Fáralo is the language of Huyfárah, the dominant nation in this part of the world.

In ancient times, the Oltu river valley and the nearby seacoast were divided between two related peoples, the barbaric Faraghin and Feråjin. The civilized world was to the south, along the great Eigə (Aiwa). The first civilized people were the Ŋouru (Ngauro), who arose in the river delta— Kazəgad— about 4000 years ago. The peoples and wars of the valley were many, but for our purposes the chief fact was the conquest of Kazəgad by the Edák (Ndak), a people who lived upriver, in Lašumu (Latsomo, modern Axôltseubeu).

The Edák were themselves conquered more than once, but their edge in population allowed them, each time, to expel or absorb their conquerors. They emerged from the last of these episodes with a new imperial vigor, and set themselves the task of conquering the known world. They reached their greatest extent 2000 years ago under the emperor Siənčæn (Tsinakan): the entire Eigə valley, the southwestern mountains once held by their rivals the Gezoro, a wide stretch of the eastern seacoast, and the lands of the Feraghin and Feråjin.

This latter region they called Hagíbəl (Sau Ibli), the North Coast; they colonized the seacoast and river valleys, leaving the Faraghin (and to a lesser extent the Feråjin) to the mountains, forests, and pasturelands. For some centuries the Edák remained as overlords; then they lost the hinterlands; then the empire collapsed, leaving the local Edák ruling the colonized areas. The local balance of power reversed: the Faraghin hill tribes, accustomed to horses and frequent internecine war, raided the Edák and pillaged or even razed their main settlements.

About 1500 years ago, the Faraghin put aside their usual disunity and conquered the Oltu valley and its capital, Ussor (Uksaur), and then the Edák littoral, which they renamed Huyfárah, the Faraghin Coast. This time, the horsemen were here to stay. Edák society— highly stratified and urbanized— was transformed. As nomads, the Faraghin believe not in real estate and civil protection but in moveable property and honor. For the settled Edák, the archetypical villainy was murder; for the Faraghin it was theft. (Murder could be paid for.)

If this seems ‘barbaric’, we should recognize as well that the Faraghin were much more individualistic and enterprising than the Edák, whose devotion to stability led less to peace than to stagnation. It was possible to move up in Faraghin society, and trade and markets developed here, while the Eigə valley was still dominated by archaic command economies.

The great vice of the Faraghin warrior class was a disinclination, on the death of a respected king, to support their unproven young heirs. The unity of the Oltu lasted only a century; the region then became a squabbling patchwork of baronies; if some ambitious ruler unified them his kingdom would collapse in a few generations. Once the littoral was even temporarily reconquered by a resurgent Kazəgad.

Nonetheless, trade continued to flourish, and the people of Huyfárah developed a great skill in navigation, and explored the littoral a great distance to the east and south.

The turning point was the discovery of the nation of Histuənə (Siixtaguna), to the east, and its religion Etúgə. Its great sage Hutaba preached nubázi ‘the realization’— the realization being that all knowledge is false; only action (etúgə) and belief (mušitugə) are real. Nubázi frees the spirit to live in ifisæ, the spiritual world. (This is an early form of the religion Rory invented for Team One.)

The explorers brought back Etúgeist monks. These were at first mocked, even persecuted and tortured; but their calm conviction and eloquence won respect. Finally the entire country was won over, and the new doctrine not only consolidated Fáralo identity, but brought a new respect for unity and loyalty. The Balanin dynasty, able generals and devout Etúgeists, unified the country, and soon turned to empire-building.

In the last centuries Huyfárah has turned to empire-building. First the Dagæm islands were occupied— a useful acquisition for a maritime empire; then the lands fo the Feråjin just to the east, then Kazəgad— which was by now, however, only a poor shadow of its former glory.

The language

The people of Huyfárah call themselves the Fáralo— essentially a form of ‘Faraghin’— and think of themselves as descendents of this warrior nation. Nonetheless their language descends from that of the Edák, though with heavy Faraghin influence.

