— History and influences
Phonology — Consonants — Vowels — Stress — Nešian — Orthography
Morphology — Nouns — Adjectives — Pronouns — Verbs — Numbers — Derivational
Syntax — Sentence order — Pronouns — NP order — Negatives — Questions — Interrogatives — Copula — Possession — Conjunctions — Dative — Prepositions — Tense — Infinitives — Subordination — Comparatives — Causatives — Passive — Place — Time
Semantic fields — Places/Languages — Names — Gods
Samples — The boy and the calf – I know a boy
Lexicon — Other Naviu
Modern members of the family include Küronet, Eluyet, Makši, Mixain, Seia, and Obenzayet. The nation of Bešbalic commemorates the name of the Bešbalicu, a Naviu tribe which once lived in that region; but the Bešbalicu language is extinct. Gelyet, the language of the historically most important Naviu, is attested only scantily, due to the tribulations of the Dark Years. Of course, the Gelyet themselves were one of those tribulations.
The best attested Naviu language is Obenzayet, the language of the small country of Obenzaya. It has been written since about 3400, and is the chief Naviu contributor to reconstructions of proto-Eastern— a very important contribution, since Obenzayet is a conservative language which has retained many proto-Eastern features not found in any other Eastern language. This document focuses on the classical Obenzayet language, as spoken by the nomads.
Chronological note: This document is written with 3550 as the current date. This allows us to use the best grammars of what would later be called Classical Obenzayet, the form of the language important in proto-Eastern studies. Later varieties of Obenzayet lose many of the features that interest Easternists.
—M.R., December 2020
In classical times words relating to trading (e.g. kurag ‘buy’, lakag ‘trade’, lata ‘coin’, makšana ‘town’, zaraz ‘bread’) were borrowed from Caďinor. There is also a tier of words from Cuêzi (e.g. banaz ‘way’, baḡuɫ ‘quarter’, hluṯiz ‘evil’, itrïn ‘heart’, kailiraz ‘ballad’, kumayaz ‘peace’, mavuḏaz ‘iron’, nümuɫ ‘god’, rutiz ‘good’, uraz ‘bear’, zintaz ‘city’).
Words relating to the nomadic environment were borrowed from Meťelyi (vuk ‘primary horse’, ɣraba ‘wadi’, zvaiɫ ‘calf’, narmag ‘give suck (of mares)’, bägaz ‘horsetail’, ‘a hallucinogen’, vitraz ‘water source’, bisbalag ‘share loot’) or from Coruo (müɫa ‘saddle’, aisag ‘drink one’s horse’s blood’, sahi ‘mange’, nütavag ‘camp’, bagiɫ ‘vision’).
What were Dark Years in Eretald were good times for the Naviu, one tribe of which, the Gelyet, created the greatest empire in the history of Ereláe. Naturally, the Naviu languages picked up or created a good deal of vocabulary relating to the military or to administration during these years.
The Obenzayet themselves occupy a small southern section of Eretald, between Kačanza, Bešbalic, and Deštai, as they have for about six hundred years. During this time, while never wholly giving up herding, they have taken more and more to living in cities and to agriculture, and the vocabulary for these pursuits has been borrowed almost entirely from (southern varieties of) Verdurian— for instance, rikultag ‘harvest’, rilag ‘sow’, riznai ‘barn’, ivruɫ ‘book’, atsanz ‘school’, hivuɫ ‘mayor’, hizunz ‘policeman’, daluz ‘king’.
The nomads have retained their own ancient religion, but those who have settled down have mostly adopted Caďinorian religions. The most important families adopted the most prestigious of these, Caďinorian polytheism, and religious terminology along with it: azuns ‘priest’, himnai ‘temple’, klatana ‘seminary’, nakuyaz ‘adulthood ceremony’, Ikšarä ‘the afterworld’; there are also loan-translations like diɫa maharkäʔ ‘place of darkness, Hell’, vraskaiz ‘ancestral spirit’, natïnama ‘birth-meal’.
The common people have been more likely to adopt Eleďát, the majority religion in the Eärdur valley, and as a result have borrowed words such as azistun ‘church’, zurimaz ‘mass’, zavag ‘sin’, Ailadanz ‘Eleď’.
A tier of words from Elkarîl reflects the fact that, for thousands of years, the elcari have wandered the Plain trading metals and tools for horse products and steppe plants. Thus baliḏ silver, ḵitsiḏ gold, ludaŋ steel, makiḏ diamond, rimiḏ emerald, sarz sword, tsur glass, gits helmet, kiluŋ mercury, mikšak kohl, mikriḏ obsidian. That the roving elcari offered services besides metallurgy is attested by the word tiluḏag ‘heal’.
The first scholarly treatment is Osör Ružeon’s Sarise (Eastern), 3442, which contained a grammatical sketch of the language— really a morphological sketch, as its syntax section was less than a page. Estanesa Sarileya’s Dekaši Perëi Řonei (Discovery of the First Language), 3473, offers corrections (e.g. the recognition of velarization) and a longer wordlist. Previous Almeological information was based on these sources.
Though Ružeon was the first to realize the importance of Obenzayet for Eastern studies, it was Sarileya who sent students to Obenzaya to gather information. One was the folklorist Gayo Osörey, who published Racontî Obenzaye (Tales of Obenzaya) in 3463. Another was the Barakhinei scholar Fisnava of Nhêsnor. His excellent grammar was not finished till 3493.
This scholarly attention interested the king of Obenzaya, Ataviz IV. He sent one of his sons, Vaŋkritiz, to study at the University of Verduria and to write a definitive grammar and dictionary. His masterful Aluatas i Obenzayet (Grammar of Obenzayet) was completed in 3532, building on the northern scholars’ work but adding a native’s indispensible input. His Obenzayet translation, Alutaz Ḵuranaʔ Ubiŋkayaʔ, was the first full book printed in Vižaya.
The University’s Aluatas Šriftanáei Obenzaye (University Obenzayan Grammar) was published in 3544 by Ferénica Smire and her Obenzayan informant Pansäla Arabäʔ. Though it is not as thorough as Vaŋkritiz, it is more informed about other Eastern (and Western) languages, and also covers dialectal variation.
Perhaps the most striking aspect of the system is the complete set of velarized stops. If you’re not sure how to produce the velarized sounds, start with velarized ɫ, which is very much like the English dark l in full, only with the tongue even farther back in the mouth (if you can say ɫ and then o without moving the tongue, it’s in about the right place). Then, keeping the tongue in position for ɫ, pronounce the other velarized consonants.
labial alveolar velar glottal stops p b t d k g ʔ velarized pˠ bˠ tˠ dˠ kˠ gˠ fricatives s h v z ɣ nasals m n ŋ liquids l r ɫ semivowels y
There should be a very sharp distinction between p and pˠ, k and kˠ, etc. In the case of the velars, this is emphasized by a fronted articulation; in some Naviu languages /k/ has become palatalized to /c/ or /č/.
Though English dark l as in full approximates ɫ, note that this sound can begin a syllable, as in muɫa.
In my transliteration I don't use the IPA symbols pˠ bˠ or p̴ b̴ etc., but the simpler p̄ ṯ ḵ ḇ ḏ ḡ. This matches the orthography. I’m using the Unicode characters, but underlining is also fine.
The Obenzayet s is not dental, but somewhat retracted, and without the sharp hissing sound of the English or Verdurian s. Adjacent to a velar or velarized consonant it becomes [ʃ]; thus /ksuṯ/ = [kʃutˠ].
When borrowing words, Caďinor/Verdurian k /q/ sounds to the Obenzayans like their ḵ: lenka ‘remedy’ > liŋḵa. They also hear Elkarîl implosives as velarized: belidd ‘silver’ > baliḏ. The clusters rd or ld are likely to be heard as ḏ: Verdúria > Vaḏira, Eretald > Ritaḏ, Elk. tlyôrd ‘heal’ > tiluḏag.
The long vowels ā ī ū are transliterated ä ï ü, following the orthography.
i ī u ū a ā
The short vowels have a tendency to be laxed in closed syllables; thus the self-designation Ubiŋkauiʔ sounded to the (Coruo-speaking) Curiyans like Obengyawet, which after some sound changes appeared in Verdurian as Obenzayet.
The proto-Naviu three-vowel system derives from a five-vowel system in proto-Eastern; the low vowels in the protolanguage have all merged with a. Some Naviu languages have innovated new vowels (e.g. Eluyet) or borrowed them from neighboring languages (e.g. Seia), but Obenzayet has preserved the purity of the proto-Naviu vowels.
Though proto-Eastern *o *e became a, in historical times Obenzayans borrowed other languages’ o e as u i, e.g. Verdurian plero ‘pleasure’ > pliruɫ.
Phonologically, Nešian is notable for certain simplifications:
Vaŋkritiz, the author of the standard grammar, though he lived in Vižaya, attempted to record the pure language of the nomads, as did the folklorist Osörey. The University grammar is the best source on Nešian.
The vowels a i u are, naturally, a i u. The long vowels are written ä ï ü (ä ï ü). This conflicts with the orthography of Cuêzi (à ì ù), but using ¨ for length matches Verdurian ä, and in general gives the script a more Verdurian appearance.
labial alveolar velar glottal stops p b t d c g k velarized p b t d c g fricatives s h v z ≈ nasals m n % liquids l r ¬ semivowels y
When Obenzayet was first written, no distinction was made between standard and velarized consonants, since Verdurian does not make the distinction. This proved unsatisfactory to the Obenzayans. The underline was used as a placeholder for a better option, but when none achieved consensus, it was officially adopted.
Early writers used Flaidish q (ʔ) for ŋ, but it was easily confused for ¬. Vaŋkritiz introduced % from linguistic practice.
The use of k (Verdurian k /q/) for the glottal stop ʔ is a fairly clever use of the available orthographic resources. (This has caused some confusion in the study of Eluyet, native Eluyek— does this represent /ʔ/ or /k/? The scholarly consensus is that Eluyet did retain a velar stop, though it had changed to a glottal stop by the 3500s.)
