore, be outraged, make a fuss [OV ‘champion’ from *PROSIȞAN ‘fight on someone’s behalf’]
prosiřec - outraged, indignant
- vi journey [PROSINSAN ‘take a long walk’, prolongative of PROSAN ‘walk’]
prosizel - journey, expedition; promenade
proskadec - vt make amends, compensate, recompense [PROSKADEC]
proskadel - compensation, recompense, amends, restitution
prosnucoš - receipt [‘something for service’]
prosoter - vt jump for, clamor for [‘jump for’]
prosulan - vi pace [dim. of ‘walk’]
prosúlia - (smaller) street, lane [diminutive of prosia]
prosür - one’s own [PROCIOR ‘closer (to one)’]
prosuvan - vt pursue, chase [‘follow after’]
prosuvea - pursuit
prošáš - pole
proš - rod, staff [OV prosoš ‘walk-tool’]
prošalea - rest [PROSCALEIA, lit. ‘for a breath’; cf. English ‘breather’]
prošalean - vi rest [PROSCALEAN]
proše - adv next, then [PROSCET]
proven - vt guide [PROBREN]
provom - guide
provoy - mission, assignment, task
provoyir - assign (a task) [‘send for (a purpose)’]
prozec - (slang) penis
prozeca - piercing
prozen - vt pierce [PRONSEN]
prusi - inn [PRUCIS ‘waystation’]
pruso - innkeeper [PRUCION ‘manager of a waystation’]
pser - watch
pseran - vt watch [reborrowing of PSERAN]
ptaleo - covering; explanation, hypothesis [reborrowing of PTALEIO ‘covering’]
ptaleio beďelië covering all the facts, “saving the appearances”
ptoc - unit, member (emphasis on interchangeability; cf. žusë) [reborrowing of PTOCOS ‘building block’]
ptuyu - (dialectal) magician; trickster
pugeei - bankruptcy [mevel pugeei ‘act of termination’, reborrowing PUGEIO ‘ending’]
pugeise - bankrupt
puil - dusty; dust [PURIL ‘dusty’]
pula - sphere [reborrowing of PULA ‘ball’]
pulmon - lung [PULMONOS]
pulmonarda - tuberculosis [‘lung disorder’]
püna - fin [PINNA]
punsa - flaw, weak point [reborrowing of PUNSA ‘bubble, bulge, flaw’]
puřo - certainly, surely [PUȞOE EMEC ‘tiring to tell’]
pusa - flea (parasitic insect, larger than cutil ) [PUSA]
puš - puff [PUSCOS ‘puff of smoke’]
pušan - vi puff, blow
pušec - cannon, gun (the latter being large and experimental)
pušul - alchemy: formed by heating and blowing air across
plom pušul litharge (lead oxide)
pušpula - cannonball
puto - well, pit [PUTO]
puyan - vt push, press [PUHAN]
zet puyan (+ dat.) impose oneself (on)
zet puyan sa meyán wade through the water
puye - n upstart; adj bold; elbowing
puyo - pushing, pressure, stress
puyok - button; pimple; (slang) clitoris [OV ‘little push thing’]
puyota - carnation [PULIORTA ‘ball-flower’]
puza - bubble [PUNSA]
pyeri - regret; apology
mizec pyera zië apologize
pyerir - vt regret, apologize [Southern dialect, from PERIR ‘mourn’]
pyerir so ďam be sorry for the mistake
Pyeru I’m sorry


ra - the 20th letter of the Verdurian alphabet, R, transliterated R [RA]
ra ismaa Verdurian name for the i (Ŕ) used in Ismaîn
racont - tale, story; newspaper article [back-formation from raconter]
raconter - vt tell [colloquial Caď. ROCCONDER ‘tell tall tales’; see rocá]
zet raconter brag, boast
raďi - punt, flatboat [RAŤIS]
puyan raďa to punt
raf - just [RAVOS]
raf rafei fair and square
raf sudiel a fair trial (literally, a just sentence)
rafát - justice
räfes - just, right, sane, satisfyingly true
rafsany - Rafsani (a. or n.) [Barakhinei Rafsani ‘lords of the jungle’]
Raheli - Eleďe name [OV Raȟeli]
rak - crab (shy, clawed crustacean— on Almea, eight-legged) (pl. rahĭ) [RAIȞ, from Meť.]
rakan - cockroach (hardy, stupid, over-large, house-dwelling insect) [from rak]
rälan - vt cook (something) [RAULAN]
zet rälan cook (what the food does)
rälát - cooking [RAULANTOS]
rälec - (slang) pregnant
ralenan - vt entertain, amuse [RASLAINEN ‘divert’, from RAS ‘against’ + LAINEN ‘suffer’]
zet ralenan have fun, be entertained
ralenát - entertainment
ralinë - play, spectacle [RASLAINILE ‘diversion’]
rälnáe - kitchen
rälom - cook
rän - rank [RAUMEN]
rana - frog, toad (small, squat, jumping amphibian) [RANDA]
ranaföy - lily pad, water lily [‘frog-leaf’]
ranát - bureaucracy; entrenched fogbound power structure; the establishment, the status quo [play on rana ‘frog’ and ränát ‘hierarchy’]
ränát - hierarchy
ranetami - a land scam or entrepreneurial escapade [after Ranetami island]
- social class
rappan - vi crawl [RAMPAN]
rappec - reptile
rasfolže - affection [RASPOLEGE ‘inclination, favor’, from RAS ‘against’ + POLEGE ‘position’]
rasfolžer - vt love (affection)
raspuyan - vt lean, incline (against); count on, rely on [RAS ‘against’ + puyan ‘push’]
raspuyan soa nažeza lean against the couch
šesan raspuyan orelošán ad nažeza lean a pillow against the couch
raspuyec - form word— article, conjunction, particle
raspuyec surmetec conjunction (proper)
raspuyo - leaning, inclination
So raspuyo lië tróune plic His sentiments were returned
raša - sex, sexual intercourse
raše - sexual; (colloq.) frigging (substitute for futašny)
rašir - vt have sex with, make love to [RASCIR ‘entertain’]
Ihano rašre Rahela Ihano had sex with Raheli
Raheli rašre Ihanam Raheli had sex with Ihano
Rau - Rau river or jungle
raumen - insignia (decorations indicating military rank) [reborrowing of RAUMEN ‘rank’]
ravi - delight
ravir - vt delight [RABRIR]
Imfátĭ et ravü, še retĭ Children delight me— from afar
ray - shelf [RAIS ‘plank’]
rayora - bookcase, set of shelves
razir - vt shave (someone) [RADIR]
zet razir shave (oneself)
razo - an emur coin of Svetla; (Eř) a bird [cf. uazo]
razoš - razor
razum - mind, intellect, intelligence (part of quadripartite soul) [RADUM]
razumbre - intelligent; mental, intellectual [RADUMRES]
razumse - ordered, architected, contrapuntal, mathematical; pensive, thoughtful
raženi - effort; hard work; ordeal (especially, that attending a nacuyát)
raženir - vi make an effort, strive [RAGENIR ‘strive, struggle’]
Řo epei raženir pro osänán? Can’t you make an effort for the Master?
re- - pronoun prefix meaning ‘far, remotely’ [ret ‘far’]
reaž far away from
recom not very much like
rëcen - vt meet [RENCAEN]
rëco - acquantance, friendship; reception
dan rëcam Ihanei Rahelin introduce Ihano to Raheli
im rëcon dalui in the King’s company
recoltë - harvest; sixth month
recolir - vt harvest [RESCULLIR ‘gather crops’]
rëcora - company, acquaintance; audience; those present
rëcul - acquaintance
redel - maiden’s coming of age ceremony [REDEL ‘instruction (given at puberty)’]
redelcë - woman [‘one who has passed the redel’]
reď - waiter, clerk [RAEĎOS ‘servant’]
reďréë - minister (of state); officer
reďreo - ministry, administrative offices [OV reďriyo ‘government service’, from RAEĎRIS ‘serving’, from RAEĎOS ‘servant’]
reďreul - army officer; bureaucrat [‘little minister’]
reďunát - space; extent, extension; area, zone, region
pote reďunát square area
reďunen - vi extend [REŤUNDEN ‘extend’, from REŤ ‘far’]
reli - sowing; second month
relir - vt sow [RESLIR]
rem - oar, paddle [REMOS]
Rembau - Cuzeian name [Rēmobēu ‘holy peace’]
remir - vt row
remlotka - rowboat [‘row-boat’]
remora - bank of oars in an oared ship [REMORA ‘collection of oars’]
remorom - galley-slave; rower in an oared ship
řezen com remoromán work like a slave; be busy as a beaver
renemec - vt repeat (a statement) [RENEMEC, ‘say again’]
rës - dear; costly [RIES]
resteklo - telescope [‘far-glass’]
ret - far; distant, unmoved, cold [REŤ]
so ret background
retát - distance; coldness
retdimo - distance [‘far-amount’]
retec - standard
retparna - amethyst [‘(the color of a) far mountain’]
Reveca - Eleďe name [OV Revecca]
revolu - beard [Curiyan dialect revôlu ‘delighter’; cf. ravir]
Revudo - the Revaudo reform in Endajué [Axunašin revudo ‘newness’; use of the Ax. form shows that Verdurians took the form from unreformed written sources]
režne - fair, pretty [OV renžnee ‘most cute’, from ren- ‘again’ + žnee ‘cute’; see žnea]
režučia - ballad; a genre of sad songs, esp. for the guitar [Ismaîn rêʐujia, lit. ‘longing’, from REN- ‘back’ + DUGIA ‘desire’]
riasni - thigh [RACNIS]
So imfát asuine sur riasnen lië The child sat on her lap
ric - dominant (OV name element) [RIRIȞ ‘supreme’]
ricora - soapstone (Mg3Si4O10(OH)2) [RICOMURGA, from Cuêzi ricōrimurga ‘fatty stone’]
ricorek - talc (powdered soapstone)
ridë - laugh, laughter
ridibode - comedy, humor; comic, humorous [Cuêzi ridiboede, from ridi ‘laugh’]
ambresa and ridibode a sense of humor
Ridilenda - Cuzeian name [‘laughing maiden’]
ridir - vi laugh [RIDRIR, from RIDIR ‘smile’]
ridir eta misotá laugh at the joke
ridir ak soán dalun laugh at the King
ridonec - funny [‘laugh-giving’]
riha - topic, theme, focus [reborrowing of RIȞȞA, from Cuêzi rīxxâ ‘object of attention’]
- vt look, look at [RIȞAN]
rihë - mirror [RIȞILE ‘something seen’, from RIȞAN ‘look at’]
rilë - mountain range [Late Cuêzi rilîa, earlier rilima]
rilulë - ridge [dim. of rilë]
rinde - emerald [RIMIDE, from Cuêzi rimidê, from Elkarîl rîmiddên ‘great beryl’]
ripriroda - philosophy [‘look at nature’]
cum riprirodan philosophically, rationally and calmly
riprirodom - philosopher
ris - grain; seed, sperm; unit of weight, .002 ounce [RISOS]
risdan - vi fertilize, (slang) have sex (conj. like dan) [‘grain’ + ‘give’]
risdan žortan fertilize a flower
risdoni - fertilization
risdoš - manure, dung [‘fertilize-stuff’]
rislitno - rodent [‘grain pest’]
risnáe - barn, granary
e až im risnáen he’s out of it, forget all about him
risora - semen
ristrava - Belesao sorghum () [‘grain-grass’]
- drawing (study)
risunë - drawing (work); diagram, graph (a simplified represenation, or a mathematical graph; cf. behdel, pažaka)
risunulë - sketch, outline
risunen - vt draw [RISUNDEN, from Cuêzi risonda ‘drawing’, from risi ‘reed, pen’]
risuresa - offering [RISEI UREICA ‘grain rite’]
risuzan - vt illustrate [dynamic forms of RISUNDEN, i.e. ‘provide images’]
rizuir - vt amuse (someone) [dynamic tenses of RIDIR ‘smile, make to smile’]
zet rizuir amuse (oneself), have fun
rizesa - amusement, merriment
rizi - smile
rizir - vi smile [RIDIR]
zen rizir smile (may be used in past tense to avoid confusion with ridir ‘laugh’)
Cira esë ridre myasomán? Did my wife smile at the butcher?
rocá - epic [ROCCA, from Cuêzi roccâ ‘story’, nominalization of rōci ‘tell (a story)’]
rocia - (m) plot [reborrowing of ROCIAS, from Cuêzi rōcias ‘telling’]
rocura - adventure [ROCCURA]
rocuren - vi adventure
rodo - nice (invar.)
Roďa - Eleďe name [OV Roďe]
roďer - vt excuse [RUŤER ‘pardon’]
Urave, roďereu tardeca esë Please excuse my tardiness
Len roďu That’s all right; I excuse you
roďi - excuse
roheica - sprain, cramp [reborrowing of ROHEICA ‘twisting’, from ROHIR]
Hipsalďru/Tenao roheica im crurán I got/have a cramp in my leg
rof - ditch, trench [ROVOS]
roful - groove, engraved line [diminutive of rof]
rofulan - engrave
rofulát - engraving
rog - (animal’s) horn (pl. roži) [ROGOS]
röma - count; reckoning, calculation [RUEMA]
röman - vt calculate; keep accounts
römát - accounting
romobode - tragedy; tragic [Cuêzi rōmoboede, from rōmo ‘sad’]
römom - accountant; clerk
ronan - vt check; (military) patrol, reconnoiter [Benécian rûnan ‘add up’, from RUEMEN ‘count’]
roni - check; patrol
rosbrune - auburn, dark reddish brown [‘red-brown’]
roscašne - maroon, deep reddish brown [‘red-chestnut’]
rose - red (of hair)
royi - spin
royir - vt/vi spin [ROHIR]
rožát - madness
rožek - peg [‘small horn’ in OV]
rožual - unicorn [‘horn-horse’]
rožy - mad [ROGIS]
ruda - ore; resource [RUDA ‘raw materials’]
rude - raw, primitive
rüdile - dessert made of shaved ice, fruit juice, and liquor [Ismaîn rydile, from ryde ‘ice’, from RIOTOS]
rudom - tribesman, hunter-gatherer [‘raw man’]
Ruďa - Eleďe name [OV Ruťa]
Rufo - Eleďe name [OV Rufo]
ruk - speed [RUȞ]
rukwél - poplar [Xurnese ruxwel]
ruiso - alley
ruizer - trot [RUȞINSER ‘speed up’]
rura - country, countryside [RURA]
rurom - peasant
rurotá - social error, faux pas [‘peasantism’]
ruscurë - adj foreign; n foreign affairs, the world [‘primitive countries’]
Reďreo i Ruscurë Foreign Ministry
Rüše - Cuzeian name [Ruyise ‘red’]
rušisec - skate [Xurnese rušis]
rušiseo - skating
kumpa and rušiseon skate
ruřy - fast [RUȞRIS]
ruzbideš - (hard) cider [Xurnese rus bídeš ‘apple wine’]
ruže - red [RUGITES]
ružcöt - ladybug [‘red beetle’]
ružkuna - money lent at (high) interest; usury [‘red (i.e. bloody) money’]
ružkunom - moneylender
ružžue - reddish; the slightly reddish color of Westerners and Téllinorese
ryot - ice [RIOTOS]
ryotka - (slang) girl who’s frigid or unwilling to have sex [‘ice-girl’]


řačát - privacy
řače - private [KRAITRES ‘interior’]
řaf - arf! woof! [imitative]
řafan - vi bark
Cuonul eše řafřafe ak len? Is my doggie-woggie barking at you?