The language of Siənčæn is called Edástə (Ndak Ta); it is the ancestor of the Edastean family, which besides Fáralo includes at least these languages:


i u
ei ou
e ə o
æ a

In standard Fáralo ei = closed /e/, e = open /e/, while ou = closed /o/, o = open /o/. In some regions, however, ei and ou are diphthongs matching their transliteration.


p t k
b d g
f s z š h
l r
m n ŋ
w y

Stress is placed on the first vowel, unless otherwise indicated. E.g. Eigə = /'e gə], ŋiəbu = ['ni ə bu], heweteka = ['he we te ka], Edák = [e 'dak].

Before or after a stressed vowel, o is an approximant— boéi = [bwe], laoma = ['law ma]— but the lips are in position for o, not u.



Nouns take prefixes for case and number, and determiners and deictics are cliticized. The citation form of the noun is the singular accusative indefinite.

prefix ‘road’ ‘fruit’ ‘door’ ‘mud’
s. nom. + gou apo dir šimə
s. acc. gou apo tir wimə
pl. nom. k- kəgou gapo ktir kwimə
pl. acc. z- zgou zapo stir zwimə
The singular nominative is marked only by the consonant mutation, a change which we will meet several times in Fáralo morphology.

The plural nominative is formed by prefixing k-.

The plural accusative is formed by prefixing z-. ‘Naked’ plurals are not used as much as in English, but they can be found after numerals (wos kədau ‘three men’) or possessives (æč ksis ‘my dogs’).

Some words, referring to things deemed uncountable, occur only in the plural, e.g. ksoudu ‘sand’, keip ‘grass’.

Articles (a, the) and deictics (this, that) are clitics in Fáralo.
Definite article lu- lu-gou ‘the road’
Indefinite article edu- edu-kgou ‘roads’
This wa- wa-gou ‘this road’
That si- si-zgou ‘those roads’ (acc.)
It’s common to leave off the indefinite article in the singular: edu-bir and pir both mean ‘a goat’. The plural edu-spir can be translated ‘goats’ or ‘some goats’. (This is an indefinite reference rather than a quantifier: in French it’s des chèvres, not quelques chèvres)

A conjoined phrase may take the determiners on just the first conjoint: lu-gordo gopə ‘the eyes and ears’.

These derive in a straightforward fashion from Ndak Ta’s determiners, but Fáralo has lost the three-way distinction in demonstratives as well as the oblique/referential distinction among indefinite articles; while the quantifiers have become independent adjectives.

In Ndak Ta the plural/case prefixes were part of the determiner: lu-kgou ‘the roads’ ← luk gau. They were reanalyzed as part of the root, and can now occur apart from the determiners.


nom acc
pir pir a goat
lu-bir lu-pir the goat
wa-bir wa-pir this goat
si-bir si-pir that goat
edu-kpir edu-spir goats
lu-kpir lu-spir the goats
wa-kpir wa-spir these goats
si-kpir si-spir those goats
ewa ewa a snake
lu-ewa luŋ-ewa the snake
wa-ewa wa-ewa this snake
si-ewa si-ewa that snake
edu-gewa edu-zewa snakes
lu-gewa lu-zewa the snakes
wa-gewa wa-zewa these snakes
si-gewa si-zewa those snakes
Fáralo normally forms abstract nouns from verbs or adjectives without changing the root, but adding the definite article: wiəm ‘live’ → lu-šiəm ‘life’; goum ‘high’ → lu-goum ‘height’.


Verbs have two conjugations, basic and auxiliary. Though the latter is more common, we will start with the basic, which is easier and forms the basis for auxiliaries.

(There are cliticized pronouns that may attach to the verb; these are discussed later on, under Pronouns.)

Basic conjugation
Verbs are inflected for number, tense, aspect, and mood.
ending ‘come’ ‘drink’ ‘shine’
s pl s pl s pl s pl
present - -k odu oduk siən siənk tol tolk
past -en -ei odun oduei siənen siənei tolen tolei
imperf -ed -ed odud odud siəned siəned toled toled
The root of the verb is the present singular. In Ndak Ta the plural ending was -n, which was confused with the past. The -k was borrowed from the determiners and pronouns.