The use of ≈ for ɣ makes phonological sense— it probably once shared a place of articulation with h h.
¬ ɫ is taken from Ismaîn.
s is written ß (š) when fricativized (that is, in proximity to a velar or velarized consonant). Verdurian loanwords with š are also written with ß— thus atßanz atsanz ‘school’. Monolingual speakers pronounce these as [s], but bilinguals may use [š] to show off their knowledge.
w appears as an allophone in some forms, e.g. zintakaui [zin-ta-ka-wi]. But it never appear in roots and of course has no letter. It does appear in the interjection uau ‘turn left!’ [waw].
When endings conflict in voicing or velarization, they assimilate to the previous consonant: e.g. rud- + ka = [rudga] ‘with a dog’, siz- + -kaiz = [sizgaiz] ‘vampire’, kšuṯ- + -ta = [kʃuṯṯa] ‘deceived’. But a morphonemic spelling is preferred: rudka, sizkaiz, kšuṯta.
Exceptions: numbers— sata + dakš = satakš ‘60’— and the suffix -tiz.
Alone among the Eastern languages, Naviu preserves the proto-Eastern stem vowels (SV) as a feature of both declension and conjugation— which makes Naviu morphology rather simpler than most of the other inflected Eastern languages. All forms have the model
Root + SV + case endingThe case ending does vary somewhat by number and gender, so it is given in the first column of each table below.
Some apparent irregularities are due to spelling conventions:
Masculine SV → a - a u i s. nom -z, s sin- ä ḵün-z ait-az man-uz buḡ-iz s. gen -aʔ sin-äʔ ḵün-aʔ ait-äʔ man-uaʔ buḡ-iaʔ s. acc - sin-a ḵün- ait-a man-u buḡ-i s. ins -ga sin-a ka ḵüŋ- ka ait-aga man-uga buḡ-iga s. loc -aɫ sin- raɫ ḵün-aɫ ait-äɫ man-uaɫ buḡ-iaɫ SV → i i ai ui ui pl. nom - ʔ sin-iʔ ḵün-iʔ ait-aiʔ man-uiʔ buḡ-uiʔ pl. gen - ä sin-iä ḵün-iä ait-ayä man-uyä buḡ-uyä pl. acc - sin-i ḵün-i ait-ai- man-ui buḡ-ui pl. ins -ga sin-iga ḵün-iga ait-aiga man-uiga buḡ-uiga pl. loc -aɫ sin-iaɫ ḵün-iaɫ ait-ayaɫ man-uyaɫ buḡ-yaɫ
Neuter SV → u i a s. nom -ɫ kšar-uɫ ma-iɫ yäl-aɫ s. gen -aʔ kšar-uaʔ ma-yaʔ yäl-äʔ s. acc -ŋ kšar-uŋ ma-iŋ yäl-aŋ s. ins -ga kšar-uga ma-iga yäl-aga s. loc -aɫ kšar-uaɫ ma-yaɫ yäl-äɫ SV → ui ui ai pl. nom -ɫ kšar-uiɫ ma-uiɫ yäl-aiɫ pl. gen - ä kšar-uyä ma-uyä yäl-ayä pl. acc -ŋ kšar-uiŋ ma-uiŋ yäl-aiŋ pl. ins -ga kšar-uiga ma-uiga yäl-aiga pl. loc -aɫ kšar-uyaɫ ma-uyaɫ yäl-ayaɫ
Feminine SV → a i s. nom - gälar-a makša-i s. gen -aʔ gälar-äʔ makša-yaʔ s. acc -a gälar-ä makša-ya s. ins -ru gälar-aru makša-iru s. loc -ɫ gälar-aɫ makša-iɫ SV → ai ya pl. nom - ʔ gälar-aiʔ makša-yaʔ pl. gen - ä gälar-ayä makša-yä pl. acc - ŋ gälar-aiŋ makša-yaŋ pl. ins -ru gälar-airu makša-yaru pl. loc -ɫ gälar-aiɫ makša-yaɫ
They all follow nominal declensions. The table below gives the SV and the sample noun above to consult.
The II declension is found only in derived forms: participles (lüvta ‘loved’, lüvka ‘loving’) and comparatives (däna ‘flatter’, huda ‘fuller’). The expected masculine s.nom -az appears as -a instead.
singular plural m n f m n f I - kün-z u kšar-uɫ a gälar-a i ḵün-iʔ u kšar-uɫ ai gälar-aiʔ II a ait-az a yäl-aɫ a gälar-a ai ait-aiʔ ai yäl-aiɫ ai gälar-aiʔ III i buḡ-iz i ma-iɫ i makša-i ui buḡ-uiʔ ui ma-uiɫ ya makša-yaʔ
Note suppletive mälatiz ‘better’, which is declension III; ‘best’ is mälata.
The superlative is formed with the suffix -ata; thus dänata ‘flattest’, hudata ‘fullest’.
The comparative -a derives from earlier *ä < *ar < *or. The superlative likely comes from *atsaz or *atsiz— cf. Caďinor -astes; the declension changed to match the comparatives.
Subject pronouns, being redundant with the verbal endings, can be omitted except for emphasis. All these pronouns are stressed on the first vowel.
1s 2s 3s 1p 2p 3p nom saɫa laʔ taɫ tähu mauʔ kaiɫ gen saɫai laɫai taɫai tahä muyä kayä acc aḏu laɫa taɫa taiŋ muiŋ kaiŋ ins saɫḵu laga taɫḵa taika muika kaika clitic ḏu- la- ta- tai- mui- kai- adj ariz lariz tariz tähiz muriz kariz who s pl nom ʔaiɫ ʔuyu gen ʔayä ʔuyä acc ʔaiŋ ʔuiŋ ins ʔaika ʔuika loc ʔayaɫ ʔuyaɫ
Clitics can be used to mark the object of a verb or preposition, or for possession on a noun. I set them off with a hyphen in transliteration (ḏu-tibaɫ ‘my horse’), but in the Obenzayet alphabet there is no separation (dutiba¬).
The genitive is rarely used (but see “Possession”). It’s preferred to use either the clitics or the possessive adjectives.
Rïs ‘here’, tadz ‘there’, ʔaidiɫa ‘where’, ridz ‘now’, tidz ‘then’, ʔaidz ‘when’ are invariable. ʔaiz ‘which (one)’ and ʔaimukšiz ‘how many’ are regular adjectives.
The quantifiers are hiz ‘none’, anṯiz ‘some’, mukšiz ‘many’, kšaʔiz ‘every’, all regular adjectives. Combined forms can be made with uŋka ‘person’, diɫa ‘place’, dänz ‘day’, or a more specific word. But there are words hüdz ‘never’, kšadz ‘always’.
There are two possible SVs, a and u, which reverse in the past tense. In addition, the past endings have these differences:
Pres Past s pl s pl 1 aɫ A Amu iɫ A Ämu 2 aɫ Az Ahi iɫ Az Ähi 3 Aʔ Äṯu Ai Äṯu
arilag lälaŋ bakšia ɣɫäɣä Present a a u u 1s aril-aɫa läl-aɫi bakš-aɫu ɣläɣ-aɫu 2s aril-aɫaz läl-aɫiz bakš-aɫuz ɣläɣ-aɫuz 3s aril-iʔ läl-aʔ bakš-iʔ ɣläɣ-aʔ 1p aril-amu läl-amu bakš-umu ɣläɣ-umu 2p aril-ahi läl-ahi bakš-uhi ɣläɣ-uhi 3p aril-äṯu läl-äṯu bakš-ïṯu ɣläɣ-üṯu Past u u a a 1s aril-iɫu läl-iɫu bakš-iɫa ɣläɣ-iɫa 2s aril-iɫuz läl-iɫuz bakš-iɫaz ɣläɣ-iɫaz 3s aril-ui läl-ai bakš-ai ɣläɣ-ai 1p aril-ümu läl-ümu bakš-ämu ɣläɣ-ämu 2p aril-ühi läl-ühi bakš-ähi ɣläɣ-ähi 3p aril-üṯu läl-üṯu bakš-äṯu ɣläɣ-äṯu
The definite present is used for present ongoing states and actions, without aspect distinctions. There are no present imperfective or conditional forms.
When innovating or borrowing verbs, Obenzayet tends to use the -ag conjugation (cf. Verdurian which prefers -an or -en). Thus kšuṯ ‘lying’ > kšuṯag ‘lie’, V. crivan ‘write’ > krivag.
I will show just two verbs to show the pattern.
The past imperfect goes back to proto-Eastern, and has distinct endings, the same for all verbs. It’s used for ongoing, habitual, or uncompleted events.
1s aril-ar-iɫu läl-ar-iɫu 2s aril-ar-iɫuz läl-ar-iɫuz 3s aril-ar-ui läl-ar-ai 1p aril-ar-ümu läl-ar-ümu 2p aril-ar-ühi läl-ar-ühi 3p aril-ar-üṯu läl-ar-üṯu
1s aril-iä läl-iä 2s aril-araz läl-araz 3s aril-aya läl-aya 1p aril-ama läl-ama 2p aril-ahia läl-ahia 3p aril-ïṯa läl-ïṯa
The potential is formed with the suffix -and plus the regular present endings:
1s aril-iz-aɫa läl-iz-aɫi 2s aril-iz-aɫaz läl-iz-aɫiz 3s aril-iz-iʔ läl-iz-aʔ 1p aril-iz-amu läl-iz-amu 2p aril-iz-ahi läl-iz-ahi 3p aril-iz-äṯu läl-iz-äṯu
Usage will be discussed below, but in general the subjunctive is used for possible states, the potential for ability and intention.
1s aril-and-aɫa läl-and-aɫi 2s aril-and-aɫaz läl-and-aɫiz 3s aril-and-iʔ läl-and-aʔ 1p aril-and-amu läl-and-amu 2p aril-and-ahi läl-and-ahi 3p aril-and-äṯu läl-and-äṯu
There are no 1st or 3rd person forms.