řam - cult, non-Verdurian religion (that is, not Eleďát or tësaďát) [variant of řem]
řanäm - valuable [‘to be kept’]
řandën - diary, journal [‘keep-day’]
řaneca - preservation, keeping
řaner - vt keep, hold on to, save, preserve; rein in (a horse) [ȞRANER ‘safeguard’]
zet řaner keep to oneself
Řanor - Rhânor [Barakhinei Rhânor ‘borderland’, from KRAIS ‘edge’]
řanore - Rhânori
řanoš - leash; reins [‘hold-thing’]
řark - saliva, spit
řarkir - vi spit [imitative]
řas - rose (the Almean variety has no thorns)
řasačia - blush
řasačir - vi blush [‘rose’ + -ačir]
řase - rose, pink [KRASE]
řasia - rosé wine
Řavcaëna - Goddess of Agriculture
řavy - courageous, valorous [ȞRABRIS]
řavica - courage, valor [ȞRABRICA]
řay - edge, limit; brim [KRAIS]
řay (pisul) hem, cuff
řaysaten - delimit, demarcate; survey [‘establish limit’]
- faucet, end valve [‘edge gate’]
- contraction for řo e ‘it isn’t’
řeba - spine; keel [KREBA]
řecäm - crust, scab
řecan - vt/vi scrape [imitative of a scraping sound]
ředao - belief [‘I believe’]
řédë - (colloq.) girl, broad, dame [redelcë ‘woman’]
ředec - vt believe, trust (in) [KREDEC]
Ředao Enäron I believe in Enäron
Řo len ředao I don’t believe you
Ředao dy ei rožy I believe you’re crazy
Řegoro - Eleďe name [OV Gregorio]
řek - cross [KREȞ]
řekan - vt cross
řekise - perpendicular [‘cross-ish’]
řem - sacred [KREM ‘sacred’]
lyö řem ‘very holy’— form of address for patriarchs
řemát - sacredness, holiness
řemát lë ‘your holiness’— form of address for clerics
řemnáe - temple [‘holy place’]
řemuris - religion; ‘temple worship’ as opposed to ‘philosophy’ [‘sacred worship’]
Řemuris imlebul a dissident hierarchy within Caďinorian paganism
řemuriste - religious
řena - (m) flint (uncrystallized silicon dioxide) [KRENAS]
řes - male dog [KRESOS]
řez - work [Caizu hhez]
řezec - worker, laborer
- task, chore, job (a small piece of work or element of a larger one)
řezen - vi work
řezen and baraďun zië work for one’s brother
Řezai comfantece I work hard
řeznáe - workshop, workplace
řezy - eternal [KRENSIS (earlier KREMSIS) ‘godlike’, from KREM ‘sacred’]
řeženát - lower class, proletariat
řežene - lower class, proletarian [‘work-people’]
řeženom - worker, proletarian
řežžina - maid, servant girl [‘work girl’]
řim - kidney [KRIM]
řimula - spleen [‘little kidney’, from its shape’]
řis - free [ȞRIS]
řisát - freedom, liberty
Řisto - Eleďe name [OV Ȟristoforo]
řit - pan (pl. řiči) [KRITOS]
řitčena - (meat) pie, casserole
řitčena tsessë (dessert) pie
řivo - mayor [KRIBRO ‘boss’]
řizo - root, source, base [ȞRINSO]
řizon - beet [ȞRINSOND ‘big root’]
řo - no, not; negative prefix [Curiyan hho]
Řo cumprenai bomřaneci I don’t understand conservatives
Nikto řo vule niš Nobody wants anything
Řo, dëkuy No, thank you

NOTE: Etymologies are not given for simple antonyms using řo-.
řoadfere - insupportable, unbearable
řoagoläm - unimportant, insignificant
řoamrabe - illegal
řoavulën - involuntary
řobekame - uncomfortable
řobelacatise - impolite
řoca - hook [KROCUA]
řocellele - opaque
řocen - vt hook
řocepele - unfaithful
řoconďayäm - indefensible, invalid
řocreče - unpleasant
řočilise - unusual, extraordinary
řočuste - infrequent
řodeďëse - upright, vertical [‘not askew’]
řodembrea - nonexistance
řodembul - nonexistant
Řoď - Hroth [Barakhinei Rhoth]
řoďul - rough, uneven
- impatient
řóece - not at all
řoečomul - unschooled, uneducated, having no or just a few years of school; ignorant
řoeššane - impossible
řofähe - incapable, unable
řofasil - difficult
řofayul - unnecessary
řoforte - soft, faint (of sounds) [‘not loud’]
řoga - plaster; gypsum (hydrous calcium sulphate) [KROGA]
řogonicore - incoherent, inconsistent
řohecuise - changeable, mutable, in flux
řohipcrivan - vt veto, reject (a law or form)
řohuvul - undyed, natural; beige
řoicát - absence
řoicë - absent
řoinye - unkind
řoisoncre - regular
řokunondise - inexpensive
řolele - invisible
řom - lame [ȞROM]
řoman - vi limp
řomifan - vt disallow; prohibit, outlaw
řomiyire - unobvious, obscure; unnatural
řomuán - nonetheless
řon - language [ȞRON]
so pere řon proto-Eastern
řonurul - boorish, uncultured, nekulturny [‘unnourished’]
řootimize - indescribable, ineffable
řooticumprene - incomprehensible
řooticunëse - untrustworthy, unreliable
řootisible - unavoidable, unmissable, inevitable
- untouchable, immune [‘untouchable’]
řopan - burp, belch [imitative]
- upset, agitated, uneasy [‘unpeaceful’]
řopronunete - permanent
řořa - minstrel [KROȞUA ‘street entertainer’]
řořuir - vi gargle [imitative]
řosënul - uncertain
- dirty, impure; immoral
řosmeric - incompetent, unprofessional [‘not a smeric’]
řošelise - awkward, clumsy [‘ungraceful’]
řošön - unattractive
řošriful - n stranger; adj unknown
řosudreme - indecisive
- hoarse [imitative]
řoteplene - incomplete, partial
řotošte - insufficient, inadequate, unsatisfactory
řoulele - unaware, ignorant [‘not perceiving’]
- neutrality
řovanul - neutral; impartial, unbiased; a third party
řovižiäm - unlikely
řovižul - unexpected, unfamiliar
řovoitát - virginity
řovoitula - virgin [‘unentered’]
řozadete - pointless, insignificant; meaningless
řozadi - pointlessness
řozentene - unlettered, illiterate
řožen - vt plaster [KROGA ‘plaster, gypsum’]
řožive - inactive; moribund; (formal or legal) dead
řucor - government [KRUCOR ‘control, administration’, from KRUCEC ‘govern’]
řucoriviso - political science
řuk - castle [KRUȞ]
řulo - clown [Kebreni ḣulo ‘idiot’]
řum - head cold [KRUMBOS]
řun - grunt [imitative]
řunan - vi grunt (like a pig)
řur - growl, snarl
řurec - vi growl, snarl [KRUREC]
řurc - vulture (large scavenger bird) [imitative of its cry]
řusec - vt govern, administer [KRUCEC ‘control’]
řucë ab itianán dominated by the heart (rather than by intellect or passions)
řusi - muscle [KRUCIS, from KRUCEC ‘control’]
řusi elirë flesh and blood
řusul muscular
řusiom - thug, esp. a gangster’s hired muscle [‘muscleman’]
řusul - civil, civilized, organized [‘governed’]
řusulát - civilization
řuy - wonder, awe, astonishment, confusion [ȞRUIS ‘bafflement’]
šesan řuim astonish
řuyan - vi wonder, marvel; to be astonished
řuyan prĭ bolyášein cebrelin marvel at the big buildings
řuzë - chesty, bosomy
řuzi - chest, bosom [ȞRUDIS]


sa - through [SAS]
sa- - sister’s (prefix)
sabato - Sabbath, Ceďnare [Greek Sabbaton]
sabelgom - veteran [‘through-war-man’]
sablia - desert
sably - sand; a stretch of beach [SABLIS]
sabrigan - overcome, prevail, win against the odds [SASBRIGAN ‘punch through’]
- soap [SABUND, augmentative of SABOS ‘tallow’]
sade - true, genuine, real; authoritative [SADRES ‘genuine’]
sadesa - truth, genuineness
sadëžea - stress, distress; harrassment
sadëžen - vt distress, harrass [‘pull through’]
sadëžul distraught, distressed, stressed out
sädra - sister [SAUDARA]
saďil - bushy, unkempt (of hair); bristly [SAŤIL ‘tufty’]
saďilënev - caterpillar [‘bristly worm’]
saeftima - septum [reborrowing of SAEPTIMA ‘partition’]
- vi float [SAS ‘through’ + ȞIRAN ‘flail’]
šesan sahiran make (something) float
Sahoro - Cuzeian name [Sauōros ‘salty’]
sakad - almond [SAKADOS]
saláncë - experienced, capable, jaded, cynical (without bitterness) [‘through troubles’]
salďia - feeling; experience
salďir - vt feel (through the air: e.g. temperature, humidity); experience [SALEŤIR]
Salďu froe I feel cold
So froát zet salďe You can feel the cold
salë - dirty [SALGES]
salele - clear [‘see-through’]
Salenie - the patron god of the ilii, in Caďinorian paganism
saluen - vt prostitute (neutral term) [OV ‘make dirty’]
zet saluen prostitute oneself, work as a prostitute
salui - prostitute
saluyora - house of prostitution
salyačir - vt make dirty or muddy, clog [SALGATIR]
zet salyacir get dirty, muddy, or clogged up
salyoš - dirt (on body, furniture, etc.) [SALGOSIOS ‘dirty stuff’]
salyuazo - pigeon [‘dirty bird’]
sam - prep without [OV sam, san; from BUSAN]
sam stekanan without a glass
sam ženatán without a family
sam sramen without shame
sam ďunán minus two
samaďise - atheistic, godless
samanëde - of unremarkable descent; mongrel [‘without lineage’]
samaraste - careless [‘without care’]
sambale - tactless, insensitive [‘without tact’]
- vest-coat [‘without arms’]
sambuše - bland, tasteless [‘without mouth’]
samcalseë - barefoot [‘without shoes’]
samďeve - harmless [‘without harm’]
samidikon - alike; unvarying, uniform [‘without peculiarities’]
samiose - merciless
Samirh - Cuzeian name [Samīrex ‘brightness’]
samiscrene - heartless, inhuman, irresponsible [‘without feeling’]
samlëce - separate, distinct [‘without link’]
samlele - blind [‘without sight’]
samlukule - blameless, not guilty [‘without guilt’]
- anonymous [‘nameless’]
samnurža - fast [‘without food’]
samnuržen - vi fast
samolotë - n apathy, lack of interest; adj apathetic [‘without feeling’]
sampire - n orphan (without parents); adj orphaned [‘without parents’]
samplom - sphalerite, blende (zinc sulphide) [‘without lead’]
gent samplomei zinc
sampunse - flawless, intact [‘without flaw’]
- countless, without number [‘without calculation’]
Soĭ almeĭ samrömĭ the Uncounted Worlds (created by Eleď)
samřaye - unlimited, boundless [‘without limit’]
samředao - unbelief [‘without belief’]
samředë - unbeliever
samřeze - idle; unemployed, out of work [‘without work’]
samsfahe - mute [‘without speech’]
samsluše - deaf [‘without hearing’]
samsubrele - futile, in vain [‘without result’]
samsrame - shameless, unscrupulous; scoundrel, someone without shame or conscience [‘without shame’]
samšene - restless [‘without rest’]
samtroge - insensitive, numb, unable to feel by touch [‘without touch’]
Samuilo - Eleďe name [OV Samuel]
samuverát - nudity
samuvere - nude [‘without clothes’]
samvale - worthless [‘without worth’]
samveaďe - uncharitable, loveless [‘without love’]
samvoloe - apathetic, uncaring, unfeeling [‘without will’]
sanceloše - constant, incesstant [‘without a gap’]
sanci - recruit, inductee, newbie [sam cistilan ‘without a crown’, i.e. without the decoration for a year’s service]
sancuraya - nonsense [‘without reason’]
sancurayne - nonsensical
sančerene - imprudent [‘without prudence’]
sančuce - innocent [‘spotless’]
sančucesa - innocence
sandálua - republic [‘without a king’]
sane - well [SANDES]
sangaënát - relief; reprieve
sangaëne - relieved, reprieved [sam gaiein ‘without the fates’— i.e. having escaped or avoided disaster]
sangués - anarchy, anarchism [‘without-power’]
sanguesom - anarchist
- duplicitous, corrupt, unprincipled; sin vergüenza [‘without integrity’]
Ei sangucöre? Have you no shame?