The past, or past perfect, is used for completed past events.

The imperfect is used for ongoing past events; it’s used much like the English past progressive or the French imperfect. The singular and plural forms are identical. If the root ends
ending ‘come’ ‘drink’ ‘shine’
s pl s pl s pl s pl
imper e- e-k egódu egóduk esíən esíənk edól edólk
The imperative is formed by prefixing e-.
ending ‘come’ ‘drink’ ‘shine’
s pl s pl s pl s pl
neg pres ma- ma-k modu moden masíən masiənen madól madólk
neg past ma-en ma-ei modun moduei masíənen masíənei madólen madólei
neg impf ma-ed modud masíəned madóled
neg impr ema- ema-k emagódu emagóduk emasíən emasíənk emadól emadólk
The negative is formed by prefixing ma- to any of the previous tenses. The Ndak Ta negative m- would have become e- before a stop. As this would clash with the imperative, ma- was generalized for all but initial-vocalic roots.
ending ‘come’ ‘drink’ ‘shine’
s pl s pl s pl s pl
pres irr uga- uga-k ugodu ugoden ugašin ugašink ugadol ugadolk
past irr uga-en uga-ei ugodun ugoduei ugasiənen ugasiənei ugadolen ugadolei
Finally, the irrealis is used to refer to conditional, unlikely, or hypothetical events. (Future events, including wishes, may or may not take the irrealis, depending on whether the speaker considers them unlikely. It’s valid to use the irrealis to express doubt or even simple lack of knowledge about whether a past or present situation is really the case.)

It’s formed by prefixing uga- to the verb; but

The Ndak Ta prefix was uk-; the -a- is the epenthetic schwa, again generalized to all initial-consonant verbs.

Auxiliary conjugation
The basic conjugation is never incorrect, but especially in speech, it tends to be replaced by the auxiliary conjugation, which is more complex but offers finer distinctions.

The basic auxiliary formula can be illustrated with boá ‘can’ and the sentence ‘we didn’t drink’:

masíənei lukieboá luki siənk
neg-drink-past.pl we → neg-can-past we drink-pl
We couldn’t drink.
This pattern is so ingrained in the language that (in speech, at least) it’s used even when there’s no ‘auxiliary meaning’ to convey— the null auxiliary siš can always be used. For instance, masišei luki siənk also means ‘we didn’t drink’.

But what is this verb form eboá? It’s the negative singular past of boá; as it happens, many auxiliary verbs are irregular. Here’s a table of the commonest verbs, with irregular forms in red. (Some of these verbs can be used as basic verbs too, e.g. ‘go’; they are irregular then too. The present plural and the imperfect are always regular.)

pres s past s past pl negative irrealis
siš sišen sišei masiš ugasiš
can boá boæ'n boáei eboá ugaboə
should is isen izei mis učis
must so soun soei esó ugašu
will we wen wešei me upe
seems idər idræn idrei midər učidər
needs æda ædan ædei mæda učæda
wants al alin alei mal ugal
starts hæpabe hæpaben hæpabei mæpabe ussæpabe
stops etá etán etábe metá učetá
causes uəm uəmen uəmei muəm uguəm
goes noun nounen noube manoun uganoun
just did ta tæn taei madə ustə
has done pila pilan piláše epíla ugabíla
stays æde æden ædešei mæde učæde
comes odu odun oduei modu ugodu
fucking peitə peitən peitei epéitə ugabeitə
Many of the irregular forms preserve Ndak Ta forms that have been generalized away in the basic conjugation. E.g. epilampilai; upeukwe. However, many of these auxiliaries were verb prefixes in Ndak Ta.