Present arilag lälaŋ bakšia ɣɫäɣä a a u u 2s aril-a läl-a bakš-u ɣläɣ-u 2p aril-i läl-i bakš-i ɣläɣ-i
All other forms are regular, following the -ä conjugation, like ɣɫäɣä.
1s saɫi 2s saɫiz 3s sahiz 1p sämu 2p sahai 3p säṯu
Numbers are concatenated with ŋa, largest numbers first:
x 10x xth 1/x x-fold unit 1 änu dakš bäɫiz 2 ṯuna ṯundakš vradiz laŋ ṯunḏuɫ 3 dïŋ dindakš dïmä tiḡ dinduɫ 4 bäʔua bätakš tadiniz baḡuɫ bäʔtuɫ 5 päṯu pätakš päṯiz päṯuɫ 6 sata satakš satiz satuɫ 7 kaipas kaipakš kaipiz 8 yagi yagakš yagiz yagduɫ 9 navri nädakš navriz 10 dakš sigäḏu dakšiz dakštuɫ 100 sigäḏu miɫ sigäḏiz 1000 miɫ
However, the number of hundreds or thousands is given after the word sigäḏu or miɫ:
dakš ŋa ṯuna 20 + 2 22 yagakš ŋa päṯu 80 + 5 85 sigäḏu ŋa kaipakš ŋa bäʔua 100 + 70 + 4 174
miɫ dïŋ ŋa sigäḏu kaipas ŋa yagakš ŋa navriNumbers are invariable, and follow the noun: manuiʔ ṯuna ‘two hands’. However, there is an alternative construction number <genitive>, which places emphasis on the number: ṯuna zintayä ‘two of the cities’.
1000 3 and 100 7 and 80 and 9
There are names only for fractions of 2/3/4. Beyond this you’d say e.g. kïrka päṯi ‘the fifth part’.
A group of x people, or something made of x parts, is named with -duɫ, which assimilates in voicing and velarization to the preceding consonant. These words can also be used as adjectives meaning x-fold.
Nominalizers person, doer -kaiz Ubiŋkaiz Obenzayan vrazi before > vraskaiz ancestor abstract state -adz ʔiliz brave > ʔiladz bravery instance of action -z bukaŋ hit > bukz a blow, a hit feminine giɫaz boy > giɫa girl sularuɫ monk > sulara nun diminutive -k- mayala woman > mayalka maiden ninz nut > ninkaz testicle Adjectivizers N > A -tiz räs righteousness > rästiz righteous material -riz ädi wood > ädriz wooden passive participle -ta nuarag curl up > nuarta curled up active participle -ka lüvag love > lüvka loving negative hu- dafta clothed > hudafta naked Verbalizers Verbalizer -tag liɣiz tall > liktag stand Causative -m(a) näŋ be born > namaŋ give birth läzaŋ go > läzmaŋ lead
≈¬a≈ai hirak duvuc.
kill-past.3s enemy-nom 1s-primary.horse-acc
killed my primary horse.
tailäzak vadircai aluta Ubi%cai.Any argument can be fronted, which indicates topicalization or emphasis. Optionally, its original location may be marked with a pronoun.
TailäzaʔVaḏirkai aluta Ubiŋkai.
seek-3s Verdurian-f.s.nom grammar-s.acc Obenzayan-m.s.acc
The Verdurian woman
is asking for a grammar of Obenzayet.
Hirak, ≈¬a≈ai ta¬ duvuc.
enemy-nom kill-past.3s (he/she) 1s-primary.horse-acc
The enemy, he
killed my primary horse.
Or: it was the enemy who killed my primary horse.
Duvuc, ≈¬a≈ai hirak tai%.A fronted argument should be one already present in the context, not something new.
Ḏu-vuḵ, ɣɫaɣaihiraʔ (taiŋ).
1s-primary.horse-acc / kill-past.3s enemy-nom
My primary horse, the enemy killedit.
An adjective modifying the verb may precede it (probably so that it is not taken as an argument).
The clitic forms of the pronouns are preferred to the accusative, and are also used for datives when an accusative argument is explicitly given. You can say lüvaɫa
The clitic precedes any verbal modifiers, such as adverbs:
Duti≈iz curnui.There is no reflexive pronoun, but if you want to emphasize that a third person object is not reflexive, you can use tats ‘that’ instead of a pronoun:
He spoke to me softly.
Diyaya tïba¬ tatak.To mark an action that is surprisingly directed against oneself, the object can be changed to huvradiz ‘same’. (That is, you shouldn’t use this construction for completely unsurprising actions, like washing oneself.)
ride-impf.3s horse-acc that-m.s.gen
He rode his (someone else’s) horse.
Cßuti mä≈c huvradya.
lie-3s witch same-f.s.acc
The witch is deceiving herself.
Adjectives can be used as substantives: liɣiz ‘a tall person’, Ubinkaiz ‘an Obenzayan’.
mayalka laɫi a beautiful girl mayalka ganaʔ a girl of the tribe mayalka ata this girl mayalkaiʔ dïŋ three girls mayalkaiʔ dïŋ ata these three girls mayalka namka giɫa a girl who gives birth to a boy
There are no articles. However, sometimes previous reference is emphasized by fronting, as a form of topicalization.
Gacßi¬a hü tïba¬ lari.You can negate an argument with hiz ‘none’. You don’t also add hü— except in Nešian.
steal-1s.past not horse your-s.m.acc
I didn’t steal your horse.
Gacßi¬a tïba¬ hi.Like any adjective, hiz can be used as a substantive: Gakšiɫa
steal-1s.past horse none- s.m.acc
I stole no horse.
Gacßi¬a tïba¬ lari sahü?If you agree, you say tats (‘that’); if you disagree, hü (‘no’).
Gakšiɫa tïbaɫ lari
steal-1s.past horse-acc your-s.m.acc Q
Did I steal your horse?
You can’t combine hü and sahü— that is, there are no negative questions. However, you can suggest that the state of affairs didn’t happen by using the conditional (past) or subjunctive (present):
Gacßarai u%ca latïba¬ sahü?
Gakšarai uŋka la-tïbaɫ
steal-cond-3s person 2s-horse-acc Q
Did someone steal your horse? (implication: probably not)
Kai¬ tugui aiz tïba¬?With ʔaiz ‘which’ or ʔaimukšiz ‘how many’, which modify an NP, the NP is fronted with it:
ʔaiɫtugui aiz tibaɫ?
who fall-3s.past from horse-s.acc
Who fell off their horse?
Kaiban ca¬ütu cßüdaik aryak sahi%?
ʔaibankaɫüṯu kšüdaiʔ aryaʔ sahiŋ?
why acquire-3p.past pig-pl my-f.pl mange-acc
Why do my pigs always get mange?
Läzmak ≈raba gälara¬, ata kaidi¬a ≈raba?
Läzmaʔ ɣraba gälaraɫ, ata
lead-3s wadi river-loc / but where wadi
The wadi leads to the river; but where is the wadi?
Kaimucßui buci katanda¬iz käbä¬?
ʔaimukšui bukiʔaṯandaɫiz ʔäḇäɫ?
how.many blow-pl.acc bear-potent-2s head-loc
How many punches to the head can you endure?
Sätu mayalcaik Cu¬zäk zratyak.Existentials, however, use the verb liktag ‘stand’:
Säṯumayalkaiʔ Ḵuɫzäʔ zraṯyaʔ.
be-3p girl-pl Kulža-gen ugly-f.pl.nom
The girls in Kulža are ugly.
Sahiz cßüda cßälca.
be-3s pig-nom animal-nom
A pig is an animal.
Lictik piccaiz lamicßumüla¬.
stand-3s scorpion you.s-saddlebag-loc
There is a scorpion in your saddlebag.
Sätu pa¬saik ta%a dalua¬.Pronouns do not have a locative form, so the genitive is used. However, it must directly follow the verb.
Säṯupaɫsaiʔ taŋa daluaɫ.
be-3p flea-pl and king-loc
The king too has fleas. (proverb)
Lit., the fleas are also at the king.
Sahiz la¬ai u%ga im vikßi¬ panak?Within an NP, the genitive is used for possession: vuḵ
laɫaiuŋga im vikšiɫ panaʔ
be-3s you.s-gen nail or hair man-gen
Do you have a toenail or hair from the man?
Conjoining sentences, you can use taŋa ‘and’ (not ŋa), im ‘or’, ata ‘but’, banats ‘because’, ḵurnka ‘therefore’, aʔban ‘despite’:
Rugütu vrascauik tähuik zintacaui, ata rugütu tai% ridz.
Rugüṯu vraskauiʔ tähuiʔ zintakaui,
atarugüṯu taiŋ ridz.
rule-past.3p ancestor-pl our-m.p.nom townsman-pl.acc / but rule-3p we-acc now
Our ancestors ruled the city dwellers, but now they rule us.
Dukaranma¬az, banats nuyari¬uz lävraha%ca dumayalä.
banatsnuyariɫuz la-avrahaŋka ḏu-mayalä.
1s-shame-2s / because sleep-cond-2s not 2s-refuse-inf-ins 1s-wife-acc
You shame me, for you refused to sleep with my wife.
Dai mä≈i mayalcä li%cä lüväk.If a clitic appears on the verb, it should be the indirect object:
give-past.3s witch girl-acc remedy-acc love-gen
The witch gave the girl a love charm.
Dudai mä≈i li%cä lüväk.For verbs of speaking, the person addressed is in the
Ḏu-dai mäɣi liŋḵä lüväʔ.
1s-give-past.3s witch remedy-acc love-gen
The witch gave me a love charm.
Päta¬i cai¬iraga mayalcä, ata dulüvil hü.As we’ll see, language names are in the instrumental, which means you can have a double instrumental: pätaɫi
kailiraga mayalkä, ata ḏu-lüviʔ hü.
sing-past.1s romance-ins girl-acc / but 1s-love-3s not
I sang a ballad to the girl, but she does not love me.