sankaše - fearless [‘without fear’]
sankeše - eternal, endless [‘without end’]
sankune - penniless [‘without money’]
sankuse - desperate, rash [‘without counsel’]
sannačir - vi/vt lord it over (people), be domineering or overbearing
sannanke - arrogant [Ctésifoni dialect: sanno ‘lord’ + pejorative suffix]
sannankesa - arrogance
sannei - lady [SANNEIS]
sanno - lord [OV sano; spelling corrected from the original SANNO]
santele - mere [‘without each other’]
sanženate - without a family [‘without family’]
sanžene - vacant [‘without people’]
sar - east [SAR]
Sara - Eleďe name [OV Sarra]
Sarena - Cuzeian name [Sarēina ‘easterner’]
sarilo - Easterner (one speaking the original or an early Eastern language)
sarise - Eastern (relating to the language family)
Sarnáe - Sarnáe [SARNAURE‘east land’]
sarnar - n. and adj. Sarnáean
Sarroc - Sarroc, the Caďinorian language of Sarnáe [Sarroc ‘east’ from SAR + loc from Munkhâshi ‘speech’]
sas - the 14th letter of the Verdurian alphabet, S, transliterated S [reborrowing of SAS; OV sa]
sasavi - a small gold coin of Ismahi [Ismaîn sasavi, from SAŤAE HIBU ‘tufted owl’; the coin bears the image of this bird]
sascuraya - investigation, research; legal or scientific inquiry
sascurien - investigate, research [reborrowing of SASCURIEN ‘make an official inquiry’]
sasna - pine (tall conifer, generally prefers hills) [SACNA]
sašne - the large gold coin of Ismahi, worth about 2/3 oř [Ismaîn saçne ‘pine’, the emblem of Ismahi, stamped on these coins]
säte - hall [SAUTE]
saten - vt build; establish, enact; base (an argument) [OV säten]
saten šeíra build a palace
saten deväm oblige
sätevisanom - architect
säteviso - architecture [‘study of buildings’]
satotá - contraption, apparatus, jerry-rig, architectural folly [‘buildingism’]
satoten - vt jerry-rig
satre - sovereign [reborrowing of SATRES]
savakan - vt spy (on)
savakan soem ďeknamen spy on the Dhekhnami
savakát - espionage, intelligence
savake - clandestine, of or relating to espionnage [savrake ‘through enemy (lands)’]
savakom - spy
Savel - Eleďe name [OV Savlo]
savinte - bolt (mechanical) [‘through-screw’]
savinten - vt bolt (together)
saza - princess [SADUA]
sazana - princedom, principality
sazë - prince [SADUILE ‘your highness’, from SADUES ‘prince’— originally a crown prince, later any child of the king; in Verd. usage extends to grandchildren]
sažise - subsequent, succeeding; successive [SACTISES, from SACTE ‘after (in time)’]
sažuna - administrative region [SAIUNDA ‘military division’]
sažuro - governor [SAIURION ‘military governor’]
sbayu - calf [Western sbaîu]
sbayumyaso - veal [‘calf-meat’]
scaďora - century [SECAŤORA ‘hundred-collection’]
scafi - dock
Scafiora - the Scafiora (Waterfront or Thieves’) Quarter of Verduria city
scafir - vi dock
scaleia - gas [reborrowing of SCALEIA ‘air, breath’]
scerno - (mathematical) axis [reborrowing of SCERNO ‘hinge, axis’]
scescan - vt rattle [imitative]
scescan glavam zië to risk one’s neck
scila - shrub [reborrowing of SCILA]
seft scile hedge
scilec - shrubber
scolisec - indefinite pronoun [formed from SCOLI ‘how much’]
scorso - branch [SUCURSUS]
colir scorsoë gather brushwood
scorsok - stick, twig [OV dim. of ‘branch’]
scrifel - past tense [reborrowing of SCRIFEL ‘known’]
scrifteca - second-level academic degree (implying mastery of a subject and ability to teach) [neo-Caďinor SCRIFTECA, nom. from SCRIFTA ‘knowledge’]
scurë - ethnic group, nationality; (taxonomy) phylum [CICURILE]
- first day of the week [‘country day’]
scuri - country; homeland; where you’re from, where people are like you (cf. pážian, whose focus is on mere area) [CICURIS]
scustebran - vt mortify; humiliate [reborrowing of SCUSTEBRAN, from SCUSTES ‘dead’]
scustebrát - mortification; humilation
se - I [SEO]
-se - with, having (common adjectival ending): e.g. bracse, orgölse, želse
’së - abbreviation for esë, ‘my’
sea - woman (OV name element) [SAEA]
sedau - however
sefo - boy [Kebreni seheu ‘cabin boy’, lit. ‘climber(of ropes)’]
seft - fence [SAEPTOS]
seftima - partition, divider [SAEPTIMA]
segly - rye [SEGLIS]
tel segly a Téllinorese variety of rye
sel - salt (sodium chloride); or any salt [SAEL]
sel elcarin iron sulphate (vitriol)
sel imelilec smelling salts (ammonium carbonate) [‘invigorating salt’]
sel Mirašcarei Epsom salts (magnesium sulphate) [‘Mirašcaré salt’]
sel ševeië sal ammoniac (ammonium chloride) [‘salt of hair’]
sel vinnape cream of tartar (potassium bitartrate) [‘salt of wine dregs’]
selë - river [*CELERILE, extra-nominalized form of CELERE]
soa selë Eärdur the Eärdur River
selembre - natron (sodium carbonate) [‘bitter salt’]
selëzëču - hippopotamus (large herbivore, dwelling in rivers in savannah or jungle) [‘river-heavy’]
selkare - sodium tetraborate (borax) [‘salt of the Kara desert’]
selse - salty
selta - light [SELETA]
seltavát - lighting
seltaven - vt light (a torch or fire, or a cannon) [SELETABREN]
seloda - herring (a small ocean fish) [‘salty one’, Avélan dialect]
selon - bronze (copper-tin alloy) [CELONDOS, from Cuêzi cêlon ‘sword material’]
sëm - tar [variant of sima ‘resin’]
sëmačir - vt tar
semil - decent, proper [OV seme from CESMES ‘tending to be moral’ + -il]
semizi - forearm [CEMIDIS]
sen - me (dat.)
sena - bill, beak [CENNA]
sënan - vt test, try [CERNAN ‘sift’]
sëneo - test, trial
senge - presbyterate [reborrowing of SENGE ‘flock’]
sënul - certain [‘tested’]
sënza - human affairs; society; one’s affairs; things to do; occupation [OV syenesa ‘busyness’, originally ‘trials’; see sënan]
sam sënzan free, unoccupied
sënzec - worldly; busy with one’s sënza
sënzise - social
sëoliguom - partisan, supporter [‘my-party-man’]
seor - clean, moral [CEOR]
šrifta seorei conscience, moral sense
seorát - morality, ethics
seosulát - solipsism [SEO SUL ‘I alone’]
- male [CER]
Serea - Serea river [SERAEA, probably related to sar]
Serio - Eleďe name [OV Sergio, Seryio]
serizan - vt stare at [PSERINSAN, prolongative form of PSERAN ‘watch’]
serizea - stare, gaze
serse - manly, macho
- turquoise [Ismaîn seslines ‘nobleman’s jewel’]
sesuan - vt wet, dampen
sesue - wet [CESUES]
sesul - moist
sesüza - glaze [CESUENSA ‘waterproofing’]
sesüzen - vt glaze
sesy - acute (of angles) [Cuêzi sēci]
seše - dry [SESIES]
sešesa - dryness
sešue - heavy, dense; accented (speech) [CESCUES]
sfahec sešuece com Zeirein speak with a heavy Zeiri accent
sešuesa - heaviness, density; (speech) accent
seta - silk [SEŤA, from Meťaiun seťa]
- silkworm
- the middle of the five singing tones, shared by men and women— countertenor, contralto [CERTES, from Cuêzi certe ‘middle’]
Seuss - God of Children
sevan - vt raise, lift; build, erect [CEBRAN]
Sevasto - Eleďe name [OV Sevastiano]
seveo - construction, building [CEBREIO]
sevnilna - an easy girl; a tramp; a whore [‘lift-skirt’]
sevo - lifting, raising
sëvo - puppet [SERVO]
sevom - builder
sevúr - mortar [CEBREHUROS ‘building-clay’]
sezir - vi sob, bawl; pour, gush; rain cats and dogs [SEDIR ‘gush’]
sezu - dried meat, jerky [Barakhinei, from sezië ‘dry’]
sezuë - spring, font
sežlór - insect [*SECTELOROS, pop. form of SETECLOROS, from Cuêzi sêtecloros, lit. ‘six-legger’]
sežžihe - raisin [‘dry berry’]
sfafken - vi inform (add an unaccented i before consonants: e.g. past sfafkinai...) [OV sfaḣka ‘a little speech’]
sfafkora - information
sfahe - speech; pronunciation [SPAȞE]
soa Sfahe Verdurian
cot sfahecei first person
sfahen - vt speak; pronounce [SPAȞEN]
sfahen log speak a word
sfahen soán imbemecán speak to the teacher
sfahul - latest rage; celebrity
sfaise - dutiful
sfay - duty [SPAIS]
sfeluca - cavern [SPELUNCA]
sfečy - spicy [SPETRIS]
sfer - beast [SPEROS ‘wild beast’]
sferil - brutal, beastly
sferul - any small mammal— e.g. beaver, mole, mouse. Only very small carnivores (e.g. shrews) can be considered sferulĭ
sfesa - bundle, bunch [SPEICA]
sfeš - flash [imitative]
sfešer - vi flash
sfetnáe - grocery
sfeto - spice [SPETO]
sfetom - grocer: dealer in spices, cheese, and imported foods, but not wines, meat, or bread
sfetse - spicy
sfëz - fresh [SPENS]
sfica - nail (pl. sfisĭ) [SPICA]
sfutát - velocity, speed, quickness
sfute - quick [synesthetic]
sfuteniru - clockwork, moving parts, works, machinery [‘quick-machine’]
sfutlelen - vt spot [‘quick-see’]
siblec - disappointing
siblir - vi whistle; fall short; vt miss; disappoint [SIBELIR]
sic - willow [SICOS]
- adv just now, right now, right then, en train de [SITRA ‘at once’]
sičarb - lemon tree [‘lemon’ + ‘tree’]
sičel - n acid [nominalization of ‘lemon’]
sičise - adj acid, acidic
sičo - lemon [CITRO]
sičo šurë grapefruit
sičo verde lime
sidát - thirst [SIDANTOS, from SIDIS ‘thirsty’]
sidro - a condiment resembling soy sauce, made from trow beans [Nanese sidrɔu]
siďďi - serpent, snake (long thin legless reptile) [SIĎRIS]
siireo - roll
siirec - vi roll [SILIREC]
siiru - wheel [SILIRUS]
siirukeša - brake [‘wheel-stop’]
siku - pan-flute [from a Rafsani language]
Sila - Eleďe name [OV Sila]
silireca - tendency, trend
silirec - vi tend (to be), gradually become [reborrowing of SILIREC ‘roll’]
Soĭ prosiĭ siliru värhemĭ The streets are becoming dangerous
Óuand esë silire agasan My neighbor tends to be annoying
silor - need, necessity, lack [CILOR]
siloran - vt need [CILORAN]
silui - type of songbird [named for its song]
silva - forest [SILVA]
silvë - forested
sima - resin [SIMOLA]
simula - varnish [šerë simula ‘resined beer’— one way of making a varnish]
simulačir - vt varnish
sinmano - glove [CINTAMANUS ‘around the hand’]
sira - body; (Pauline) the flesh [CIRA]
siräbia - embodiment; incarnation
- embody, exemplify, model; incarnate, take on a body [CIRAHABER ‘wear a body’]
- bodily, physical; carnal [CIRISES]
siř - fight
siřan - vi fight [CIȞAN ‘scuffle’ (colloquial)]
Dobu, siřei ak sabelgomán You’re fighting a war veteran, hombre
siřcar - fighter
siřcura - tournament; match, bout (wrestling, swordfighting, etc.)
sisir - vi slip [CISIR]
sisna - gravel [CISENA]
sisna përmácula concrete
sista - chest, trunk, box [CISTA]
sisy - slippery
siš - (slang) sex, intercourse
sišen - vt (slang) screw, touse, have sex with [Basfahe variant of sisir ‘slip’]
siškuda - (obscene) cunt; bitch
sišu - jellyfish [CISIU]
sitana - yard, enclosure, corral [CINTANDA ‘surrounded place’]
siteza - loop [CINTENSA ‘thing that goes around’]
situran - vt surround, be on all sides of [CINTURAN, from CINTA ‘around’]
situriát - revolution, circumnavigation, orbit
(dimo) situriátei circumference
siturian - vt circle, revolve around, go around, circumnavigate [dynamic tenses of CINTURAN]
situroš - belt
siüli - eyebrow [*CILIULIS, variant of CIULIS]
Siysa - Cuzeian name [siyise ‘a flower’]
sizer - vi be thirsty [from sizy]
sizy - thirsty [SIDIS]
sižnáe - smithy, a blacksmith’s workshop or establishment
sižo - forge, furnace for forging metals [SICTO]
sižom - smith
sitre - immediate; sudden [reborrowing of SITER]
skaďu - sheep (Curiyan dialect)
skala - hut, hovel, shack [SKALLA]
skazir - vt punish [dynamic forms of SKADEC ‘pay’; thus ‘cause to pay’]
skazia - punishment
skiči - clenching; fearful shudder
skičir - vt clench; tense up
skičise - strongly, ardently; horribly
skičy - tense
skuka - tedium, boredom
skukair - vi be bored
skusku - silliness [škuašy]
slifi - cream [fem. form of OV slif ‘egg white, foam, paste’, from SLIVOS ‘egg white or any viscous liquid’]
slivura - ointment, (medicinal) cream or paste [SLIVURA]
- hearing
slušir - vt hear [CELUSCIR]
smeric - candidate for a degree; student; disciple (pl. smerisĭ) [SUMERIC ‘student’; see sumerir]
smernáe - college
smirát - humility
smire - humble; simple; unadorned [SIMIRES]
snocer - vt club
snocu - club [CNOCU]
snucäm - customer, client [‘to be served’]
snucan - vt serve [SNUCAN ‘obey’]
snucát - service
snugá - servant; farmhand
snur - rope [CNUR ‘cord’]
snurek - thread, string
so - the (declension: m. so soei so soán soĭ soië soi soin; f. soa soe soa soan soĭ soië soem soen) [SOH ‘said, aforementioned’]
söc - wasp [SUECOS]
- thorn [SOCLIMA, from SOCLIR ‘prick’]
soclezia - torture
soclezir - vt torture [SOCLENSIR, intensive of SOCLIR ‘prick, stab’]
socole - rogue, rascal, sumbitch (never truly pejorative) [SOLUCOLES ‘perverse, criminal’, from Cuêzi usolucolê ‘heretical, perverse’, from usolu ‘darkness’ + colê ‘loving’]
Sofia - Eleďe name [OV Sofia]
sokol - hawk, falcon (swift bird of prey, smaller than an örn, and tameable) [SOKUOL]
söl - (colloq.) drunk, potted, plastered
šendu söl drinking game
Solešo - Cuzeian name [Solēsio ‘truth’]
solial - sunrise, dawn [apparently from so lial ‘the rising’]
Solom - Eleďe name [OV Solomon]
Someše - Cuzeian name [Somêsie ‘dream of the sea’]
somoyu - one of the Somoyi barbarians [Western somoyu ‘river people’]
son - dream [SON]
sonan - vi dream [SONAN]
sonan eta suloreĭ dream about nuns
sönil - saddle; riding [ASUENIL]
sönilan - vt saddle
sönilec - saddler
sör - fate; doom; death [SUERTOS]
sörei (invar.) fateful, ominous
sora - community [soa ora ‘the collection (of men)’]
sorea - a love song, esp. accompanied by the guitar; a serenade [Ismaîn sorea, from sore ‘romance’, from fsora]
sorean - vt serenade, sing love songs; court, esp. with gifts and music
sosia - whisper, whispering
sosir - vi whisper; (colloquial) gossip; (slang) rat, squeal (ak) [imitative]
Sostén - Eleďe name [OV Sosťen]
sote - (Benécian dialect) great
sote - jump
soter - vi jump [SALTER]
soter tra fanka jump the crick
soter po ďunen čimen jump six feet
sotok - grasshopper (large hopping insect, often preys on crops) [OV ‘jumper’]
sotse - nervous [‘jumpy’]
spae - the pidgin of Karimia; other pidgins [Qarau pronunciation of sfahe]
- vt save, rescue [reborrowing of SPASIAN ‘rescue’]
spurir - vi give up, surrender [student slang; reborrowing of SPURIR]
sram - shame, disgrace; scandal [CERAMOS]
tenec sram be ashamed
Tal sram! What a pity!