With objects or predicate adjectives, odu ‘come’ and æde ‘stay, stand’ serve as copulas, the former representing a temporary condition (oduk luki æba ‘we’re sober’), the latter a (fairly) permanent one (Æde Ussor ædelu ‘Ussor is a city’).


nom acc dat poss
I i iəbu iəm æč
thou lewku lewkuŋ lewkum æglewku
he/she a æbu æm ægə
we luki luzis luətəm æčih
you do douŋ doum æŋu
they ak abu æm ægah
who jegə jeguŋ jegum æjegə
The table lists the standalone forms. If two pronouns are to be used, a combination form is used (and normally cliticizes to the verb: iənəndoi ‘I saw you’):
me thee him/her us you them
I iəŋ iša igis ius išas
thou doi doga dois dous dogas
he/she ai auŋ asi as aus agas
we iči idduŋ iča iddus igas
you doči dodduŋ doča dočis dogas
they ači adduŋ ača ačis addus asis
to me
to us
to thee
to you
to him/her
to them
I / we iəm ium išæm
thou / you doim doum doæm
he/she / they ačim aum æm
Reflexive verbs use the suffix -či: sæŋči ‘to wash oneself’. The forms asi and asis thus refer to two different people: sæŋenasi would have to mean that person X washed person Y.

To attribute possession to a noun phrase— X’s Y or the Y of X— Fáralo uses the construction Y æm X, e.g. lu-jæn ægə lu-badew, literally “the knife to him the father”.

The Ndak Ta formal/familiar distinction has disappeared as such; the formal set has become the normal 2s forms, while the 2s familiar has turned into the normal 2p.

The standalone accusatives are in some cases reinforced by the agentive suffix -bu.

The ‘we’ forms resembled the ‘I’ forms a bit too closely, and have been disambiguated by prefixing the definite article.

A formal/familiar distinction seems to be developing in Fáralo: the 3p forms are used as a second person when addressing nobles and royalty.

Quantifiers always precede the noun, including its determiner. Thus ege lu-gedéi ‘all the trees’, mi wa-kgatač ‘none of these galleys’.
mi no, none
næme some, any
mas a few
as many, much
oubə almost all
ege all, every
Interrogative, deictic, indefinite pronouns
igə which one
waše this one, this person
kwaše these things, these people
jæje that one, that person
gæje those things, those people
næbə someone, something
mai nobody, nothing
egew everyone, everything
malə where
woul here
sirul there
mimalə nowhere
nælul somewhere
egemalə everywhere
holə when
weišo now
sišo then
næblo sometimes
ešo always
mašo never
edúgə why


As the name indicates, prepositions precede their object, which takes the nominative.
na in, on, at
nadír in (containers), inside of, indoors
hadír outside, out of; outdoors
but next to, near
umórdu in front of, before
ougə behind, in back of
wiəmu above, over
wægól below, under
isə to, towards
ugə from
geirit until, up to
ræbe along
beibu among, between
etáše surrounding, all around; throughout
wætáŋ beyond, past
isə before
ugə after, since
geirit until, up to
ræbe during, in, within
etáše throughout, for the entire period of
æm of, for
algo despite, against
eté with, by, using (instrumental)
ouŋu without, except for
pein with (comitative), accompanied by, having
ræpen instead of, in place of
wætə about, concerning


ouwa and
dada but
boa or
guətu so, therefore
niən if/then conjunction
epóu because
The clitic form of and, -oun, is preferred when just two words are conjoined.


x 10x
1 če ro
2 ŋi ŋiro
3 wos wosro
4 bu buro
5 dou douro
6 ešro
7 mæm mæmro
8 hude hudero
9 nil nilro
10 ro iəb


-lo location; membership in a place: hadírlo ‘open’, from ‘outside’
-ga forms adverbs and adjectives: isəga ‘early’ [‘way’]
-l diminutive: bašel ‘twig’
-či reflexive: wabəči ‘hit oneself’
-bu person: alpobu ‘craftsman’
-sa female: čaoksa ‘queen’
-in adjectivization: kuin ‘sacred’ [from Far.]
-u object used or affected” leil ‘row’ → leilu ‘rowboat’ [from Far. -ud]
lu- abstraction: lu-kuin ‘holiness’; lu-mate ‘knowledge’
ŋa- participial adjective: ŋa-tol ‘shining’ [ngwa ‘few’]


Word order

The basic sentence order is Aux S O V. When the basic conjugation is used, it’s VSO.