For verbs of naming, the namee is in the
Nünumu at gru≈a, ≈ra≈ätu änu kaibanaga Vadira¬.
at gruɣa; ɣraɣäṯu änu ʔaibanaga Vaḏiraɫ.
name-1p this-acc turnip / eat-3p one reason-ins Verduria-loc
This thing is called a “turnip”; for some reason they eat it in Verduria.
Prepositions take the accusative. Thus aiz zinta ‘from the city’, aʔ dalu ‘against the king’, ḵuba madä ‘under the table’, karaɫ ḏu-makš ‘beside my master’, sadz yäkšuiŋ ‘without feathers’.
aiz from, out of aʔ against aɫadz among daräɫ behind, in back of haʔ in, inside ḵuba under naba over, above, on vrazi before, in front of karaɫ beside, next to sadz away from; without
It’s possible to use pronouns as the object— aʔ aḏu ‘against me’, vrazi taiŋ ‘before us’— but more common to use the clitics: ḏu-aʔ, tai-vrazi.
Don’t use a prepositional phrase when the locative will do: zintäɫ ‘in the city’, bärumaiɫ ‘in the mountains’, gälaraɫ ‘by/in the river’, ḏu-dadiɫ ‘on my finger’, kamaɫ ‘at home’. The locative can be thought of as “the type of location obviously appropriate in this context.” Thus a fish swims gälaraɫ ‘in the river’, but a city stands gälaraɫ ‘by the river’.
Also recall that the instrumental takes the place of ‘with’: saraga ‘with a sword’.
There’s no way to indicate that a prepositional phrase indicates movement, except by the choice of verb. Compare läzaŋ haʔ zinta ‘go into the city’, nütavag haʔ zinta ‘stay in the city’. But e.g. zladä naba madä is ambiguous between ‘jump onto the table’ and ‘jump (up and down) on the table’. For that matter, Obenzayet does not distinguish between ‘above (not touching)’ and ‘on’.
Location in time is marked with the locative: aitäɫ ‘during the summer’, näkšuaɫ ‘at night’. Duration is marked with the instrumental: aitaga ‘the summer long’, näkšuga ‘all night’.
The future is ahead of us, so vrazi aita is ‘before/until summer’, daräɫ aita is ‘after/since summer’.
In the past only, the
Pïdiä cuc, kaidz curnui nümi.The imperfect can be used on its own as a frequentative (“I was always drinking”) or simply to indicate an extended process (
Pïdiäḵuk, ʔaidz ḵurnui nümi.
drink-imperf.1s ḵukz / when speak-past.3s goddess
I was drinking ḵukz when the goddess spoke.
Zra≈ara¬uz hudaftä, la≈¬a≈arai panz tariz.If the consequence is in the definite instead— it’s a real action— we could translate “X didn’t happen, and so Y happened”:
Zraɣaraɫuzhudaftä, la- ɣɫaɣaraipanz tariz.
touch-cond-2s nude-s.f.acc / 2s-kill-cond-3s husband 3s-m.s.nom
If you had touched the naked woman, her husband would have killed you.
Pïdarik cuc buca%aca, haläzai räcßu%.There is no word ‘if’, and this tense is not limited to conditionals. It can be seen as exploring an alternative reality. This is often done out of regret, so these often have the sense “If only X…”
Pïdariʔḵuk bukaŋaka, haläzai räkšuŋ.
drink-cond-3s ḵukz beat.inf-ins / enter-past.3s monster-s.acc
He drank the ḵukz without striking, so he has become a monster.
Akara¬u u¬acai!There is no present conditional. Instead, a present or future condition is stated using the
If only I had listened to the elder!
Zra≈iza¬iz hudaftä, la≈¬a≈izak panz tariz.The subjunctive alone can express a wish (or fear), or act as an exhortation; it’s also used for uncertain future events.
Zraɣizaɫizhudaftä, la- ɣɫaɣizaʔpanz tariz.
touch-subj-2s nude-s.f.acc / 2s-kill-subj-3s husband 3s-m.s.nom
If you touch the naked woman, her husband will kill you.
Another use is to make a proposal:
What if we exchanged husbands?
Note the combination of potential and subjunctive here:
Cäpanda¬u nümu% lari%, tiludizik rud ari.There is no future tense; instead there’s a range of choices, depending on the actor and how certain the event is. Compare:
Käpandaɫunümuŋ lariŋ, tiluḏiziʔrud ari.
revere-potential-1s god-s.acc 2s-s.n.acc / heal-subj-3s dog-s.acc 1s-s.m.acc
I will revere your god if he heals my dog.
In narratives, it’s common to use the present tense, not the past.
Sumiraɫu. [definite] I’ll read (with certainty), I’m reading now. Sumirizaɫu. [subjunctive] I hope to read, I think I’ll read. Sumirandaɫu. [potential] I intend to read, I will make sure to read.
Cuyilik daluz vri≈a% %a nuyag.It’s used in invariable form as a complement to certain nouns and verbs: e.g. nïradz
enjoy-3s king fight-inf-acc and sex-inf-acc
The king enjoys fighting and screwing.
In the instrumental, it can be used as an adjective or adverbial:
Diyïta ahulagca panik aiz bärumai%.To express something like “I want X”, Obenzayet throws out all linguistic decency, and makes X the main clause, in the subjunctive, with “I want” expressed using a personal infinitive.
ahulagkapaniʔ aiz bärumaiŋ.
ride-impf.3p scream-inf-ins warrior-pl from mountain-pl.acc
The warriors rode screaming out of the mountains.
Lädizik dunïra%ca anäraz duilad.We can see the same mechanism in a previous example: the highlighted word could be rendered “with your refusal” or “you-refusingly”.
honor-subj-3s 1s-want-inf-ins headman 1s-bravery-acc
I want the headman to recognize my bravery.
Literally, “The headman should recognize my bravery, I-thinkingly.”
Dukaranma¬az, banats nuyari¬uz lävraha%ca dumayalä.You can nest infinitives:
Ḏu-karanmaɫaz, banats nuyariɫuz
1s-shame-2s / because sleep-cond-2s not 2s-refuse-inf-ins 1s-wife-acc
You shame me, for you refused to sleep with my wife.
Sumiranda¬uz dunïra%ca lalana%ca, ata duzra≈a¬i hü.The verb order is the opposite of ours. That is, you decipher these starting at the right: an infinitive applies to the verb to its left.
ḏu-nïraŋka la-lanaŋka, ata ḏu-zraɣaɫi hü.
study-can-2s 1s-want-inf-ins 2s-think-inf-ins / but 1s-touch-1s not
You think I don’t want you to study, but I don’t care.
Sumiraʔ panz ivruɫi.These could also be translated “the man reading books”, “the books read by the man”. The participle of course does not indicate number, tense, or aspect.
read-3s man book-pl.acc
The man reads books.
→ panz sumirka ivruɫi
man read-act.part-m book-pl.acc
the man who reads books.
→ ivruɫiʔ sumirtaiɫ panz
book-pl.nom read-pass.part-n.pl man
the books that the man read
Hudgimik panz sumirca ivru¬c bana diyä tïba¬.You could extend this, but it becomes difficult to parse beyond two participles:
panz sumirka ivruɫibana diyä tïbaɫ.
forget-3s man read-act.part book-pl.acc way-acc ride-inf horse-acc
A man who reads books forgets how to ride a horse.
panz sumirca ivru¬i crivtai% madaluzNote that each participle agrees with the preceding noun (its head): ‘reading’ with ‘man’, ‘written’ with ‘books’.
panz sumirka ivruɫi krivtaiŋ madaluz
man read-act.part-m book-pl.acc write-pass.part-n.pl.acc prince
the man who reads books written by the prince
Sahiz sularu¬ zrata ta¬gürä.For pronominal comparisons, you can use the pronouns (zraṯa laɫa ‘uglier than you’) or the clitics (la-zraṯa).
be-3s monk uglier-m.s.nom dragon-cc
The monk is uglier than a dragon.
Luta¬u cuncai cupra.
need-1s counselor-acc smarter-m.s.acc
I need a smarter counselor.
Superlatives have the comparison class in the genitive:
Sahiz sada mutata mayalayä, banats sahiz tamadz cßutiz.
mutata mayalayä, banats sahiz ta-madz kšutiz.
be-3s queen saddest-f.s.nom woman-pl.gen / because be-3s 3s-son dead-m.s.nom
The queen is the saddest of women, for her son is dead.
You can also create a syntactic causative, by demoting the agent to an instrumental. Thus:
≈¬a≈ai masticaiz mat.
Ɣɫaɣai mastikaiz mat.
kill-past.3s farmer-nom sheep-acc
The farmer killed a sheep.
→ Ɣɫaɣai diyka
kill-past.3s nomad farmer-ins sheep-acc
The nomad made a farmer kill a sheep.
≈¬a≈ai mat.To focus on the sheep, making it the subject, you can use the passive participle:
The sheep was killed.
Sahai mats ≈¬a≈ta.You can even insert the original agent back, using an instrumental:
be-past.3s sheep-nom kill-past.part-m.s.nom
The sheep was killed.
Sahai mats ≈¬a≈ta masticaiga.This construction shouldn’t be over-used; it’s most appropriate when (e.g.) you’ve been talking about the sheep.
Sahai mats ɣɫaɣta
be-past.3s sheep-nom kill-past.part-m.s.nom farmer-ins
The sheep was killed by the farmer.
Indications of place— adverbs, locatives, prepositional phrases, clauses— usually appear at the end of the sentence, but before any time clauses.
Ca¬anda¬az hya aisä zintä¬.However, the place can be fronted if it’s a topic, setting the scene for what follows.
Kaɫandaɫaz hya aisä
find-potent-2s none-f.s.acc horse.blood-acc city-loc
You will find no horse’s blood in the big city.
Nä¬ütu nümui¬ naba nacuyag dumadak?
naba nakuyag ḏu-madaʔ.
rain-past.3p god-pl above adulthood.ceremony-acc 1s-son-gen
The gods rained on my son’s adulthood ceremony.