sramdonec - shameful [‘shame-giving’]
srava - seashell [CERAVA]
sravec - clam, shellfish
feme sravec oyster [‘rough shellfish’]
srešo - stirrup [SERESIO, from Cuêzi sêresiu ‘thing for standing’]
sroly - intricate [CIROLIS]
sřonker - vi snore [imitative]
staf - ash (tree) [STAVOS]
- seat (of a comitana)
stampër - tinstone (stannous oxide) [‘tin stone’]
stan - tin; name of a large tin coin, in Verduria worth 1/6 of an emura [STANNOS]
stan plomul pewter
stana - an emur coin of Cerei
stanil - a small tin coin of Benécia [stan + Benécian diminutive]
stanón - a large tin coin of Benécia [stan + Benécian augmentative]
stanse - made of tin; an emur (heavy on the tin) coin of Curiya
stäv - straw [STAUBROS]
Stefano - Eleďe name [OV Stefano]
stekana - glass (vessel)
steklo - glass (substance) [back-formation from steklom]
steklom - glassblower [regularized from OV stereklo or sterec-lo, from STEREC ‘tender’ + LEO ‘glass (acc.)’]
stelika - dragonfly [OV dim. of ‘arrow’]
sterer - vt tend (a task or a flock), operate [STERER]
steria - operation, process
strana - beach; coastline [STRANA]
streli - arrow [STRELIS]
strelima - dart [STRELIMA, dim. of STRELIS]
streloro - fletcher or bowyer [STRELORION ‘master of arrows’]
stupao - rape
stupen - vt rape, despoil [STUPEN ‘despoil’]
subran - vt cite, quote [reborrowing of SUBRAN ‘follow’; cf. suvan]
subrel - result, effect; citation, quotation [reborrowing of SUBREL, from SUBRAN ‘follow’]
subu - (colloq.) idiot
subuďuďa - (colloq.) nonsense, ravings, babblings [‘idiot drool’]
suco - juice (of fruit or meat) [SONCO]
sucón - sauce [SONCOND augmentative of SONCO ‘juice’]
sučma - ornament, adornment, decoration [SUTIMA ‘little adornment’]
- sweat [SUDOS]
sud - court (of law) [SUDROS]
sudiel - decision, sentence [SUDREL]
raf sudiel a just decision; by extension, a fair trial
sudir - vt condemn; judge, prosecute (adjudicate between disputants); decide on [SUDRIR]
zet sudir decide
sudreme - decisive [reborrowing of SUDRESMES]
- six (combination form)
suedecë - minute [‘one sixtieth’]
suerë - eyelid [SUHERHIE ‘on eye’]
- six [SUEST]
suesbrak - octopus [‘six arms’, since that’s how many they have on Almea]
suetlen - vi meander [from the river Svetla]
suf - cork; the cork oak [SUBER, from Meť. suber; for a similar development cf. kef]
sui - squeak [imitative]
suian - vi squeak; (slang) speak up, say something
suin - (slang) loose, easy
sul - only, sole, single; alone [SUL]
řo...sul only
ac sul but only (if); unless
sul - young (OV name element)
sülcona - an emur coin of Kebri, worth 1/12 alat [Kebreni sylkona ‘dark coin’]
sulea - youth [SULEIA]
suleďe - a junior, younger [SULEĎES ‘younger’]
- young person; adolescent
sulete - young
sulinora - poem; lyrics; eloquent writing [archaic sulirnora, ‘verses’]
sulírn - line, verse [sur lirán ‘on a measure’]
sulirul - phrase; sentence, statement [‘small verse’]
mašre sulirul main clause
snucec sulirul subordinate clause
dičĭ sulirulĭ honeyed words, sweet-talking
sullimura - the part of the chest just above the breasts; also, a dress exposing this area [sur ‘above’ + limura ‘breast’]
sullimurát - decolletage
sullimurec - decolleté; low-cut
sulorei - nun, (female) hermit [SULOREIS]
suloro - monk, hermit [SULORION, earlier SULRORION ‘master of solitude’; see surre]
Sumeo - Eleďe name [OV Sumeon]
suméria - education, training; the first-level university degree (cf. scrifteca)
sumerir - vt educate, train [reborrowing of SUMERIR ‘teach, study’, from Cuêzi sumēri ‘study’, intensive of mēri ‘read’]
sumerul - ‘bachelor’, one who has successfully completed his university studies; cf. smeric
Suntua - Eleďe name [OV Suntuhe]
süpa - cap [Ismaîn sype ‘hat’, from SIOPPA; cf. šapa; Ismaîn hats are small]
sur - prep on, onto [SUHER]
sur sablín on the beach
sur pol onto the floor
sur banán Deštain on the way to Deštai
So ailuro e on sur mettan The cat is on the table again
Ilet cureceu sur letuen Hold it against the wall
süra - mother-in-law [SINERA]
Suraliha - Cuzeian name [sualixue ‘sun’]
surbarúc - cover; blanket [‘rest on’]
surbordne - coastal [sur borden, ‘on the coast’]
surcont - marquis [‘above a count’]
surcot - top surface [‘on-side’]
surčelan - vi concentrate [sur čel, ‘onto a point’]
surdena - fact [‘on paper’]
surdosen - vt take on, shoulder [‘on back’]
suri - mouse (very small omnivore, often lives in houses) [SURIS]
suriluvan - vt illuminate, enlighten [‘shine on’]
suriluve - illumination
surkest - class, genus, genre, overall category; nature of a class [‘above-kind’]
surmetan - vt add; load up (an animal or wagon) [‘put on’]
surmetan čina ad ošoran im umon add a dish to the pile in the tub
surmeto - addition; loading
surnavír - adv aboard [‘on ship’]
Suro - Cuzeian name [sūro ‘owl’]
süro - cheese; also a unit of weight, 100 hecurĭ, or 6.071 kg [*SUIRO, variant of SIURO]
surogonec - vt fry [‘above fire’]
surorel - earring [‘on ear’]
surpočen - vi land, alight [‘onto ground’]
suroš - cover
surošan - vt cover
surre - solitary [SULRES, from SUL ‘alone’]
surreca - solitude; monasticism
surselne - on a river [sur selen]
suršual - harness (for pulling a cart) [‘on horse’]
suryoni - puppy [*SURIONDIS ‘big mouse’]
- forehead [‘above eyes’]
sus - earth, soil [SONSOS]
Susana - Eleďe name [OV Susanna]
susaré - n shop [Kebreni suťarei ‘grocery’, from suťy ‘provide’]
susurk - stump (of a tree) [‘ground-log’]
susurkse - (slang) stumpy, shorty; (of animals, plants) dwarf, undersized
susurkse šual pony
süs - hiss
süsec - vi hiss [imitative]
susluoma - potato (a recent import form Uytai) [‘earth apple’, probably influenced by Uytain lyum]
susoviso - geology
suspilavát - suffering, torment
suspilaven - vi suffer [‘ground-glance,’ suggesting one who is always looking at the ground]
Arašó suspilavne? Did he suffer much?
susrevolu - moss [‘earth beard’]
susuleta - terrace (stepped banks of earth on a hillside) [‘earth step’]
sutam - a large gold coin of Kebri, Érenat, or Denisovič [Kebri suiťum, a king’s name]
sutana - robe, gown [SUTANDA, from SUTEC ‘adorn’]
sutela- elm [SUTELLA]
- vt follow; succeed [SUBRAN]
Et suvei? Are you with me?
suvea - succession [SUBREIA]
suvizan - vt stalk, pursue [SUBRINSAN, intensive of SUBRAN ‘follow’]
suy - none; not any; no; (grammar) neuter [SUIS]
Řo appaknai suyece I didn’t even come close
suynenë - scalene; odd, queer [‘no (sides) the same’]
- memory; tradition [OV sonzánd ‘conscience’, from SONSANDOS ‘culture, mores’, augmentative (culture being the ‘ground’ of society) of SONSOS ‘soil’]
suzanäm - memorable, notable, remarkable [‘to be remembered’]
suzanen - vt remember, commemorate, recall
šesan suzanen remind
Šesmai suzanen Ihanon sfaom zië I will remind Ihano of his duties
suzanil - traditional; commemorative; n souvenir
suzanoš - memorial
suzir - vi sweat [SUDIR]
Svetla - Svetla river [SPETELA]
sy- - pronoun prefix meaning ‘touching’: derë ‘behind’ → syderë ‘touching the back of’
syametát - electrical attraction; (static) electricity
syametan - attract (electrically) [‘bring touching’]
syametec - electrically attractive; electric
sybütë - accurate, precise [‘touch-target’]
syel - sky; heaven [CILEL]
syelaun - moon, sun (astronomical object with visible disk) [‘sky circle’]
syelčaska - meteor [‘sky spark’]
syele - celestial; lyric
syeleviso - astronomy
Syetnor - God of Wine
sylelen - vt allow to happen, stand by watching [‘look up close at’]
sylelen kekát watch an assassination
Kiel sylelcelei tšuran so dom? How could you just watch the house burn?
symetan - vt juxtapose [‘put touching’]
zet symetan adjoin (+ dat.)
sytäven - vt strike against [‘strike close’]
sytenec - vt keep something back, hold back, retain, reserve, hold out [‘hold close’]
syuer - outside surface [‘touching-outside’]


šadan - vt ride [SCADRAN]
šadec - rider, messenger
šadecĭ ‘the messengers’; that is, a commercial messenger service
lažec pisá šadecië receive a letter (i.e. from a private messenger)
šaden - knight
šadoš - carriage
šadu - ride
šagát - emptiness [SCAGANTOS, from SCAGIS ‘empty’]
šagati - vagina [feminization of šagát]
šalea - air; breath; draft of air; life; (Eleďe) the spirit [SCALEIA ‘breath’]
im šalean outdoors, outside
Note: The gas names with šalea are also seen with scaleia ‘gas’; but the former are older and more common.
šalea mičii ammonia [‘air of urine’]
šalea cipulátei fixed air, carbon dioxide [‘air of effervescence’]
živë šalea oxygen [‘lively air’]
fäsula šalea nitrogen [‘remaining air’]
šalea tšurei hydrogen [‘air of fire’]
šalean - vt breathe, blow; play (flutes etc.) [SCALEAN ‘breathe’]
šalečüta - barometer [‘air-scale’]
šaleme - intellectual; unwordly, ivory-tower [SCALESMES ‘airish’]
šalemora - intelligentsia (artists, scholars, clerics)
šaleza - fan [‘draft’ + -eza]
šama - bench [SCAMEA ‘bench, stool’]
šamek - stool
šana - district, one of the divisions of a fetöra [SCANNA]
šank - ham (pl. šanhi) [SCANȞ]
šansudava - submarine [Keb. śensudavaȟ ‘swim-machine’]
šant - song; melody, tune
šantan - vt sing [SCANTAN ‘wail’]
šantec - singer
šantecĭ choir, chorus
šapa - hat [SIOPPA]
šapom - hatter, hatmaker
šari - weed; (colloq.) marijuana
šart - an age of the world in Mešaic and Endajué cosmology [Xurnese šaruc]
šatabi - friendship (formal word) [SCATABIS]
šatametec - friendly [‘bringing friendship’]
šatašir - vt to love as a friend
šatem - hundred [SECAŤIM, diminutive of SECAŤ ‘100’]
šati - liking [SCATABIS ‘friendship’]
šatir - vt like
šaune - broth; esp. an Ismaîn soup with egg and bits of meat [Ismaîn şałnea, from şałne ‘hot’, from CALNES]
šaute - hide, skin (of an animal); slang hair [SCALTE]
šauteföy - sycamore [‘hide-leaf’, from the shape]
- vt skin, remove an animal’s hide
šautom - skinner/tanner
šaynesa - appearance; (facial) expression
šaynir - vi appear, seem [SCANGIR]
šaynece seemingly, apparently
Šayne ruže It looks red
šažy - empty, blank [SCAGIS]
šciso - tear, rip
šciir - vt tear, rip [imitative]
še - prep at; as; being (in this sense takes nom.)