Noun phrases follow the order A Det N Phr, where A is a single adjective, Det is the determiner and Phr is effectively anything else: more than one adjective; prepositional phrases; or relative clauses.

eigə azə a good woman
eigə lu-azə the good woman
lu-azə eigə iwmuoun a good and beautiful woman
lu-azə pein heipud egól the woman with a deformed foot
lu-azə roumə wære i the woman I love
Numbers normally precede both noun and determiner: wos lu-krud ‘three men’.


Relativization is accomplished using the particle roumə:
Čeken a lu-zelo He threw the spear
lu-selo roumə čeken a the spear he threw

Subordinated clauses generally use the basic conjugation. Since full references are often missing, they often use the subject-object clitics.

Clauses referring to time take the form sišo roumə (subclause); to location, sirul roumə (subclause). They’re normally fronted.

Sišo roumə ezulendoga, madən lu-leč gouga.
when subord take-past-you.it / neg-just the-sword broke
When you took it, the sword wasn’t yet broken.
If a sentence is the object of a preposition, it’s nominalized, which is simply a matter of preceding the verb with a determiner: nounen lewku ‘you left’ → ugə lu-nounen lewku ‘after you left’. Note that the past tense morpheme is preserved; number agreement however becomes optional.


Questions can be formed in several ways. Most formally, use the irrealis and front the verb:
Odu lu-čaok ebí. The king is speaking.
→ Ebí ugodu lu-čaok
? Is the king speaking?
Colloquially, questions are formed with the tag loute ‘correct’: Odu lu-čaok ebí loute?

Or, use the negative and a rising intonation: Modu lu-čaok ebí?

Interrogative words are normally fronted. Auxiliaries are avoided if possible.

Jegə etéše lu-mastač? Who’s running the government?
Holə epén lu-Moumušezə? When did the Senate meet?


The Faraghin adopted the Ndak week, replacing some of the names with their own deities and borrowing others. They could never get the hang of the alternating 7- and 8-day weeks, and simply made all weeks 8 days.

The Fáralo kept the Faraghin names, except for day 6 which was renamed for the Ndak mother goddess, and day 3 which was changed from 'war' to 'blessing' after the adoption of Etúgə.

Day Faraghin Fáralo Meaning
1 Breuš lu-bewš Fate; replaces the Secret God
2 Šors lu-sos the old wise one
3 Nirgha lu-ekúi war / blessing
4 Gereč lu-geoč the moon
5 Barloi lu-baoluy NT 'earth'
6 Deubar lu-ubáz a powerful goddess
7 Seršan lu-seošan the sun; day of rest
8 Lečeu lu-lečew NT 'cold one'


The example is from a stele erected outside Muəbaz (Momuva’e) by Siənčæn, the greatest of the ancient Edák emperors.

Siš Siənčæn ebí, kraš lu-diágə æm lu-laš Kazəgad ouwa lu-meokát æm lu-iodol luŋ-iəboun, sip:
null.aux Siənčæn speak / brave the-Edák.ruler to.it the-land Kazəgad and the-younger.brother to.them the-sun the-moon-and / thus
Thus speaks Siənčæn, the brave king of the land of Kazəgad, younger brother of the Sun and Moon:

Isə lu-epén i na epélo æm æč badew, ædešei ege lu-klaš heil iəm čosk.
before the-sit-past I in chair to.him my father, stay-past.pl all the.pl-land foreign to.me hostile
Before I sat on the throne of my father, all the foreign countries were hostile to me.

Sišen heil lu-klaš ebík sip:
null.aux-past foreign the.pl-land speak-pl thus:
The neighboring foreign countries spoke thus:

“Æden ægə badew kraš čaok, roumə hupísen a as edu-zlaš heil.
stay-past his father brave king that conquer-past.pl he many some-land foreign
“His father was a valiant king, who conquered many foreign countries.