Ludya¬, diyandak u%ca cßadz.A place clause can be introduced by ʔaidiɫa ‘where’:
Ludyaɫ, diyandaʔ uŋka kšadz.
plain-p.loc / ride-potent-3s person forever
In the Barbarian Plain, a person can ride forever.
Curnandamu viträ¬ kaidi¬a curnïta taipïzik.
ʔaidiɫa ḵurnïṯa tai-pïziʔ.
speak-potent-1p well-loc where speak-imperf.3p 1p-father-pl
We will talk at the well where our fathers talked.
Time expressions usually end the sentence.
Vri≈andamu hü, banats nütavamu ridz.A time clause is introduced with ʔaidz ‘when’:
Vriɣandamu hü, banats nütavamu
fight-potent-1p no / because rest-1p now
We cannot fight, because we are resting now.
Nä¬a säna¬ kaidz ≈¬a≈ai anäraz tamad.
ʔaidz ɣɫaɣai anäraz ta-mad.
born-1s year-loc when kill-past.3s headman 3s-son-acc
I was born in the year when the headman killed his son.
This adjective can be used as a substantive for the inhabitants. It should be used in the approprite gender: e.g. Vaḏirkaiz ‘Verdurian man’, Vaḏirkai ‘Verdurian woman’.
Names of nomadic tribes are generally plurals: ʔiluiʔ ‘the brave’ = Eluyet, Gälyaʔ ‘the roots’ = Gelyet, Makšiʔ ‘the masters’ = Makši, Ḡüraiʔ ‘the lions’ = Küret.
In former times the Obenzayans called themselves Ubiŋiʔ ‘the thunders’. But when the kingdom was organized, it was desired to name it in more civilized fashion, thus Ubiŋaz— compare Kazinaz ‘Caďinas’. This in turn produced the adjective Ubiŋkaiz, plural Ubiŋkauiʔ. The Curiyans heard this as Obengyawet— or possibly took this from another Naviu tribe which retained the proto-Eastern plural -et. A couple of Curiyan sound changes produced Obenzayet, which was borrowed into Verdurian.
You speak ḵuranka Ubiŋkaiga ‘using the Obenzayan language’, or like Vaŋkritiz write a grammar ḵuranaʔ Ubiŋkayaʔ ‘of the Obenzayan language’. The word ḵuran ‘language’ can be left out:
Crivanda¬a Ubi%caiga %a Vadircaiga.The prominence of Vaḏira is recent; the language was in older times called Kazinä ‘Cadinor’. But that was when it was in everyone’s interest to minimize the difference between classical Caďinor and the vernacular.
Krivandaɫa Ubiŋkaiga ŋa Vaḏirkaiga.
write-potent-1s Obenzayan-m.s.ins and Verdurian-m.s.ins
I can write in Obenzayet or Verdurian.
First, ordinary nouns and adjectives. Examples:
Most of these could be given to either sex, but the gender (if it’s not neuter) would be adjusted to match the person. You’d naturally keep the stem vowel if possible; thus Arabaz (m) > Araba, ʔiliz (m) > ʔili, Yarta (f) > Yartaz. A masculine noun ending in a consonant went to -i: Sarz > Sari, Ubiŋ > Ubiŋi.
Äḏüa powerful Aɫaz earth Arabaz tree Bäɫiz first Bärta feared Bäruma mountain Buḡiz big Gäviz pure Ḡüra lion Häɣiz skillful Itrïn heart Kupriz smart Kumayaz peace Lädz honor Lais wolf Mälata best Makiḏ diamond Malya bee Mata ewe Mavuḏaz iron Näɫä rain Näkšuɫ night Naʔi moon Niɫä beauty Nïrta desired Piṯiz little Rästiz honest Rutiz good Sanadz dream Säran east Sarz sword Sïɣa berry Taɫa fire Taɫḡüra dragon Ṯuli breeze Ubiŋ thunder Uraz bear Urduz bird Urunz eagle Vriɣka fighting Zaka straw Zläda light Yarta flower ʔiliz brave ʔuivuɫ owl
The old Eastern pattern of two-root names is no longer productive in Obenzayet, but many names have been preserved: Barsats‘long arm’, Pansäl ‘strong man’, Niɫanaʔi ‘moon beauty’, Vikšimar ‘black hair’, etc.
Second, names of gods, culture heroes, headmen, and emperors, not necessarily Naviu. Popular names include god names (see below), Ḵidaɫ ‘Kehadau’, Ariviɫa ‘Ervëa’, Ataviz ‘Attafei’, the empress Malya, the Gelyet chiefs ʔuäraz (Hiaraz) and Laŋuraz, and Maḡiz ‘Meugi’ (the Curiyan conqueror of Caďinas).
Finally, names adapted from Cuêzi, Caďinor, and Verdurian, indifferently from Eleďe/Arašei and pagan sources. These often exist in multiple forms, depending on the time borrowed and how well the name-giver knew the languages involved. E.g. Caď. Cuomolondos could be borrowed as Kumulundz, Kumuludz, Kumlun, Kwumiluḏ, etc. The Verdurian form Comblon might be adapted closely as Kumblun or Kublun, but Nešians might show off their Verdurian by using the Verdurian vowels.
The nomads take only one name, supplemented by patronymics: Itrïn Arabäʔ, Itrïn son of Arabäʔ. In the Neši valley people are beginning to use surnames, usually derived from place names or even street names; or they simply continue a patronymic verbatim— e.g. an Arabäʔ need not be the son of an Arabaz, only a descendent.
Matronymics are not unknown, especially for women: Naʔi Yartäʔ, Naʔi daughter of Yarta.
Titles follow the name: Ataviz daluz ‘King Ataviz’.
Rï≈ak gi¬az kaidz namak büna pïzäk zvai%.Here the potential is used to refer to future events. The calf is able to live only one year because it will be killed; the question about eating, like the English, questions ability in order to question intent.
Rïɣaʔ giɫaz ʔaidz namaʔ büna pïzäʔ zvaiŋ.
watch-3s boy when give.birth-3s cow 3s-father-gen calf-acc
A boy watches as his father's cow gives birth to a calf.
Näk zvai¬, ta%a nurak mïzä dit lävi.
Näʔ zvaiɫ, taŋa nuraʔ mïzä dit lävi.
born-3s calf / and suckle-impf-3s mother baby-acc new-m.s.acc
The calf is born, and the mother gives suck to the new baby.
Mistik gi¬az. ≈racßik zvai¬, ta%a ta-huraʔ %a talüvik gi¬az.
Mistiʔ giɫaz. Ɣrakšiʔ zvaiɫ, taŋa ta-huraʔ ŋa ta-lüviʔ giɫaz.
smiles-3s boy / grow-3s calf / and 3s-play-3s and 3s-love-3s boy
The boy smiles. The calf grows, and the boy plays with it, and loves it.
be-3s 3s-consider-inf-ins beautiful-n.s.nom
He considers it beautiful.
Ganik ta-pïzä du%adca. Curnik, <Dusa¬iz karanz!
Ganiʔ ta-pïzä ḏuŋadka. Ḵurniʔ, “Ḏu-saɫiz karanz!
burn-3s 3s-father anger-ins / say-3s / 1s-be-2s shame
His father burns in anger. He says, “You are a shame to me!
Arilandik zvai¬ atu¬ tücca änu sänca. ≈ra≈andak tat taya¬adz sahü?
Arilandiʔ zvaiɫ atuɫ tükka änu sänka. Ɣraɣandaʔ tat tay-aɫadz sahü?
live-potent-3s calf this-n.s.nom only one year-ins / eat-potent-2s this-acc 1p-among Q
This calf will live just one year! Will you be able to eat it with us?
Hädak häts kicšiz vrazi gan.>The potential is literally “The father intends to go…”; its use emphasizes that the action is not completed.
Hädaʔ häts ʔikšiz vrazi gan.”
stink-3s spirit weak-m.s.nom before clan-acc
A weak spirit stinks before the clan.”
Haläzätu hü misaik pïzäk käbä¬ gi¬äk.
Haläzäṯu hü misaiʔ pïzäʔ ʔäḇäɫ giɫäʔ.
enter-3p not word-pl 3s-father-gen head-loc boy-gen
The words of the father do not penetrate the boy's head.
Läzak sänz, ta%a zra%candak gargya zvayaʔ.
Läzaʔ sänz, taŋa zraŋkandaʔ gargya zvayaʔ.
go-3s year / and cut-potent-3s father throat-acc calf-gen
A year goes by, and the father goes to cut the calf's throat.
Curnik gi¬az: <Aizlädi¬u zvai%!Note the parenthetical “I think” expressed as a personal infinitive. “Quiet place” is simply “quiet” in the locative, but in the feminine, as it’s still considered to modify diɫa ‘place’.
Ḵurniʔ giɫaz: “Aizlädiɫu zvaiŋ!
speak-3s boy / hide-past.1s calf-acc /
The boy speaks: “I hid the calf!
Taɫanda¬iz dulana%ca ta≈rag, ta%a aizlädi¬u tiɣi¬.>
Taɫandaɫiz ḏu-lanaŋka ta-ɣrag, taŋa aizlädiɫu ṯiɣiɫ.
pour-potent-2s 1s-think-inf-ins 3s-blood-acc / and hide-past.1s quiet-loc
I thought that you were coming to pour its blood, and I hid it in a quiet place.”
Cazik pïzä, < Gi¬az, läza %a ya≈a.“What Ädänä gives” is literally “that given Ädänä.”
Kaziʔ pïzä, “Giɫaz, läza ŋa yaɣa.
order-3s father / son / go-imper and hunt-imper
The father orders him: “Son, go out and hunt.
Tailäza ura im hakäd, ta%a zra≈a cama¬.
Tailäza ura im haʔäd, taŋa zraɣa kamaɫ.
seek-imper bear-acc or deer-acc and bring-imper hearth-loc
Look for a bear or a deer and bring it home.