še yen dobren being of sound mind
še dalun as king
še dalu muë being your king
še ret from afar
še polne being naked
še řošrifulán incognito
še šrifec dy núnece šušme knowing that he was about to die
voitec še neronom be accepted as a (guild) member
Še dalun e mudray As a king (as kings go) he’s wise
Še dalu e mudray Being a king (because he is a king) he’s wise
šec - showing (a quality) (OV name element)
šecu - hulk
šeíra - palace [SCEHIRA]
šekešan - finally, at last, eventually [‘at the end’]
šekšek - cacao (tree or seeds); chocolate [from Yamda, a language of Téllinor]
prak šekšekei cocoa (powder)
šeli - grace, delicateness [SIELIS]
šelise - graceful, delicate
šen - the 15th letter of the Verdurian alphabet, Í, transliterated Š
šen ismaë Verdurian name for the Ş (Ş) used in Ismaîn
Šena - Eleďe name [OV Csena]
šenan - vt/vi relax, rest; recede [SCENAN ‘recline’]
šenan soi kruri rest one’s legs
Siča šenai I’m resting
šeneo - relaxation, rest; détente
- hinge, axis [SCERNO]
šendu - game [‘something to relax with’]
šenduom - player (of games)
šerë - beer, a beverage made from fermented horže and flavored with peza oil [SCEREVES]
ďula šerë ale, a creamy, smooth-tasting, honey-colored beer
flavë šerë lager, a light (German-style) beer made with less peza
fužula šerë bitter, a dark brown (English-style) beer
Len šerë lë er sen žöh esë To each his own
šesan - vt cause (often used to make other verbs transitive) [SCESAN]
řuyan marvel → šesan řuyan astonish
skukair be bored → šesan skukair bore
ktüec suck → šesan ktüec give suck
plavec melt (intr.) → šesan plavec melt (trans.)
Kio šesne šušča lië? What caused his death?
šeseo - cause [SCESEIO]
Šësimo - name of a star
ševa - ankle [SCEBRA]
ševesca - long stockings, hose, tights, men’s tight trousers [OV šcevreska ‘woman’s leggings’, from šcevra ‘ankle’]
ševeza - sock, short stocking [SCEBRENSA]
ševei - hair (one hair) [SCEVEIS]
šeya - neck [SCEIA]
šeyoš - collar
šežuven - strangle [SCEIUBREN]
ši - every [SCEHIS]
šida - (colloq.) dude; cool guy; fancy fellow
šinenát - monotony
šinenë - monotonous [‘all same’]
šipom - merman (furless, primate-like sea dwellers; very likely the animals most closely related to men, iliĭ, and other Almean intelligent races) [SIIPOMOS, from Cuêzi sīipomas ‘sea-man’]
šircanca - loincloth, panty [‘around hip’]
šircaora - condition, situation
še agolec soa šircaora under the circumstances, as things are
šircau - prep around, circling or going round; n appositive; appositive marks ( )
Prosnu šircau soan mažtanan They walked around (circled) the town
Metne soi brakin šircau taleam lië He put his arms around her waist (or she his)
šircilura - bracelet [‘around wrist’]
šircšeya - necklace [‘around neck’]
širden - the second day of the week [OV ‘Išira’s day’]
širo - lieutenant [SCIRION ‘assistant’, probably from SCRAION ‘master of secrets’]
šišan - vt shoot (a bow)
šišan ven shoot a deer
šišát - archery
Škagon - First Age archdemon and Second Age Chief Demon [SIOKAGOND, variant of SOKAIGOND, from Cuêzi Soxāeco]
škuaš - silliness
škuašy - silly
šm - Dr. [short for šriftom]
šnin - pin
šninan - vt prick [synaesthetic]
šobosec - vt pickle
šobosul - pickled
šobóst - brine, salt water [SIOBOSTOS, from Meť. siobosto ‘salt’ + ‘water’]
šofe - chief, main
šofkešnáe - (military) headquarters [‘chief camp’]
šofmažtana - capital [‘chief city’]
šofom - chief
šoh - duke [SCOȞOS]
šoha - duchess
šohy - duchy
šoliser - vi cost (takes nom.) [SCOLISER, from SCOLI ‘how much’]
Šolise dechép ořulĭ It costs seventeen gold pieces
Kedimo šolise? How much does it cost?
Ifkio šolise Whatever it costs
šomë - fur [SIOME]
šomulo - mammal
šön - handsome; pretty [SCOLN ‘robust’]
šoru - darkness; 10th month of the year [SCORU]
šoruan - adj dark; medieval
soĭ šoruanĭ zonĭ the Dark Years, the Caďinorian medieval era (Z.E. 2107-2943)
šorucole - heretic, infidel, apostate [loan-translation of Cuêzi usolucolê; cf. socole]
šorudën - Good Friday [‘day of darkness’]
šou - cabbage [SCOHU]
šoužorta - cauliflower
šoz - thing; (slang) stuff [SCOSOS]
Kio e šoz lë? What’s the matter with you?
šrailoži - cipher [SCRAUIT LOGIT ‘secret words’]
šraizeni - code [SCRAUIT ZENNIT ‘secret signs’]
šray - (archaic) grammarye, magic [SCRAIS ‘secret’]
šrayom - wizard
šrayoma - witch
šrifec - vt know, know how, savoir; be aware of [SCRIFEC]
šrifec nuotan know how to swim
šrifec plesčura verdúrya know Verdurian history
Šrifcao dy so pretäro ya fäsre I was aware that the valet has left
Kiel šrifom kiom šrifom? How do we know what we know?
Zet šrifece Let it be known
šrifsäšue - know-it-all, wiseacre [‘know-all-ish’]
šrifta - knowledge, awareness, ability; academic or bookish knowledge; skill; acquaintance (with a person) (cf. otery) [SCRIFTA]
šriftanáe - university
Šriftanáe i Verdúria the University of Verduria
soa Sfahe šriftanáei standard Verdurian
šriftom - doctor, professor, holder of a scrifteca; wise man
šriftomora - faculty
šritihse - discreet, private [‘knows (how to be) quiet’]
šritihseca - discretion
šruma - pitch [SCRUMA]
što - something [OV tišto, išto, from ŤISIOS, remodelled to match eto]
šual - horse (large, fast rideable herbivore) [Caizu siwal]
šualcot - cavalry [‘horse side’]
šualnáe - stable
šualnaom - stablemaster
šualom - centaur
šualsanno - mounted barbarian of the south or west [‘horse-lord’]
-šue - weakening or disrespective suffix (nominalizes as -šuesa)
šuča - pig (medium-size domesticated omnivore, natural habitat being forests and riverbanks) [SCUTUA]
šučmyaso - pork [‘pig meat’]
šueza - afternoon [SCUREIDA]
šulya - noodle [SCULGA]
šupoát - avarice
šupo - miser [SCUPO]
šupse - miserly [SCUPISES]
Šura - Skouras (m) [Tžuro Šura, from Old Skourene Skouras]
šurë - adj Skourene
bomë šurë Old Skourene
šurilo - n Skourene; i.e. ancient or modern inhabitants of Skouras proper, not the Ečendi
šuščan - vi die (irregular past root šušd-: e.g. šušdei ‘You died’; future šušm-)
šuščat - dead
šušče - death [SCUSTILE, from SCUSTES ‘dead’]
šuščolotan - vt mourn [‘death-feel’]
šuščolotë - mourning [‘death-feel’]
šušnáe - cemetary
Šustana - death; one of the Caďinorian pagan fates [SCUSTANDRA, related to SCUSTES ‘dead’]
dëguran cum Šustanan plough the sea, waste one’s time
rëcen Šustana lose one’s life, perish
šustanë - deadly, fatal; dangerous
šuten - vt spill [SCUTEN ‘eat piggishly’]
šuten soa caua spill the coffee
šuten sur žina (obscene) to screw a girl
šutea - puddle [nom. of ‘spill’]
šutkrof - bloodshed [‘spill-blood’]
šuyan - vt give head


ta - we [TA]
tabo - lump [TAMBO]
tabosáše - (colloq.) pregnant
tabose - lumpy
taca - castanets, other clicking instruments [OV tacan ‘click, knock’; imitative]
tacil - sandal [OV, from the flopping noise they make]
Taďea - Eleďe name [OV Ťaďďaia]
Taďeo - Eleďe name [OV Ťaďďaio]
taë - our
taëse - relating to the Taëse (eastern Ereláean) race [taë plus adjectival suffix]
taina - secret [ŤAHINES ‘left-handed’]
tainise - secret
tagia - clan, house, family, dynasty; descent; (taxonomy) class [reborrowing of TAGIA ‘dynasty’]
takna - battle [TAKENA]
taknoš - battalion
tal - such; so; what a [TAL]
Tal beluana! What a beauty!
talát - degree, extent [‘suchness’]
- museum [‘storage hall’; cf. etol]
taleo - waist [TALEIO]
tam - us (acc.)
tan - us (dat.)
tana - indeed, truly [TAHANA ‘certainly’]
tánulac - zircon (zirconium silicate) [Xurnese tanulak, from Gurdagor ṭanulak, from Čia tran üleg ‘blood (color) gem’]
tapë - drop (of liquid) [TAPROS]
- either (one), (in negative sentences) neither [TAR]
tara matela either chamberpot
Kĭ redelcen marian? Tara et plere Which woman to marry? Either one pleases me
Tar den řo sen e dobre Neither day is good for me
tarde - late [TARDES ‘slow’]
tardeca - lateness
tas - bay [TASOS]
tasul - braid [shortening of testasul ‘woven’]
taš - cup [TASCOS]
tašiorta - tulip [‘cup-flower’]
tatatir - chatter, babble [imitative]
tau - the moral code [TAUOS, from Cuêzi tāuas]
täven - vt strike; forge [TAUBREN]
Taviďa - Eleďe name [OV Taviťa]
tayát - bravery
taye - brave [TAILES]
teb - rust [TAEBROS]
teba - bow (of ship) [ŤEIBA, from Meť.; cf. Kebreni ťiba]
tecai - dagger; (slang) prick, penis [*TRENCAIS ‘cutter’; cf. tëcizen]
tëcizen - vt saw [*TRENCINSEN, intensive of *TRENCEN, variant of TRANCEN ‘cut’]
tecla - key (on musical instrument) [earlier tecula, ‘small hammer’, from TAECA ‘hammer’]
teclora - keyboard instrument
tëcoš - saw [OV trencizoš; see tëcizen]
tëdene - modern [OV tendëne ‘having the day’, i.e. still alive]
Teďora - Eleďe name [OV Ťeoďora]
Teďoro - Eleďe name [OV Ťeoďoro]
tefalu - (musical) horn [reborrowing of TEFALU, from Cuêzi; replaced OV teflu]
tefalu bulse round horn
teho - trunk (man or tree) [TEIȞO]
teker - vi stand [TEKER]
tel - west [TEL]
Telarsanië - the land of the iliĭ in the Western Wild [TELLAR SANNOIE, from Cuêzi Atêllār Namoē ‘lovely-place of the lords’]
- elsewhere
tele - other
cot telië third person
sam telen by oneself, without help
teleo - instrument [ŤELEIO ‘invention’, from ŤELEN ‘devise’]
telise - relating to the Western language family, or to the ur-Western racial group (which also includes the Kagöt, Somoyi-Meťelyi, and Mgunikpe)
tellea - quest
tellec - seeker; one seeking after knowledge; postulant
tellen - vt seek [TELNEN]
Téllinor - Téllinor, a Verdurian colony in the far west of Ereláe [‘west-land’]
telnë - fine [TELNILES ‘worthy to be sought’]
telnëra - luxury, fine things [telnë + -ora]
teloro - instrument maker [ŤELORION ‘inventor’]
templeran - vt enjoy [‘have pleasure’]
ten - an obsolete letter of the Caďinorian alphabet, Ť, transliterated Ť [ŤON]
tenec - vt have; n (grammar) the one possessing; genitive case; adj genitive [TENEC]
zet tenec be self-possessed
zet tenec mese be in a good (benevolent) mood
tengintro - dynasty (usually used in plural) [‘sashholder’]
tenu - serf; pawn, exploited person [‘one held’]
tenuora - serfdom
teplene - complete [‘all full’]
teplenát - completion
Terásia - Eleďe name [OV Ťerasia]
terato - miracle; wonderful act; interruption of natural law (mezinë) [Cuêzi teratu ‘miraculously’, abl. of teras ‘miracle’]
Teronél - Cuzeian name [Teronelo ‘miracle born]
Teroneli - Cuzeian name
teřemát - firmness, solidity, constancy
teřeme - firm, solid, constant [TEKRESMES ‘standing (solidly)’]
teřua - stake, post [TEKRURA ‘solid thing’]
tësaďát - Caďinorian paganism [‘all the gods’]
tëscolir - vt (math) multiply [‘gather all (together)’]
tëscolir sfutát ak diďan multiply speed by time
tësculë - multiplication
tëse - all [TERSES]
tësece altogether, wholly
tësfáhe - discussion
tësfahen - vi discuss [eta tëse sfahen, ‘to speak about everything’]
tësfahec eta šoĭ er dalĭ discuss cabbages and kings
tësišan - vt explore [‘search all’]
tësitál - anyhow, going back to the subject at hand [tësĭ talĭ ‘everything being such’]
tëslerise - attentive, fully engaged, rapt; vigilant [‘all perception’]
tesnát - narrowness
tesny - narrow; slender, elegantly thin [TECNIS]
tëspitir - vi carouse, revel [‘drink all’]
tëspler - orgy [‘all pleasure’]
tësprenan - eliminate, exterminate [‘remove all’]
testasan - vt weave [imitative]
testasát - (art of) weaving
testasom - weaver
testasoš - loom
tësvuáë - unanimous [‘all voices’]
teša - mess, pile, disorder; stuff [TESCA ‘pile, heap’]
teše - disordered, messy
tëšrife - familiar [‘all know (it)’]
tet - nipple [TEŤOS ‘tip’]
tetáš - the nipple and the surrounding area; aureole
težec - vt lick [TECTEC]
težktüec - vt give head [‘lick and suck’]
težraša - oral sex [‘licking sex’]
težrašir - vt have oral sex with
ti- - some [generalized from ŤIKEDA ‘sometime’, ŤISIOS ‘something’, etc.]