Weišo hæpaben a nagə æde, dada odu a fizætud, lu-rud roumə epé a na lu-epélo æm ægə badew.”
now start-past he god stay / but come he rookie / the-man that sit he in the-chair to.him his father
Then he became a god. But the one who now sits on the throne of his father is a child.”

Sišo roumə epén i, lu-meokát æm lu-iodol lu-iəboun, na lu-epélo æm æč badew, isə lu-nounen i isə heil lu-klaš roumə ædešei išæm čosk,
then that sit-past I the-brother to.them the-sun the-moon-and in the-chair to.him my father / before the-go-past I to foreign the.pl-land that stay-past.pl-they.to.me hostile
When I, brother of the sun and moon, sat on the throne of my father, before I went to the foreign countries who were hostile to me,

Sišen i isə lu-gdemaš æm Ubáz noun.
null.aux-past I to the-pl.acc-feast to.her mother.goddess go
I went to the feasts of the mother goddess.

Sišenišæm kečem, ouwa i æč toun isə ŋa-tol lu-oumu ulə. Ebín i sip:
null.aux-past-I.them honor and I my hand to shining the-mother lift. say-past I thus:
I celebrated them and I lifted my hand toward the shining mother. I spoke thus:

Æč daz, lu-tol æm lu-gboéi, æde lu-klaš roumə sekaei ačim fizætud, ak æčih ksušin, iəbu jeipək.
my goddess, the-light to.them the-pl.star / stay the-pl.land [ that call-past they-to.me rookie / they our pl-neighbor ] me insult-pl
"O my mistress, light of the stars, the neighboring countries who called me 'a child' continue to insult me.

Weišo hæpabei ak lu-skakloæm æglewku laš edewnin paduk, æč daz!
now start-past they the-pl.border to.it your holy land attack-pl, my goddess
Then, they started to attack the borders of your holy land, my mistress!

Esupís lu-zepúonim!”
imper-conquer the.acc-infidel
Strike the heathen down!"

Sišen Ubáz lu-zlega æm æč mabe rætu.
null.aux-past mother.goddess the-pl.acc-word to.it my mouth hear
The mother goddess heard the words of my mouth.

Sišenai ulə ouwa uəmen a âč idwæ bæbur odu.
null.aux-past-she.me raise and cause-past she my arm strong come
She raised me up and strengthened my arm.

Sišen i gæje roumə jeipəi ači ræbe ro kleid hupís epšoun.
null.aux-past i those that complain-past.pl they.me in ten pl-year defeat destroy-and
In ten years, I defeated and destroyed those who insulted me .

Sišen i edu-zmačud zbous zgeipšaoun kreota, ouwa pilanišas isə lu-laš Kazəgad.
null.aux-past i indef-pl.acc-slave pl.acc-ox pl.acc-sheep-and capture / and send-past-i-them to the-land Kazəgad
I captured prisoners, oxen and sheep, and I sent them back to the land of Kazəgad.


(aux) indicates auxiliary verbs; see the Morphology section for morphological irregularities. (pl) indicates nouns that are used in the plural only.

Most roots can serve as nouns or verbs, depending on how they’re inflected. If you’re looking up an English verb, try the noun form, and vice versa. See Derivation for details.

Etymology: Far. = Faraghin; Mûts. = Mûtsipsa'; Thok. = Thokyunēhōta; Na. = Naidda; unmarked = Ndak Ta.