Sahizak tats idta Ädänä taitïnama.<
Sahizaʔ tats idta Ädänä tai-tïnama.”
be-subj-3s that give-pass.part-m.s.dat Ädänä 1p-meal
What Ädänä gives will be our meal.”
Yaɣak gi¬az, ta%a sägik hakäd.This line, and the “weak spirit” line, are Obenzayet proverbs, and the story can be said to be built to explain them.
Yaɣaʔ giɫaz, taŋa sägiʔ haʔäd.
hunt-3s boy / and seize-3s deer-acc
The boy hunts, and seizes a deer.
Lictik cumayaz itrïna¬ gi¬äk, banats lüvui hü haʔäd.
Liktiʔ kumayaz itrïnaɫ giɫäʔ, banats lüvui hü haʔäd.
stand-3s peace heart-loc boy-gen / because love-past.3s not deer-acc
There is peace in the boy's heart, because he did not love the deer.
Sahiz lüvä u%cäk camaɫ tari¬.
Sahiz lüvä uŋkäʔ kamaɫ tariɫ.
be-3s love person-gen hearth-gen 3s-f.s.gen
A person's love is in their hearth.
The theme is typical: lovers riding off carelessly into the steppe to enjoy themselves. The word for the boy, nakuika, makes it clear that they are unmarried. The nomads were not very scrupulous about chastity, and such escapades were certainly possible in a culture where young women not only rode horses as well as the men, but defended their settlements alone when the men were off hunting or raiding. Except in noble lineages, young people could generally choose their own partners. There is a hint of paternal disapproval, but it does not seem to be very serious; the father’s complaint is likely to be about idleness, not immorality.
I know a boy
With long hair
Diyumu sa¬a ta¬
Diyumu saɫa taɫ
ride-1p I he
We ride together
To our lonely spot
Sätu kuak nintyak
Säṯu ʔuaiʔ nintyaʔ
be-3p eye-pl brown-f.pl
His eyes are brown
Padi tuga¬a hak
Padi tugaɫa haʔ
deep-f fall-1s in
I fall deep inside them
Sahiz lu%ta hä≈i
Sahiz luŋta häɣi
be-3s bow skillful-f
His bow is skillful
I love his kisses
We made love at night
hak uyai% gurayä
haʔ uyaiŋ gurayä
in howl-pl.acc lion-pl.gen
While lions roared
His father sought us
ca¬andik hü ta¬a
kaɫandiʔ hü taɫa
find-potent-3s not we.acc
But could not find us
If no noun form is provided, use the infinitive (e.g. ahulag = ‘a scream’).
Genders are provided for nouns. ne = epicene; the citation form is masculine but the word can also be declined as feminine.
[*] indicates a word derived from proto-Eastern.
[V] indicates a word borrowed from Verdurian.
Ädänä nm a god [*] ädi nf wood [*] ädriz a wooden äḏüa a powerful [*] äḏüadz nm power ahulag v yell, scream aidi nf lake [*] aiga nf thorn [*] aigriz a thorny; sharp Ailadanz nm Eleď [Cuêzi Eìledan] aisa nf horse blood aisag v cut a horse’s neck and drink the blood, for sustenance [Coruo aisâ ‘pierce’] aitaz nm summer [*] aittiz a summery aiz pp from, out of aizlädag v hide [‘out of the light’] alas nn nose [*] alüra nf wrist [*] alutaz nm grammar [V aluatas] aɫadz pp among [related to ‘middle’] aɫaḏz nm center, middle aɫaɫ a middle, central [*] aɫaz nm earth, world; Almea [*] aɫkaiz ne human [‘earther’] än a chief, primary, major [*] anäraz nm headman, chief [*] änkaiz ne boss [‘first’] anṯiz a some [‘one-two’] änu # one [*] aŋkalkaiz ne herdsman aŋkaɫ nn herd [*] äpas nm wealth [*] äpatiz a wealthy, rich arabaz nm tree [*] arats nm storm; the storm god [Meťelyi] arilag v live [*] ariz a my [*] Asan nm Ešan, a city and state on Lake Bérunor ata cj but, however [poss. aʔ taŋa ‘against and’] Ataviz nm Attafei; name of several Obenzayan kings [Caď., from Tžuro] ats pr this one atsanz nm school [V ečom] avä nm grandfather [*] avaɫ a blue [*] avara nf grandmother [*] avrahaŋ v refuse, abstain [‘against act’] avräna nf oats [*] azistun nm church [V aiďeton] aʔ pp against [*] aʔban cj despite aʔia v hear, listen [*] aʔriz a audible aɣihaŋ v stab [*] bahadz nm lowness bahiz a low [*] bakšia v change pasturage; trek, travel (to stay) [*] bägaz nm horsetail; bow (for a fiddle); string (for an archer’s bow) [Meťelyi] bagiɫ nn vision, hallucination [Coruo, cf. Cuêzi bēge ‘favor’] bagimag v hallucinate, have a vision baliḏ nm silver [Elkarîl belidd] balidriz a silvery, of silver banats cj because [‘this way’] banaz nm way, path; manner [Cuêzi banas] bansats a distant, far [‘long way’] baraʔ nm arm [*] bäradz nm fear bärag v fear [*] bärka a fearful, timid baḡuɫ nn quarter, one fourth [Cuêzi bargau] Bäruks a Barakhinei Bäruḵünz nm Barakhún [Bara(khun) + ‘land’] bäruma nf mountain [*] bärubriz a mountainous bätakš # forty bäts nm cock, rooster [*] bäʔua # four [*] bäɫiz a first [*] bäɣia v throw [*] bäʔtuɫ nn quartet, group of four; four-fold Biluɫ n Beloa, capital of Bešbalic bisbalag v share, distribute (esp. spoils) [Somoyi] bisbalduɫ nn company, band; (pl.) the Bešbalicu [‘sharers’] bisbalta nf share, portion [‘shared’] bukaŋ v strike, hit, beat [imitative] bukši nf mouth [*] bukz nm blow, punch büna nf cow [*] bünz nm bull [*] buḡiz a big [*] bütra v betray bütrakaiz ne betrayer dadi nf finger [*] dadriz a daily dadz nm giving dädz nm flatness dafta a covered; clothed dakš # ten [*] dakšiz a tenth dakštuɫ nn group of ten; ten-fold daluriz a kingly, royal daluz nm king [V dalu] daɫ a hard [*] daŋ v give (participles idta, idka) [*] dän a flat [*] dänz nm day [*] daräɫ pp behind, in back of [‘back’ loc.] daraz nm back [*] dartiz a anterior, in back davag v cover; wear digama nf flesh [*] digantiz a physical, fleshly; mortal dïkadz nm humility dïka a humble dïkmag v humble (someone), abase dïmä a third [*] dindakš # thirty dinduɫ nn trio, trinity; three-fold dïŋ # three [*] dits nm baby, infant [*] diɫa na place [*] dïs nm a ride; journey; a measure of about 50 miles (root di-) Dïstai nf Deštai diyä v ride diyka ne rider, nomad [‘riding’] duna nf magical energy [Caď. duneia ‘energy’] dünz nm house [*] duŋka ne magician, wizard ḏuŋadz nm anger, wrath ḏuŋiz a angry ḏunmag v anger, annoy gäkšiɫ nn weight [*] gakšia v steal, rob [*] gakšika ne robber, thief gälara nf river [*] gäli nf stick, stem; (pl.) the Gelyet [*] gäna nf beak [*] ganag v burn [*] ganz nm tribe, clan [*] gargi nf throat [*] gävadz nm purity gäviz a pure [*] gäʔ nm lizard [*] giɫa nf girl (before puberty) giɫadz nm childhood giɫaz nm boy (before puberty) [*] gits nm helmet [Elkarîl gît ‘armor’] gruɣa na turnip [V gruřa] ḡäts nm metal [*] ḡätriz a metallic ḡimag v know ḡuduz nm rat [*] ḡüra nf lion; (pl.) Küret tribe [*] hädä v stink [*] hadaŋ v travel (with intention of returning) [*] hädriz a stinky, noisome hägia v leave; abandon [*] haläzadz nm entrance; portal haläzaŋ v enter, go in; become [‘in-go’] haliɫ nn leaf [*] häradz nm loudness häraziz a green [*] häriz a loud [*] häts nm spirit, soul [*] hättiz a spritiual haʔ pp in, inside haʔädz nm deer [*] haɣi nf plant [*] häɣiz a skillful [*] haɣriz a vegetal, herbal, made of plants haɣuz nm shrine [*] hiraʔ nm enemy [*] hirtiz a inimical, vicious, villainous hivuɫ nn mayor [V řivo] hiz a no (as modifier), none, not any hizunz nm policeman, town guardsman [Verdurian hežom ‘guard’] hluṯiz a evil [Cuêzi exlûrte] hudafta a bare, naked hudadz nm fullness hudiz a full [*] hü pt no, not hüdz pr never hudḡimag v forget [‘never know’] hüḵa nf color [*] hükriz a colorful huraŋ v play [*] hurs nm game huvradiz a same; self [‘not other’] idta nf gift iḵä nm elcar [Elkarîl] Ikšarä nm the afterworld, paradise [Caď. Iscaria] im cj or itrïn nm heart [Cuêzi itīran] ivrukaiz a bookish, nerdy ivruɫ nn book; (pl.) literature, culture [Verdurian ivro] Izräka nf the Eärdur [Cuêzi Isreica] kailiraz nm romance, ballad [Cuêzi coêliras ‘devotion’] kaiɫ pr they [*] kaipas # seven [*] kaipakš # seventy kaipiz a seventh kaitag v shelter, take refuge käḵuɫ nn