tibäm - urgent, emergency [‘to be rushed’]
tibec - vi rush, hurry [ŤIBEC]
šesan tibec hurry (someone), expedite
tibeo - rush, hurry
tibri - sorrow, grief, anguish [reborrowing of TIBRIS ‘pain’]
tibrir - vi grieve (eta)
ticairon - sometime (at least once) [‘some opportunity’]
ticë - somewhere [ŤIKEDIE]
tičure - merry, melodic, happy, energetic, lively [ŤITURES ‘silly’]
tiel - (mathematics) point [reborrowing of TIEL]
tidimo - somewhat [‘some amount’]
tihiát - quietness
tihy - quiet, tranquil [ŤIȞIS]
tilelë - glimpse, glance
- glimpse, glance at [‘somewhat see’]
tilka - chick, girl, babe [OV f. diminutive, ‘quiet one’]
timelát - gentleness
timely - gentle, considerate [ŤIMELIS ‘refined’]
timely muatëra the gentle sex
Timeo - Eleďe name [OV Timeo]
Timoďea - Eleďe name [OV Timoťea]
Timoďeo - Eleďe name [OV Timoťeo]
tiplok - hobbyhorse [OV diminutive of TIPEL ‘horse’]
tiplüba - wig [TIPELEI IUBA ‘horse’s mane’]
tire - purple [*ŤISRES, having to do with the ŤISOS or bulsrava, a type of shellfish used to manufacture a purple dye]
tirura - lilac (plant with large bluish flowers)
tíršue - purplish
Tisati - Cuzeian name [tisāti ‘spray’]
tisirát - wit, cleverness
tisire - witty, clever [reborrowing of TISRES ‘witty’, from TISIS ‘sharp’]
tisirotá - witticism
Tito - Eleďe name [OV Tito]
tižai - whisker [*TICTAIS ‘tickler’, from TICTEN ‘tickle’]
tižapaž - catfish (river-dwelling scavenger, with ‘whiskers’) [‘whisker-fish’]
tižuy - somehow [‘some way’]
tobban - tunnel [‘mole-way’]
toc - bounce; (slang) sex, a roll in the hay [imitative]
tocan - vi bounce; (slang) have sex
toh - the 18th letter of the Verdurian alphabet, T, transliterated T [TEN, altered first to *TON to contrast with ŤEN, and then to toh more closely parallel dah]
Tolura - Goddess of Unnatural Acts
tom - thump; by extension, beat, rhythm, pulse [TOM; imitative]
tom - book, volume [TOUMOS ‘slot (e.g. for scrolls)’]
Tomao - Eleďe name [OV Ťoma]
tombir - vi fall; vt drop [TOMBIR, probably from TOM ‘sound of falling’]
tombir ak šualcot charge against the cavalry
tombo - fall, drop
pegeo tombei gravity
So tombo Abolineronië The fall of the Abolinerons (a Verdurian play)
tompë - drummer; woodpecker
tompec - vt beat out a rhythm, drum [TOMPEC; see tom]
tompom - drum
tomprosan - vi march [‘beat-walk’]
tomproseo - march
ton - rice [TONOS]
top - mole (small, strong, earth-burrowing omnivore) [TOPOS]
tor - part, piece; share; section [ŤUOR]
tor logei syllable
toranda - fountain [reborrowing of late Caď. TÔRANDA, from TUORAN ‘flow’]
torensa - vessel, (faliöla) artery, (fužula) vein [reborrowing of TUORENSA ‘pipe, conduit’, from TUORAN ‘flow’]
torensa flavë lymphatic vessel
torensula - duct; small tube in the body [dim. of torensa]
torensula mičii urethra
torensula gule bile duct
- adv apart, into pieces
torne - mild, gentle, unforced, easy [ŤUORNES ‘partial’]
torom - member; component
tos - dew; condensate [TOSOS]
tosceio - orgasm [reborrowing of TOSCEIO ‘satisfaction’]
toše - warm [TOSCES ‘enough’; i.e. warm enough]
tošeca - warmth
tošen - vi suffice, satisfy [TOSCEN]
Ďunĭ činĭ et tošmu Two plates will be enough for me
tošeo - satisfaction, sufficiency, fulfillment [TOSCEIO]
toššeya - scarf [‘warm neck’]
tošte - sufficient, satisfactory
tošuvec - supplier
tošuven - vt supply, furnish, equip [TOSCUBREN ‘make sufficient’]
tošuven šapem soán daluín supply hats to the king
tot - that one [TOTOS]
totogan - vt tickle [babytalk for trogan ‘touch’]
tra - prep across, over, on the other side of [TRAS]
Felce tra zëim He sailed over the sea
E nun tra zëin He’s now over the sea
traborden - vt embark, disembark [‘cross the rim’]
tracca - cart [from TRACTEN ‘drag’]
trädan - vi graze [TRAUDAN]
traesa - betrayal, treachery
traesa nažán treason
trafil - weft [TRASFIL]
- vt overhang [‘hang over’]
trafse - grassy
trair - vt betray [TRAHIR ‘cross over’]
trayec - traitor
tralirec - vi endure, survive, last; vt outlast [‘live beyond (others)’]
tralirë lasting, durable; survivor
maris tralirë widower
cira tralira widow
tramëžen - vi dive [‘sink beyond’]
trancöre - divorce
trancören - vi divorce [‘cut heart’]
Piro esë trancörne až miran My father divorced my mother
trane - cut
trancát - surgery (art or act), operation [reborrowing of TRANCEN ‘cut’]
trancom - surgeon
tranel - slice; segment, division; act (in a play)
tranel (boumyasei) steak
tränélo - longitude, meridian [‘cross-ring’]
daluy tränélo prime meridian (to Verdurians, the longitude of Verduria-city)
- vt cut [TRANCEN]
tranoš - knife
tras - prep beyond [reborrowing of TRAS ‘across, beyond’]
tras lačeon beyond the call of duty
trasfahe - exaggeration
trasfahen - vi exaggerate [‘speak beyond (what’s necessary)’]
trastošen - vi excel; vt outdo, surpass, better [‘suffice beyond (the necessary)’]
trastošte - excellent
trava - grass [TRAVA]
travët - crime [OV, from colloquial TRABREN ‘go too far’, from TRAS ‘over, beyond]
travëtom - criminal
tražen - vt drag [TRACTEN]
trec - celery [TERECOS]
tref - clover; club [TREPLOS]
treka - turtle (slow, shelled, land-dwelling reptile) [OV diminutive trenka, from TRENA]
trendre - stubborn, obstinate [TRENRES ‘turtlish’]
- vt poke; (slang) lay, screw, have sex with
tričo - poking; (slang) nookie-nookie, sex
tro - too much
trocrusan - strain [‘stretch too much’]
trocruseo - strain
- overflow
tročoran - vi overflow [‘flow too much’]
trodan - vt waste, spend (money) like water (conjugated like dan) [‘spend too much’]
trodonec - spendthrift, extravagant
trodoni - spendthriftiness
trogan - vt touch [TROGAN]
zet trogan masturbate
trogulo - touch
trolädan - vt violate [‘go too far’]
trolädeca - violation
trometul - superfluous, extra, spare [‘too much put on’]
tromeyá - illusion [‘fool-eye’]
tromir - vt fool, trick [TROMIR]
tromec tšur will o’ the wisp
zet tromir be in error, make a mistake
tróuen - vt find [TROHEN]
zet tróuen be situated
troz - ax [TRONS]
Trufena - Eleďe name [OV Trufaina]
trunë - swarm, turmoil
trunir - swarm, roil [TRUNDRIR ‘move confusedly’]
truža - sow [TROIA]
tsep - chain [dialectal variation of cep, from CAEPOS]
tsesi - sugar; sugarcane [Nanese tsêsi ‘reeds, sugarcane’ (a Nanese export)]
tsesi asënei maple sugar
tsesi Nanei sugarcane (as opposed to maple sugar)
tsesse - sugary, sweet
tsesul - candy (largely superseded by čeču) [dim. of tsesi]
tsísia - diamond
tsisir - vi glitter, glimmer [synaesthetic]
tšur - fire [TUROS ‘ember, source of fire’, from TURAN ‘burn’]
tšuran - vt/vi burn [TURAN]
tšurec on fire
dan tšuran set on fire
Mifnei tšuran soán huyonán! You burned the chicken!
tšurglaza - torch [‘fire glaza’]
tšurprak - lime (calcium oxide) [‘burning powder’]
tšurulen - vt/vi scorch
tu - pronoun one [TU ‘he, she, it’]
- one (acc.; archaic)
tucet - pox [reborrowing of TUCET ‘spots’]
tuďir - lisp [ŤUŤUIR]
- lisp
- one’s
tugeca - arthritis [reborrowing of TUGECA ‘stiffness’]
Tuhico - Eleďe name [OV Tuhico]
Tuhon - Eleďe name [OV Tuȟon]
tuli - breeze [ŤULIS]
tun - one (dat.)
tusel - splinter, fragment [ŤONCEL ‘broken-off piece’, from ŤONCAN ‘crash’]
tutan - daily, everyday, quotidian [OV tontand, augmentative of ŤONTES ‘ordinary’]
tutanél - newspaper, magazine
tutfascea - routine [‘daily-doings’]
tutua - parrot, toucan (colorful, fruit-eating tropical bird) [Rafsani tua-tua]
tuyec - vi smoke (a pipe)
tuyo - pipe [Kebreni tyau ‘round thing’]
tuyošari - tobacco [‘pipe-weed’]
tuyošariom - tobacconist
tve- - three (combination form)
tvedec - thirty [TMEDECT]
tvere - third [TMERES]
tveremora - galleon, trireme: a heavy oceangoing ship [TMEREMORA; cf. REMORA]
tveron - trillion [tvere- + Caď. augmentative -OND]
tyurma - prison
tyurmen - vt imprison
tyurmul - prisoner


u - prep by, in, close to; chez [ON ‘among, chez’]
u prošen hepdënán for next week
u susaren at the store
u Svetlan on the Svetla
Ihano žanne u Rahela John went over to Rachel’s
So troz e u mun The ax is by you
Prenanei, e u len Take it, it’s right next to you (in your reach)
Soa celë fue u Kebrin The river was under the hand of Kebri
Soa miďë e u ceďnaren The party is for Ceďnare
ü - the first letter of the Verdurian alphabet, U, transliterated U [IU]
ü breve Verdurian name for the W (W) used in Caizu, Ismaîn
uazo - bird [URADUS]
uazora - flock
ubir - vampire [Flaidish ʔubeer (the monster is described in Flaidish folk tales)]
ublian - vt forget [OBLITAN]
ubliesa - forgetfulness
uborden - adv ashore [‘at the shore’]
ubreza - shelter; refuge [late Caď. *HOMRENSA ‘place of shade’]
ubrezir - vi/vt shelter
ucana - ranch [ONCANDA ‘range for herds’]
- herd [ONCO]
ucöm - herdsman
ucörte - precious; dear, darling [‘close to the heart’]
Udan - Uytai [Tžuro Udan, ultimately from Uyseʔ Uytai ‘ancestor-land’]
udanise - Uytainese
uem - heart [UEMBOS ‘lump,’ slang for ‘heart’]
uer - exterior, outsides [reborrowing of HUER]
uerise - external, exterior
uesa - ceremony, rite [UREICA ‘act of worship’, from URIS ‘worship’]
uesil - ceremonial, ritual
uestu - man [URESTU]
uestuoš - hominid, homunculus, golem, android [‘man-thing’]
ufëa - face [originally a slang term; from Nanese ufaya]
uhu - hoot [imitative]
uhuan - vi hoot
ukeša - hesitation
ukešen - vi hesitate [‘stop near’]
ukler - vt prove
uklo - proof [OV urkul, urkulo ‘proof’, diminutive of urek ‘lesson’]
ül - ancient; classical [UIL ‘old, former’]
de ülán long ago
üla - upper case [znakora üla ‘ancient alphabet’]
ulädeca - correspondence
cum ulädecan respectively
ulädan - vi correspond (to), match up
ulädec - corresponding, respective
Sfahenei soin redelcen er ulädecin marisin Speak to the women and to the husband of each one
- vi may, might (possibility) [*ONLACEN ‘dwell near’, i.e. become likely]
ulëc - brother-in-law [ULGEC]
ulëca - sister-in-law
uleta - step; stage of development; section of a proof [ULETA]
ulečea - evolution, development [ULETREIA]
ulečen - vi evolve, develop [ULETREN ‘climb stairs’]
Altuát ulase ulečen de řisatán Tyranny may develop out of freedom
ulelen - vt perceive, sense; notice [‘see by’]
uleleë - sense, perception
ulën - underline; emphasis [‘near line’]
- underline; emphasize
uletora - staircase
ulgaš - chaos [Munkhâshi Ulgâsh, a god, ‘proud-lord’]
ulgaše - chaotic
ülivro - classic (book) [‘ancient book’]
ülor - a senior, older; n older brother; veteran, elder [UILOR ‘older’]
- shadow [HOMRA]
umizo - metaphor; figure of speech, idiom (not to be taken literally) [‘near-speak’]
umizete - metaphorical, figurative, non-literal, idiomatic
umo - tub, tank; sink, basin [HUMO]
unë - fingernail [UNGE]
undáš - claw
unse - cloying, sentimental, schmaltzy [reborrowing of UNSES]
unseca - sentimentality, cloying sweetness, bathos
unyaga - hoof [UNGENAGA]
uol - ox [UHOL]
uom - (legal, archaic) party, individual [OV ‘person’; see -om]
ur - clay; earth (as primary element) [HUROS]
uran - birch (white-barked temperate tree)
urave - adv please [OV ut ravre ‘may it please’; see ravir]
Urdelan - God of Trade
urë - then, therefore, hence [OV on rihilen ‘(obvious) at a glance’]
urek - lesson; (one) class, lecture [UREȞ]
urete - down to earth, practical [‘made of clay’]
Urez - Cuzeian name [urezos ‘bear’]
Uricira - Goddess of Light (1st Age mythology) [URIKIRA ‘worshipped lady’]
uris - worship [reborrowing of URIS]
so ül uris traditional worship of the old Caďinorian gods
Urisama - Cuzeian name [Urisāma]
urisan - vt worship
urise - mortal, fallible; (taxonomy) hominid [HURISES ‘made of clay’]
urk - log; (slang) penis [URKOS]
urokúšue - labored, strained
urokec - maker, forger, creator
urok - work
urokeša - end; burial; fulfillment; execution; conclusion
urokešen - vt finish, conclude; fulfill (a duty), discharge (a debt); execute, put to death [‘stop working’]
urokešnáe - grave, tomb [‘end-place’]
urokir - vt work, make, fashion [UROKER]
uroš - paste [‘clay-stuff’]
urs - bear (large, dangerous omnivore) [URSOS]
urulan - vi slink [HURULAN ‘vandalize’]
urulec - footpad; sneak
urze - strange [earlier úrzure, from Ismaîn ŕuʐŕe, from Ŕuʐŕ ‘Eärdur’; people from the Eärdur seemed odd to the people of the littoral]
uřanel - limitation, restriction, restraint
uřaner - limit, restrict [‘keep near’]
Useže - Cuzeian name [Usēge ‘pheasant’]
usiro - uciro (herb used in Cuzeian times as a contraceptive) [Cuêzi uciro]
usote - spread, propagation, diffusion
usoter - spread, propagate, diffuse [‘jump (close) to’]
usuku - jester [Barakhinei osôku ‘comic; unlucky bugger’, ultimately from Cuêzi osolcê ‘have sex with (a man)’]
ušic - yell
ušican - vi yell [HUSCICAN]
ušiclebi - town crier [‘yell-news’]
ut - if only [UT]
utekec - hanger-on, satellite, one of an entourage
uteker - hang out, hang around [‘stand by’]
utenë - under arrest, detained
- vt detain, arrest [‘have nearby’]
uteno - detention, arrest
uter - refine, purify (e.g. metals, sugar) [ONOTER]
utro - morning [ONTERO]
utrošeli - morning glory (flowers close in the full heat of day) [‘morning grace’]
utul - refined, pure; refined metal, esp. steel
uverát - tailoring; fashion
ak uveratán unfashionable
co uveratán fashionable
uverë - clothing, clothes, costume; (archaic) fashion [Cuêzi uverē ‘clothes’]
uverë domei livery, servant’s uniform
uverë falařë (military) uniform
Šatu uverä lë I like your clothes
uverom - tailor
üvéza - mansion, manor house [AIUBRENSA ‘country house’; see ažuven]
uvir - vt open (something) [UBRIR]
zet uvir open (intr.)