kind, type [*] kalinz n castle, fort; name of a city [Caď. calenos] kälia v gather [*] Kälniɫä n the Selnara river [‘gather beauty’— folk etymology from Meťelyi] kaɫag v get, acquire; find [*] kaɫḵaɫ nn heel (of foot or hand) [*] kaɫta nf a find, a discovery; loot kama nf hearth, home [*] kanduɫ nn family [‘home group’] kantiz a domestic, homely käpia v revere, worship [*] käpinz nm reverence; funeral games karanz nm shame [*] karanka a shameful, dishonorable karanmag v shame, dishonor karaɫ pp beside, next to karaz nm side [*] Kataza na Kačanza kats nm bone [*] kaya na shelter [*] kazia v order, command [*] kariz a their Kazinä a Caďinorian Kazinaz nm the Caďinorian empire [Caď. Caďinas] kaɣra na grain [*] kidaɫ nn liver [*] kihia v slip [*] kiluŋ nm mercury [Elkarîl khîlông] kiɫal nn sky; also the name of a god [*] kiɫaltiz a celestial kïra nf body [*] kïrka nf piece, part, fraction [‘small body’] Kirzuɫ nn the Kerzu, a river in Curiya and Deštai kïsag v wash, clean kritadz n happiness kritiz a happy, glad [Caď. cretes] krivag v write [V crivan] krivz nm text, letter kriza na mare kšadz pr forever, always kšälaŋ v breathe [*] kšälka nf animal [‘breather’] kšänaŋ v come [*] kšaŋga nf fowl [*] kšaradz nm difficulty kšaruɫ a difficult [*] kšas nm roof [*] kšats nm oasis [*] kšaya nf neck [*] kšaʔiz a every, all [*] kšaɣi nf vagina [*] kšüda nf pig [*] kšutia v die kšutikaiz ne dead man, corpse kšutiz a dead [*] kšuṯ a deceitful, lying [*] kšuṯag v lie, deceive kumaitiz a peaceful, harmonious kumayaz nm peace, harmony [Cuêzi corumayas] kupriz a wise, smart, intelligent [Cuêzi cueporo] Kurza a Curiyan, Coruo, Karazi [from a Karazi language] kurag v buy [Caď. currec ‘hold/grasp’] kuyilag v like, enjoy [Cuêzi coêli] ḵi intj turn right! Ḵinan nm Kina, capital of Kačanza ḵitsiḏ nm gold [Elkarîl qichidd] ḵitsidriz a golden ḵuba pp under [*] ḵuḏa nf elbow [*] ḵukz nm a hallucinogenic drink [Meťelyi] Ḵuɫza nf Kulža, capital of Curiya Ḵuɫzariz a Kulžan ḵundiz a wonderful, marvelous ḵunkaiz ne advisor, counsellor ḵunsia v advise, counselm ḵunz nm wonder, marvel [*] ḵünz nm land [*] ḵuran nm language, speech [*] ḵuraŋ v argue [*] ḵurnag v speak, say, talk [from ‘language’] ḵurnka cj therefore, thus [‘(that) said’] ḵurnta nf semtence, utterance, dictum; proverb [‘something said’] ḵus nm egg (root ku-) [*] läbriz a milky; cloudy lädia v honor, recognize, acknowledge lädz nm honor; acknowledgment [*] lais nm wolf [*] lakšia v rise, lift [*] lälaŋ v see [*] läma nf milk; cloud, mist; name of Lake Bérunor [*] lanaŋ v think [*] länz nm apple [*] laŋ nm half lariz a your (s.) [*] lärriz a visible lättiz a honorable lävani nf tongue [*] lävadz nm newness, novelty lävkadz n spring (season) [‘sprout time’] lävkiz n sprout, seeding läviz a new [*] läzmaŋ v lead (to), reach [‘make go’] läzaŋ v go [*] laʔ pr you (sg.) [*] laɫadz nm beauty laɫiz a beautiful [*] lakag v sell, trade, acquire by trading [Caď. lescen] lakka ne vendor, trader lata nf coin [Caď. leta] liktag v stand; exist, there is/are [‘be tall’] liŋḵa nf medicine, remedy; charm, potion [Caď. lenka] liŋḵaiz ne healer, potion-maker liɣadz nm height liɣiz a high, tall [*] Ludadz nm Loya, a city in Obenzaya [‘pasturage’] ludi nf pasture; plain; (in pl.) the Barbarian Plain [*] ludaŋ nm steel [Elkarîl lundông] lufta a beloved; boyfriend, girlfriend luŋa nf bend [*] luŋmag v bend luŋta nf curved; bow lutia v run out, be missing; lack, need lutta a missing, lacking lüvä nm love [*] lüvag v love [*] Luznai nf Lusunáe, a city in Deštai mädag v work mäḏuɫ nn work [*] mada nf table [Caď. medeta] madaluz nm prince [‘king’s son’] madriz a manual, by hand; laborious madz nm son [*] magaɫ nn paste [*] mahar a black [*] maharkiz a dark [diminutive of mahar] Maharna n the Meuna river maiɫ nn water [*] makiḏ nm diamond [Elkarîl maqhidd] makšai nf lady, mistress; also the name of a goddess [*] makš nm lord, master; (pl) a tribe, the Makši [*] Makuz nm an Amakui tribesman [Amakui] mäladz nm softness mälata a best mälatiz a better [*] mäliz a soft [*] malya nf bee [*] Manütavi nf an Obenzayan city [‘water camp’] manuz nm hand [*] märia v consider [*] mariz a watery; liquid märus nm brain [*] masti nf field, farm [V mesti] mastikaiz ne farmer mata nf ewe mats nm sheep, ram [*] mauʔ pr you (pl) [*] mavuḏaz nm iron [Cuêzi mavordas] mavudriz a made of iron mayala nf woman, wife [Gelyet mayala ‘woman’ < mayaliz ‘soft’] mayalka nf maiden, (marriageable) girl, young woman mayaltiz a feminine, female mäzaraz a lord, noble [*] mäɣi nf witch mikriḏ nm obsidian [Elkarîl mîqhridd] mikšak nm kohl, antimony [Elkarîl miqchek] mikšuɫ nn bag, sack [Caď. miscu] mikšumüɫa f saddlebag miɫ # thousand [V mil] mirastaz nm market [Caďinor merast] misaz nm word [*] mistag v smile mïzä nf mother [*] muha nf insect [*] müḵag v hurt, harm, wound müɫa nf saddle [Coruo] mukšiz a many [*] müra nf awe, numinousness [*] muriz a your (pl.) mürtiz a awesome, numinous mutadz nm sadness mutiz a sad muṯag n kiss [imitative] naba pp over, above, on [*] nabak nm armor [‘over-thing’] nabakta a armored; soldier nabaɫ n nephew [*] nädakš # ninety naga nf daughter [*] naka ne newborn [‘being born’] näkšuɫ nn night [*] nakuika nm young man (esp. before marriage), youth nakuyag v become mature; undergo the adulthood ceremony [V nacuyát] näɫadz n autumn, fall [‘rain time’, as the rains are more common then] näɫä nm rain [*] näɫaŋ v rain namaŋ v give birth näŋ v be born (root na-) [*] nära nf place, location [*] narmag v give suck (of horses) [Meťelyi] natïnama nf birth celebration [‘birth-meal’, loan-translation of V nesčena] navri # nine [*] navriz a ninth näz nm wedding [*] naɣa nf foot [*] naʔi nf moon [*] naʔkai nf nymph, a femael celestial said to live on the moons nïkša nf snow [*] nikšadz nm winter [‘snow time’] Nikši nf the Neši, the main river of Obenzaya [Caď. Nescis] nïkši nf smoke [*] nïkšia v snow nïkšmag v smoke niɫä nm loveliness [*] niɫtiz a lovely, pretty nintiz a nutty; brown ninkaz nm testicle [‘little nut’] ninz nm nut [*] nïradz nm want, desire nïraŋ v want, desire niruɫ nn machine, device [V niru] nuarag v curl up, roll up nuarta a, nf curled up; armadillo; lyre, fiddle nüḵag v stop, finish numa nf breast nümi n goddess (when her sex is emphasized) nümuɫ nn god [Cuêzi nūmiu] nümuz n male god (when his sex is emphasized) nünia v name, call (someone) nuntiz a godly, divine nünz nm name [*] nurä v give suck [*] nurka nf wet-nurse (who is not the mother) nütavi nf camp nütavag v camp, stay; rest [Coruo nòteve] nuyag v have sex, make love nuika ne whore, prostitute; concubine [‘making love’] nuitiz a sexual, erotic, bawdy ŋa cj and (for non-sentence constituents) [taŋa] padadz nm depth padiz a deep [*] palag v press [*] palniruɫ nn printing press [‘press-machine’] palta nf felt; clothing [‘pressed’] paɫaz nm floor; foundation [*] paɫtiz a basic, foundational paɫsa nf flea [*] panz nm man; husband; horseman, warrior [*] pantiz a masculine, manly, male pätakš # fifty pätaŋ v sing, recite poems [*] pätz nm song, poem päṯiz a fifth päṯu # five [*] päṯuɫ nn quintet, group of five; five-fold pïdia v drink [*] pïdz nm drink, beverage pikaz v sting, pierce [imitative] pikkaiz nm scorpion [imitative] Pilauɫ nn Peleu, a small nation north of Obenzaya piṯadz nm smallness piṯaɫ nn left hand; north [‘small (hand)’] piṯiz a little, small [*] pïzadz nm fatherhood, paternity pïzä nm father [*] pliruɫ nn pleasure [Ver. plero] p̄adä nm stone, rock p̄adariz a rocky, stony; name of a river p̄atkä nm pebble, gravel p̄unaŋ v distribute; celebrate [*] ragz nm horn (of animal); (colloq.) penis [*] rakat nm cart, wagon räkšiz a horrible, grotesque, monstrous räkšuɫ nn monster, a horror ramaŋ v count [*] rams nm count; number raŋadz nm holiness ränadz nm width rän a wide [*] raŋ a holy, sacred [*] raŋki nf penis [*rakni ‘thigh’] Raŋtaɫa nf goddess of the dead [‘sacred fire’] räs nm righteousness, honesty, good dealings [*] rästiz a righteous, honest rava nf spine [*] ridz pr now [from rïs] rikultag v harvest [V recoltë] rilag v sow [V relir] rilz nm plow rimiḏ nm emerald [Elkarîl rîmiddên] rïs pr here risaz nm seed [*] ristadag v barter, exchange, switch [‘here to there’] Ritaḏ nm Eretald, the ‘civilized countries’ [V Eretald] rits nm kidney [*] riʔadz nm clearness, clarity riʔiz a clear [*] rïɣaŋ v look, watch, observe [*] rïɣtiz a evident, obvious riznai nf barn [V riznáe] rudz nm dog rugag v rule, govern [*] rukka ne governor rüɣi nf abdomen, belly rutadz nm goodness rutiz a good [Cuêzi rûte] rütriz a icy rüts nm ice [*] ruyag v spin, twirl ruɣadiz a red [*] sadz pp away from; without [related to ‘long’] saḏa nf queen, princess [Caď. sadua] sädiz a yearly, annual sägia v seize [*] sahadz nm state, situation sahä v be [*] sahi nf mange [Coruo sesi ‘spots’] sahriz a mangy, spotty sahü pt is it? (question-forming particle) [sahiz hü ‘is not’] säladz nm strength säl a strong [*] salirag v roll [*] sanadz nm dream sanaŋ v dream [*] sanz nm soil, ground [*] sänz nm year [*]
daräl ṯundakš säniʔ twenty years ago
saŋka nf pine [*] säran nm east [*] sarz nm sword [Elkarîl char] sata # six [*] satadz nm length satakš # sixty satiz a sixth sats a long satuɫ nn sextet, group of six; six-fold säza nf sister [*] saɫa pr I [*] sigäḏiz a hundredth sigäḏu # hundred [*] sinä nm mother-in-law [*] sizadz nm thirst sizkaiz n vampire; humanoid monster that dessicates humans siziz a thirsty [*] sïɫai nf lake [*] sïɣa nf berry [*] suladz nm youth suliz a young [*] sularuɫ nn monk [V suloro] sumirä v study, read [Caď. sumerir] süradz nm lateness süriz a late [*] tadiniz a fourth [*] taduz nm palm (of hand) [*] tadz pr there (that place) tähiz a our tähu pr we [*] taila nf rib [*] tailäzaŋ v chase, pursue; seek [‘tail-go’] tailäzta nf prey, target Täkir nm Taicer, capital of Deštai taḵa nf spot, mark [*] taḵmag v mark, brand takšadz nm sufficiency, satiety takšaŋ a enough, sufficient [*] taɫ pr he, she, it [*] taɫa nf fire [*] taɫaŋ v pour [*] taɫḡüra nf dragon [‘fire-lion’] taɫtiz a fiery taɫz nm cup, mug [from ‘pour’] taŋa cj moreover, and, also [*] taŋkiz s narrow [*] tapas nm mole (animal) [*] tärä v move [*] tariz a his, her, its tats nm point [*] tats pr that, that one; (answer to a question) yes [*] täɣa nf trunk, chest [*] tïbaɫ nn horse [*] tidz pr then, at that time tiḡ nm one third [Elkarîl thîx] tiluḏag v heal, cure [Elkarîl tlyôrd] tiluďka ne healer, physician tïnama nf meal, food [*] tïvria v feel [*] tsur nm glaze; glass [Elkarîl chur] tsurriz a glassy, glazed tugag v fall, drop [imitative] tükka adv merely, only [‘mere’ + ins.] tükz a mere; miserable, inconsequential ṯä nm door [*] tädriz a woolen ṯänz nm wool [*] ṯiɣiz a quiet [*] ṯuladz nm smoothness ṯul a smooth [*] ṯuli nf breeze [*] ṯuna # two [*] ṯundakš # twenty ṯunduɫ nn pair, duo, couple; two-fold uau intj turn left! ubiŋ nm thunder [Meťelyi] Ubiŋkaiz a Obenzayan, Obenzayet Ubiŋaz nm Obenzaya ukšaŋ v look for, search [*] uladz nm brightness uliz a bright, shiny [*] uɫadz nm age uɫal a old [*]
Sahiz taɫai ṯundakš säniʔ He is twenty years old
uɫaḵaiz ne elder, senior uŋga nf fingernail, toenail [*] uŋka nf person, individual [*] uräŋki nf spider [*] uraz nm bear [Cuêzi urezos] urduz nm bird [*] urunz nm eagle [*] uya n howl, roar uyä v howl, roar [imitative] Vaḏira nf Verduria [V] Vaḏirkaiz a Verdurian vaŋs nm hawk, falcon [Somoyi] Viɣä nm Vižaya, the capital of Obenzaya [V, related to viša ‘cherry’] vikšiɫ nn hair vikšika nf beard [‘little hair’] vikširiz a hairy vlagaŋ v sheathe, insert vitraz nm well, spring (of water) [Meťelyi] vlahiz a yellow [*] vraḏaz nm fraternity, brotherhood, community vradiḡimag v recall, remember [‘know again’] vradiḡinta nf anecdote, tale [‘recalled’] vradiz a second; another, other, later, again [*] vraḏuɫ nn brother, fellow tribesman [*] vrahaŋ v walk; act, behave [*] vrahs nm walk; act, action vranaŋ v take [*] vranaɫ nn grass [*] vrantiz a grassy vraskaiz ne ancestor; especially, an ancestral spirit to be worshipped and placated [‘before-person’] vrazi pp before, in front of [*] vraʔadz nm coldness vraʔiz a cold [*] vrihadz nm shortness vrihiz a short [*] vriɣaŋ v fight [*] vuḵ nm primary horse [Western vog ‘horse’] yagakš # eighty yagduɫ nn octet, group of eight; eight-fold yagi # eight [*] yagiz a eighth yäkšuɫ nn feather [*] yälaɫ nn knee [*] yarta nf flower; (colloq.) vulva [*] yaɣaŋ v hunt [*] yaɣka ne hunter zaka nf straw zaraz nm bread [Caďinor zeros ‘flatcake’] zarmag v bake [‘make bread’] zarnka ne baker zavag v owe; sin [V devir] zavka ne sinner; debtor zinä nm forest [Cuêzi azienar] Zinapadiz nm the forest of Kalimantan zintakaiz ne city-dweller, city Zintaläviz nm a city in Obenzaya [‘new town’] zintaz nm city, town [Cuêzi sindas] zladä v jump [*] zläda nf light [*] zlädriz a lit, alight zraŋkaŋ v cut [*] zraṯiz a ugly zraɣaŋ v touch; bring [derives from two merged pE roots]
ḏu-zraɣaɫi hü I don’t care
zraɣta nf load, cargo Zurai nf Zorai, a fort and settlement in southern Obenzaya zurimaz nm mass (eccl.) [V zurem] zvaiɫ nn calf [Western sbaîu] ʔäḇaz nm head [*] ʔädi nf pot, pan [*] ʔädki nf small pot, pan ʔadz nm buttocks [*] ʔaiban pr how, why [‘which way’] ʔaibanaz nm reason, cause [‘why’] ʔaidiɫa pr where [‘what place’] ʔaidz pr when ʔaiɫ pr who [*] ʔaimukšiz pr how many [‘which many’] ʔaiz pr which ʔakšaŋ v finish, end [*] ʔap̄as nm fruit [*] ʔaruɫ nn right hand; south [*] ʔaṯaŋ v bear, tolerate, endure [*] ʔavraɫ nn goat [*] ʔibaŋ v boil; cook [*] ʔibkaiz ne cook ʔikšadz nm weakness ʔikšiz a weak [*] ʔilama nf hill [*] ʔiladz nm bravery ʔiliz a brave, valiant ʔïradz nm slavery ʔïra nf slave [*] ʔua nf eye [*] ʔuakšï v remove, take away [*] ʔuakšta nf garbage, detritus ʔuaŋka nf hip [*] ʔuänz nm ball [*] ʔuaraz nm hard soil unsuitable for grass [*] ʔuartiz a barren, bare; isolated ʔuaʔ nm tail [*] ʔudz nm hole [*] ʔuivuɫ nn owl [*] ɣraba nf wadi, dry gully that flows with water in the rainy season [Meťelyi] ɣraban nm west [from ‘dusk’] Ɣrabanä nm the Rhânor mountains [‘west-gen’] ɣrabuɫ nn twilight; dusk, sunset [*] ɣrakšä nm growth ɣrakšia v grow [*] ɣrag nm blood ɣraɣaŋ v eat [*] ɣraɣmag v feed [‘make eat’] ɣɫayag v shine [*] ɣɫaɣä v kill, murder [*] ɣɫaɣka ne killer, or something shining; name of a goddess ɣɫuraz nm leg [*] ɣüna nf cloth, fabric, textile [Cuêxi xeunnâ] ɣünmag v weave ɣuradz nm health ɣuriz n healthy
word language gloss Obenzayet form Eluyek Eluyet Eluyet ʔiliz ‘brave’ Makšik Eluyet Makši Makšiʔ ‘masters’ bečes Eluyet pepec vision [Coruo, cf. Cuêzi bēge ‘favor’] bagiɫ griyes Eluyet dark-colored horse kriza ‘mare’ Gelyet Gelyet root, base gälyaʔ ‘stems’ graʔag Gelyet eat, munch gargi ‘throat’ Hiuraz Gelyet bear-eye ʔuäraz Läŋuraz Gelyet half-bear laŋuraz vagžia Gelyet trek bakšia napag Gelyet gauntlet nabak ‘armor’ Bešbalicu Bešbalicu band (lit., those who share) bisbalduɫ ‘band’ fägia Bešbalicu burn in triumph hägia ‘abandon’ Küret Küret lions ḡüraiʔ Malia Küret bee malya haxuz Seia idol, holy thing haɣuz ‘shrine’ Seia Seia Eastern säran dargura early Naviu dragon (source of Caď. dracor) taɫḡüra