uy - oh (expression of unsurprise or reinforcement)
uya - sprite [Viminian dialect; from Caizu luya, related to Cuêzi landāua ‘spirit’]
uzina - a sweet white wine produced on the Verdurian plain [OV ‘sweetheart’, from UNSES ‘sweet, cloying’ + fem. -ina]
užal - jar [UCTAL]


vacre - altar [VACURES ‘most holy part of a vacus, a holy place’]
vacuran - Caďinorian pagan priest, just below a perař (patriarch) [VACURION, one in charge of a VACUS ‘holy place’]
vaďra - delicacy (OV name element) [VAĎORA]
vagiel - scar [reborrowing of VAGIEL; cf. važir]
- vi wander [Gelyet vagžia ‘trek’, from proto-Eastern *bektir; cf. bežir]
vagec nomadic, wandering
vaglädec - pilgrim [VACULAUDEC ‘shrine-goer’]
vaglädeca - pilgrimage
valát - value, worth, merit
valer - vi be worth, merit; vt compare (southern dialectal variant of vauter)
valt - fall, tumble
valtec - comparative [reborrowing of VALTEC ‘evaluating’]
valitan - vi tumble, fall, be knocked down; collapse
vanan - vi align, side with [VANAN]
vanul aligned, partisan; biased
zet vanan take sides
Vanai cum soán dalun, miyirece I side with the King, of course
vánë - cheek [VANGE]
vanesa - alignment, side; bias
Varďola - Eleďe name [OV Varťolomaio]
Varďolo - Eleďe name [OV Varťolomaio]
väreca - danger
väreme - dangerous [OV vaaresme ‘perilous’, from VAURES ‘dangerous’]
Varnava - Eleďe name [OV Varnava]
Varvara - Eleďe name [OV Varvara]
Vasëa - Eleďe name [OV Vasileia]
Vasëo - Eleďe name [OV Vasileio]
vauter - vi be worth, merit; vt compare [VALTER]
An mecin vaute ďunĭ ořulĭ One meckin is worth two (Verdurian) ořulĭ
Vauteu malezem ad motin You’re comparing apples (acc.) and oranges (dat.)— literally, hammers and sheep
Řo vaute ilet tróuen It’s not worth it finding him
važi - hurt, wound
važir - vt hurt, wound [VAGIR]
vetra - yesterday [OV vyetera ‘in the evening’]
Veači - Eleďe name [OV Veatriksa]
veaďa - charity, love, agapē [VEHAŤA]
veaďen - vt love
vëčer - evening [VIETROS]
večia - disgust, repulsion
- vt disgust, repel
veče - disgusting, filthy, foul [VETRES, from VETTER ‘befoul’]
večora - rabble, mob, the great unwashed
večore - filthy commoner, (one) of the večora
velašia - elopement
velašir - vi elope; vt abscond with (a woman) [Ismaîn velaşr, from VELEN ‘steal’]
velen - vt steal [VELEN]
velgintro - usurpation [‘steal-sash’]
velgintroec - usurper
ven - deer (medium-size, fleet herbivore, related to gudun ) [VEHEND]
Venamin - Eleďe name [OV Veniamin]
vencec - victorious, triumphant
venceo - victory, conquest
vencir - vt conquer [reborrowing of VENCIR]
venenir - vt poison
veneno - poison [VEMENO]
Vënica - Eleďe name [OV Vernice]
venmyaso - venison [‘deer-meat’]
ventra - belly [VENERA ‘bulge’]
verae - a unit of volume, 4 cuyoi, 2.7 fl. oz.; a small wine or liqueur glass [OV veraile, from VERRA ‘sip, draft’]
verat - boar (pl. veraďi) [VERAŤOS]
verde - green [VEREDES]
leta verdë gold-plated copper: the plating erodes and the copper discolors
soa verde er cistila the Verdurian flag [‘the green and crown’]
verdíšue - greenish
verdúran - deep green
Verdúria - Verduria [late Caďinor VEREDURIA, named after the Etald Verdúran, the Green Plain; the earlier name was ARENICA]
Verdúria-mažtana Verduria city
verdúry - adj, n Verdurian
Verena - Eleďe name [OV Verena]
Vereon - Enäron’s messenger [VEREION]
Vesi - Vesi river [VAECIS, from Meť. vaiki ‘blue’]
Vësta - Išira’s maid
vetát - pollution
veteme - nasty, dirty, smelly [VETESMES ‘tending to be filthy’]
veter - vt pollute, befoul [VETTER]
vetse - repellent, unattractive
veturan - vi travel [VEŤURAN]
veturea - trip, voyage; tour [VEŤUREIA]
vežaen - vi run; gallop [OV bežanen, augmentative of bežir ‘move’]
vežaen tornece canter
veži - plant [VEGIS]
vežicrežé - vegetarian [‘plant-eat’]
- botany [‘study of plants’]
viďra - iris (plant with bright leaf-like flowers) [VIŤORA, from southern Meť. viťora]
vifmitáe - tavern [alteration (imitation slurred speech) of vimpitnáe ‘place for drinking wine’]
vili - pitchfork [VILLIS]
vilka - table fork [OV diminutive of villi ‘pitchfork’]
vimbeh - alcohol [OV compound from BAEȞ VINEI ‘essence of wine’]
vimin - Viminian
- wine [VINOS]
vincole - wine-loving; drunkard
vinembre - vinegar [‘bitter wine’]
vinom - winegrower
vinte - screw
vinten - vt screw
vintoš - screwdriver
vintošuvec - vintner, wine-seller [‘wine furnisher’]
vinzihe - grape [‘wine-berry’]
viond - mandolin, lute (hifalutin name for vyon) [reborrowing of VIONDOS]
viond sëte viola
viond nizze cello
virny - loyal [VIRNIS]
virnyát - loyalty
Visánavo - Cuzeian name [vissanavas ‘knowledge’]
visanocole - scientific, scholarly, academic
visanir - vt study
visano - study [Cuêzi vissanavas ‘knowledge,’ from vissē ‘know’]
visanom - scientist, serious scholar; expert; -ologist
visanora - science, knowledge
-viso - -ology
viša - cherry [VISIA]
vižiát - wait; expectation
vižien - vi wait; vt wait for; expect [VIGILEN]
Vižiai dy e nasitsë She’s likely to be pregnant
vižul - ordinary, expected, familiar
vlagen - vt sheathe [Naviu vlagaŋ]
vlagiše - sheath; vagina
vlay - uncle [VELAIS]
vlaya - aunt [VELAIA]
Vlerë - Goddess of Love [VELARIES, dialectal variant of VEHARIES]
Soa frälina ya lelne Vlerä The girl has fallen hopelessly in love
Vlerëi - a planet; the fourth month
Vleryana - a festival of Vlerë, held on 17 cuéndimar
vlesta - fair, festival, market [VELESTA]
vocan - vt invoke, summon [VOCAN]
vocet - summons, subpoena [VOCET SUDROS, ‘The court invokes’, beginning formula of such documents]
vodžet - sherry (wine fortified with brandy) [Flaidish vodchet ‘bold wine’]
voi - the 26th letter of the Verdurian alphabet, V, transliterated V [OV va, from VAS; altered to contrast with fai]
voitäm - receivable
voitec - vt enter, enter into; join, matriculate
voitec deväm sin; fall into debt
voitec še ebrák become an apprentice
voitesa - entrance
volemát - good will; readiness, inclination
voleme - willing; ready; benevolent [VOLESMES, adjectivization of VOLIR ‘want’]
vosel - invocation, call [VOCEL]
voy - message
voyak - soldier [Western vujak ‘horseman’ from vog ‘horse’]
voyir - vt send [VOHIR]
voyul - messenger; apostle
vrak - enemy [VIRAȞ]
vrakora - host, opposing army
vrařát - hostility, opposition
vraře - hostile, opposed; inimical, enemy [VIRAȞRES]
soa vrařë falata enemy forces
vremë - thenceforth [OV vremye]
vremë dy since
vremya - then
vriseo - vibration
vriser - vibrate [imitative variation of friser ‘shake’]
- voice; (grammar) sound [VUA]
im vuán out loud
vuáë - n voice mark |; adj voiced
vučemu - flounder (flat ocean-dwelling bottom-feeding fish) [Kebreni vucemu]
vuläde - ambitious [‘want to go’]
vulädeca - ambition
vulcrežno - appetite [‘want to eat’]
vuldorme - sleepy [‘want sleep’]
vulë - want
vulei - will [OV irregular plural of vulë]
ab vulein willingly, on purpose
vulir - vt want [VOLIR]
vulmizec - mean, intend [‘want to say’]
vulula - whim; wish [‘small desire’]
vululse - whimsical, quirky
vuntél - brocade [VUMETEL, from Axunašin ‘double-weft’]
- warrior (OV name element) [OV vurand, augmentative of vur ‘warrior’, created as a back-formation from virak, vurak ‘enemy’, (mis)interpreted as a diminutive]
vure - vocal, spoken [reborrowing of VURES, from VUA ‘voice’]
- lyre; also a Cuzeian name [VIONDOS, from Cuêzi vionnas]
vyoža - m. primal force, power, one of the Powers of the World; magical force [VIOCTA ‘spirit’]


ya - indeed, even; perfective particle [IAT]
yacura - partridge (largeish wild bird, lives in brush) [‘hunt-hen’]
yačia - ogling, leering, eyeing
yačir - vt ogle, leer, eye [ ‘eye’ + -ačir ‘use (a body part)’]
yag - the seventh month (pl. yaži) [IAGOS ‘hunt’]
yagcrežec - predator [‘hunt-eater’]
yagen - vt hunt [IAGEN]
yagesa - hunt
yagom - hunter
yanir - vt admire
yanul - minor success
yari - sound [IARIS]
yasny - clear; evident [IACNIS ‘simple, clear’]
yatá - already; perfective particle [*IATA, pop. intensification of IAT ‘already’, using -A adverbial ending]
yatar - amber [IANTAR]
- eye; the seat of the understanding (pl. yëĭ or ) [HIE]
curec yä dobrä understand things well
curec čača yä be slow to understand
še yen dobren being of sound mind
imbasen soem yem indicate agreement (by lowering the eyes)
surošan soem yem indicate disagreement (by covering the eyes briefly)
yeka - bud (of plant) [diminutive of ‘eye’]
yela - idea, concept [IELA]
yenev - worm [IENEVOS]
yenevan - vi squirm
yeröma - estimate
yerömen - vi estimate [HIERUEMEN ‘count by eye’]
yerömul estimated, approximate
yesta - throne [IESTA]
yešore - kohl (powdered, calcined antimony trisulphide) [HIESCORRES ‘eye-dark’]
gent yešorei antimony (the element)
mlakon yešorei grey antimony (source of kohl; common ore of antimony)
yežil - pen [IECTIL ‘quill pen’, from IECTU ‘feather’]
yezilát - calligraphy
yežluran - vt stimulate, arouse, titillate [‘do with a feather’]
yežlurec stimulating, arousing, erotic
zet yežluran (eta) fantasize (about)
yolaya - coconut [Nanese yɔi laya ‘nut of palm’]
yolo - knee [IAULO]
yon - bread; loaf [*HIONOS, from HIONNOS]
yonka - roll [OV diminutive of yon ‘bread’]
yonog - toast [yon ogudul ‘broiled bread’]
yonora - basket
yonte - a dark brown color; a typical Verdurian hair color
yore - brook, stream (Eärdur valley) [Cuêzi yēore ‘river’]
Yoreta - Cuzeian name [Cuêzi yoreta ‘type of flower’]
Yuliana - Eleďe name [OV Iuliana]
yuc - slot, socket [Flaidish ʔuuk ‘hole’]
yušu - larva [Cuêzi yusiu]


za - one (pl. refl. pron.) [back-formation from acc. ZAHAM etc.]
za- - inceptive prefix; e.g. zašantan ‘burst into song’
začoran - vi burst into tears [inchoative of ‘cry’]
zadadoni - definition [doni zada ‘giving of meaning’]
zadete - meaningful [ZADRETES]
zadi - meaning [ZADRIS]
dan zada (logán) define (a word)
zadormir - fall asleep [inchoative of ‘sleep’]
zaë - one’s (gen. pl. refl. pron.)
zaftra - tomorrow [adverbial formation from ZEPTER ‘the next day’]
Zahara - Eleďe name [OV Zaȟaria]
Zahar - Eleďe name [OV Zaȟaria]
zais - the 16th letter of the Verdurian alphabet, Z, transliterated Z [OV za, from ZAS; altered to contrast with sas]
zakát - sunset
zaker - vi set (of stars or the sun)
zakladan - vi bet, wager, contest (regular) [OV zakeladan ‘begin an investment’]
zaklát - contest, bet, wager
voitec/fäsir zaklatán make/end a bet
irzovec/iššelec zaklát win/lose a bet
zam - one (acc. pl. refl. pron.)
zamancan - vi run out [‘begin to lack’]
zambea - feigning, pretense
zamben - vt feign, pretend (to be); ape [ZAMEREN ‘act’, from Cuêzi zamêrê]
zamben soi sadem visanomi ape the real scholars
Zambe esan malse He’s pretending to be sick
zan - one (dat. pl. refl. pron.)
Zanuy - one of the Zanui, a tribe of Western barbarians
zaridir - vi burst out laughing [inchoative of ‘laugh’]
zasatel - undertaking, enterprise, project, endeavor
zasatec - entrepreneur, or one who undertakes any project
zasaten - vt undertake [inchoative of ‘build’]
zašadan - vt mount [inchoative of ‘ride’]
zašantan - vi burst into song [inchoative of ‘sing’]
zateker - vi stand up [inchoative of ‘stand’]
zavv - mercenary (Viminian dialect)
zdésece - herein
zdesir - vt (slang) look, dig
zdesy - here (zdesy zdesii zdesim zdesin)
zdesy ... zdesy
zdy - pronominal prefix, meaning ‘component,’ ‘part of’ [zdesy ‘here’]
derë domán, behind the house → zdyderë domán ‘on the house’s back side’
Z.E. - zon erei, Year of the South (see zon)
ze - one (sing. refl. pron.) [back-formation from acc. ZEŤ etc.]
zëbortom - buccaneer [‘sea gangster’]
zëboua - walrus, manatee (large sea-dwelling herbivorous mammal) [‘sea cow’]
zëcučec - piracy [‘sea attack’]
zëcučom - pirate
zëden - the fifth day of the week [OV, ‘sea day’]
zëdenei - stew [‘zëden (meal)’—i.e. one made of whatever’s left on zëden, the day before market day]
zedenomát - renunciation, resignation [zet denomát]
dan zedenomát zië submit one’s resignation
zëföy - seaweed [‘sea leaf’]
- sea [ZIEIS]
zëimalát - seasickness
zëimalse - seasick [‘sea-sick’]
zeirom - Zeiri (person from Zeir)
zël - extreme, radical
Zelišo - Cuzeian name [Zeilisio ‘lively’]
zen - (sing. dat. refl. pron.)
zen - sign, signal [ZENNOS]
Zena - Eleďe name [OV Zena]
zendan - vi/vt signal, indicate; wave; express, convey (conjugated like dan) [ZENDAN]
zet zendan express oneself, get one’s point across
Zende eta aguma That indicates a problem
zendonec - clue; sign, indication, piece of evidence; medical condition
zendonecul - hint, tip [‘little sign’]
Zëne - Cuzeian name [Zienē ‘fertile]
zentene - lettered, literate [‘has signs’]
zëošu - sea monster [‘sea-thing’]
zer - Verdurian flatcake; crêpe, tortilla, pizza [ZEROS]
zer tsesse pancake
zëre - marine, of the sea; naval [ZIERES]
zerlesteo - restaurant specializing in zerĭ; pizzeria
zeřaš - herb [late Caďinor *ZEȞASCOS ‘a pinch (of herbs)’, from ZEȞEN ‘pinch, snip’]
zeřašan - vt season, spice
zeřaševiso - herblore
zeřašom - herbalist
zešcó - amen [Cuezi zesê cōi, ‘so be it’]
zet - oneself (acc. sing. refl. pron.) [ZEŤ]
zetauve - flexible, adaptable [‘self-molding’]
zetbeže - self-willed, independent; automatic, by itself [‘self-moving’]
zetbracát - vanity, conceitedness
zetbracse - vain, conceited, full of oneself [‘self-glorious’]
zetlacri - self-pity [‘self-tears’]
zetcuro - abstinence [‘self-holding’]
zetdeče - bank draft [from the legal expression found on such drafts, “(the institution) commits itself to pay...”]
zetdečia - commitment [‘self-tying’]
zetduisi - behavior [zet duisir, ‘behave’]
zetfeyasa - complaint [zet feyen ‘complain’]
zetkekát - suicide [‘self-killing’]
zetlele - conscious [‘seeing onself’]
zetleleë - consciousness
zetmeyát - selfishness
zetmeyec - selfish [‘self-coddling’]
zetopfë - reflexive pronoun [‘self-accusative’]
zetopfëë - adj reflexive
zetrogulo - masturbation [zet trogan ‘touch oneself’]
zetšatabi - self-love [zet šatabir ‘self-love’]
zetteneo - attitude, air, mood; the impression one is making; ambience; self-confidence [zet tenec, to maintain oneself]
zettihiát - modesty
- modest [‘quiet (about) oneself’]
zetzol - stubborn [‘self-strong’]
zevu - (slang) man, hombre [Kebreni zeveu ‘friend’, from Meť. zewi ‘loyal’]
zicua - mockery
zicuäm - ridiculous, absurd [‘to be mocked’]
zicuämesa - absurdity, ridiculousness
zicuan - vt mock, jeer, ridicule [Cuêzi zicuê]
zícue - mocking
Zid - Cuzeian name [Zīdos ‘trouble’]
zië - one’s (gen. sing. refl. pron.)
ziëca - property, goods [from zië ‘one’s own’]
šalemë ziëca invention, patentable innovation
cazo šalemëi ziëce patent
ziëcse - personal, individual, private
ziecurë - owner, proprietor
ziecurec - vt own [‘property-hold’]
ziecuresa - ownership, possession
zieigenos - the lutinids: the iliĭ and šipomĭ [modern Caď. ‘sea-people’]
- berry [ZIȞE]
ziziger - vi intrigue [ZEDIGER ‘tangle’]
zizigesa - intigue
znak - letter, symbol [OV zenak, diminutive of ZENNOS ‘sign, signal’]
znakĭ provecĭ punctuation [‘guiding marks’]
znakora - alphabet [‘set of letters’]
znakora etaldei the (modern) Caďinorian alphabet
znakora parnië Barakhinei alphabet
znakora üla the ancient Caďinorian alphabet
znakora cuzëa the Cuêzi alphabet
znura - flag, banner [late Caďinor ZENNURA ‘something which signals’]
zobát - minor magic, nature lore [ZOBANTOS, from Cuêzi zobê ‘magic’]
zobom - seer, enchanter, magician
zol - n strength; adj strong [ZOL]
zolmey - rapids, cataracts [‘strong water’]
zöm - gate; (manufacturing) valve [ZUEMOS]
zömhežom - gatekeeper [‘gate-guard’]
zömura - porch, veranda [ZUEMURA, from ZUEMOS ‘gate’]
zon - year [ZONOS, variant of ZONNOS]
zon kastenei leap year
Zon Erei Year of the South (since the founding of Ctésifon)
Zon Cuzeë Cuzeian year (since the founding of Eleisa, Z.E. -350)
Soĭ zonĭ et imbemnu... Experience has taught me...
zondre - yearly, annual [ZONRES]
zonhicet - age [‘year-number’]
zonir - age
zonpomäe - chronicle [‘year-tale’]
zontor - season; school term [‘year-part’]
zontorise - seasonal
zonul - mature, grown up
zovec - vi play, have fun [ZOBREC]
zovi - play
zučuy - perversion, fetish
zučuyse - perverse, unnatural [‘wicked way’]
Zukde - wife of Kezul (1st Age mythology) [akin to Munkhâshi Tsôkálh, a goddess]
zueme - gluttonous [IDURESMES ‘greedy’, from IDURAN ‘desire’]
zul - joyous
zula - joy [ZULA]
zur - wish; toast, benediction
zuran - vi wish; toast [IDURAN ‘desire’]
zurem - mass [zury řem ‘holy dinner’]
Zurem Itianei Pentecost
Zurem Einatui Michaelmas
zury - supper (i.e a light meal in the evening, typical of rural areas) [ZURRIS]
Dernë Zury Last Supper
zut - wicked [ZUŤ]
zuz - buzz, hum
zuzec - vi buzz, hum; vt tease [imitative]


žadžo - groundnut, peanut (ground-growing nut) [Trêng jajo]
žalan - vt rub
žanen - vi come; happen, occur (present tense žai žes že žanam...) [CTANEN]
Žes? Are you coming?
Že froe It’s cold out
žanka - accident [diminutive of žano ‘occurrence’]
žanme - future; prophecy [‘it will come’]
nun iy žanmen sooner or later
šray žanmei the art of prophecy
žano - coming; happening, occurence; event
žantan - vt prophesy, foresee
žantom - prophet, seer [OV žannuton, from žaneme ‘prophecy’]
žas - ginger [Kebreni źas, from Lé jás]
- garden [CTASTOS]
žatatún - shed (in a garden); pavilion [‘garden room’]
žatatún steklei greenhouse
žatom - gardener
žaye - n fox, cute girl, dish, knockout; adj foxy
žažarce - joyful, boisterous, foot-tapping
žažarka - type of dance music [OV dim. of Žažar, place where such music was heard]
žeiza - shrine [GESENSA ‘niche for household god’]
želea - calm; eighth month [GELEIA]
želse - calm
žemna - twin [GEMINA]
žen - people [GENOS ‘clan’]
ženašea - opinion [‘people-think’]
ženát - family; (taxonomy) order, family
ženata - family name
ženatom - relative
žendise - unpopular [‘people-hate’]
žéngues - democracy [‘people-power’]
ženmize - proverb (by analogy with -mizo words, sometimes ženmizo) [‘people-say’]
Ženöra - the first woman [Cuêzi Denūra, possibly influenced by žen or žina ]
ženředao - superstition [‘people-belief’]
žensulirul - idiom [‘people-phrase’]
ženšate - popular; idiomatic [‘people-like’]
žente - slang term for an aržentei (silver piece)
žes - home [GES ‘houshold god’]
žesan - vi live
žesan im šeíran live in a palace
žescaln - domain, dominion [‘home-castle’]
žese - homely, lived-in; casual; informal
žesglašan - vi invite [‘home-announce’]
Prokio žesglašan miran lë? Why invite your mother?
žesglašul - invitation
Žésifo - Ctésifon [CTÉSIFON]
žežo - jelly [*CTEIUS ‘sticky thing’, from CTEIES ‘sticky’]
žežoil - gelatine
ži - boy (Ctésifonei dialect; declined like so) [GIOS]
žicse - cushion [Ismaîn ijicse, from Kebreni iźicse ‘sitting thing’]
žicocole - quarrelsome
žicoi - dispute, quarrel
žicoir - vi dispute, quarrel [GICOER ‘bray’]
žicoir ak drukán quarrel with a friend
žina - girl [GINA ‘maiden’]
žir - hug
žiren - vt hug [GIREN ‘comfort’]
žirén - ibis (long-legged, black and white wading bird found in warm climates) [GIREINOS, from Cuêzi giren, from Meť. girein ‘long one’]
žive - lively, active, vivacious; outgoing [GIVES]
živë šalea oxygen [‘lively air’]
živesa - liveliness, activity, sprightliness
žižyo - (slang) urine [OV žižen ‘piss’, imitative of the sound]
žnea - attractiveness, cuteness [OV žnea, ženea, from Ismaîn jinea ‘girlishness’, from GINA ‘girl’]
žnete - attractive, cute
žo- - eight (combination form)
žoc - eight [late Caď. IOC, from IOCI]
žof - roof [CTOVOS]
žof bušei palate
žöh - mead [IUEȞOS]
žole - light (not heavy) [IOLES]
žombrel - fright, shudder
žombrelse - scared, alarmed
žombren - vt frighten, scare [IONEBREN ‘unman’, from IONES ‘female’]
žombrulen - vt alarm [‘scare a little’]
žonë - female [IONILES, colloq. derivation of IONES ‘female’]
žonkrof - menstrual blood; menstruation [‘female blood’]
žore - safe, secure [CTORES]
žoren - vt secure, make safe; warrant, guarantee (a loan or legal act); ensure
Žorne muteam pro kunnáen He guaranteed the loan for the bank
Soa dalua Verdúrë žorme so mevel The kingdom of Verduria will guarantee the treaty
žoresa - security, safety; guarantee (act)
žorta - flower; Verdurian given name [IORTA]
žortir - vi sprout [dynamic tenses of IORTAN ‘flower’]
žortecul - sprout, seedling
Žoržo - Eleďe name [OV Georgio, Yeorio]
žosu - mercy (OV name element) [IOSU]
žou - trick, scam [žow ‘way’, Viminian derivation from IULIS]
imlelen luom ab žoun conjure up an apple
žoudautom - jeweller [OV žoildaltuom ‘jewel-chiseller’]
žouen - vi conjure, trick
žouom - conjuror, trickster
žovoš - ladder [‘roof thing’]
žoya - jewel [IOHILA]
žoziseo - irritation
žoziser - irritate [CTODICER ‘make angry’]
žraney - shabby, tacky [‘of Žrano’, a town in Vimínia]
- mane, crest [IUBA]
žubula - ponytail (hairstyle)
žuca - role, part; function; character (in book or play) [IUCA]
suvan žuca play a role, take a part
žuë - toy [IUILE ‘gift, toy’]
žumbruhan - vt practice, follow, live in the way of [bruhan žuim, ‘use the way’]
žumbruhec - believer, follower
žumeta - mare [IUMENTA]
žüngu - expenditures, expenses, outflow [Kebreni źyngu]
žure - generous [IUSRES ‘giving’, from IUSIR ‘provide’]
žuranami - wolfram (manganese/iron tunstate) [Tžuro juranami ‘black tin’]
žusäm - merchandise, goods, wares [‘to be sold’]
žusë - organ, member (emphasis on unique role) [IUCILE, from IUCA ‘role’]
žusec - vendor
žusia - sale, sales, selling
žusir - vt sell (present tense žui žus žu žusum...) [IUSIR ‘provide’]
žusni - lace [Xazengri jurešun ‘lacy’ from Xurnese júdeš ‘lace’, lit. ‘with holes’]
žuy - way, method, technique [*IUILIS, variant of IULIS]
žuydoni - instructions, recipe, formula; procedure [‘method-giving’]
žuyora - practice, modus operandi
žuyse - practical
žužu - (slang, invar.) stoned, drunk, high [Western juju]

Virtual Verduria