1022 words

a he/she (3s nom) [a]
abe solid, stable [abwe]
aboa bloom, flourish [abbwa]
abu them (2p acc) [as + agentive -bu]
abunde thunder [abwodnodn]
adulsə tell, relate [atulsa]
adulsu story, history
adwə dark [adwa]
adwəsæt bribe [‘dark money’]
aə swamp [abâi]
agal active [aubai + dim.]
agiu hope [awio]
agu happy [aubo ‘easy’]
Agumosou the chief city of the Dagæm islands [‘happy port’]
ak they (3p nom) [ak]
akremu wax [akremo]
al want, desire (aux) [ali ‘fire, be warm, burn’]
alégadu constitution (a foreign concept) [Adāta ālégadu ‘the Laws’]
alenin civil (war) [alen ‘split’ + adj. -in]
algo despite, against [al ‘without’ + wau ‘for’]
alóu flower [ailàu]
alpo manufacture [alpau ‘make’]
alpobu manufacturer, craftsman
ammu steal [aulmo]
ammubu thief
anæ'n dry [asnàn]
aoba mason [arbwa ‘craftsman’]
aogə uncertainty, confusion [arwa ‘fog’]
apo fruit [apwi]
apridu horror, terror [apridn ‘be horrified’]
arélibu opponent, dissident [Adāta ārêlibu ‘opposers’ reinterpreted as a singular]
as many, much [ais]
Asalé the best-known city of Rathedān in the far west [Adāta Athalē]
asin heavy [‘much-ish’]
ašu chief, supreme [aio]
ašubu chieftain, leader
ate keep [aitn]
atelo storehouse
atelol closet, storage area
atu possession [‘something kept’]
avávo poor, miserable [Na. avāvo ‘poor city-dweller’]
azə woman [asa]
æba sober [ambwa ‘moderately’]
æbu him/her (2s acc) [â + agentive -bu]
æč my (1s poss) [âki]
æčih our (1p poss) [âkik]
ækə air [âka]
æda need (aux) [âidai]
æda corpse [ainda ‘ashes’]
æde stay, remain, stand; keep at, continue doing; be (aux) [ande]
ædelu city [‘stay-place’]
ægah their (3p poss) [âkak]
ægə his/her (3s poss) [âka]
æglewku thy (2s poss) [âklaingko]
ægóu awry, wrong, off [ainggāu]
ægóubu eccentric, crank
æjegə whose [âk gewa]
æm to him/her/them (3s/3p dat); of, for [am]
æməl fly (insect) [ammi + dim.]
ænal downward; hold (of a ship) [aina + dim.]
æna hungry [anai ‘empty’]
æŋéilo military [angài + -lo]
ænil a hair (as a mass, use plural) [aini + dim.]
æŋu your (2p poss) [âgdok]
æsečə kind, type, sort [ansetra ‘prototype’]
æti river [aunti]
æte feeble, weak [ainte]
ætu old [anto]
baba babble; chat [imitative]
bad sweet, sugary [basti ‘gentle’]
bage rough [bagng]
Balanin the first ruling dynasty of imperial Huyfárah [Far. ‘ironlike’]
bæb miss (not hit) [bambi ‘fail’]
bæbu root; anchor [bâpu]
bæbur strong [bambor]
bæl speak with an accent [bâil ‘burp’]
bæna beg, supplicate [banai ‘worship’]
bænéilo pagan temple [banailau]
bære own (land) [bâre ‘have, possess’]
bæru real estate, land holdings
badew father [Far. badeu]
baobadew uncle: father’s older brother [Far. barbadeu ‘master of father’]
baodat judge [Far. bartat]
baogas captain (of a ship) [Far. bargars]
baoluy fifth day of the week [Far. Barloi]
baomast steward, majordomo [Far. barmašt ‘master of the palace’]
baonuy advance, progress, march [Far. branoin ‘go forward’]
baosifa admiral, naval commander [Far. barsifa ‘master of seas’]
baoteka commander [Far. bartekha ‘master of swords’]
Barnágo a city on the upper Oltu [Far. barnagho ‘master of bears’]
baruy appoint, grant [Far. baroin ‘make a master’]
bas calm, even-tempered [Far.]
baše stick, branch; spine; keel [batsn]
bašel twig [batsn + dim.]
beibu among, between [mbembu]
beibul genitals [‘between’ + dim.]
beibulsa vagina [‘female genitals’]
beiča leg [baitrai]
beidu tight [bendut]
beb punish [bespi]
benuy annul [Far. benoin ‘make nothing’]
bepo dumb, retarded [bekwâu ‘insufficient’]
bewš first day of the week [Far. breuš, a goddess]
bewšin unlucky, unfortunate [Far. breušin]
biəbu scratch; massage [bimbo ‘rub’]
boa or [boda ‘xor’]
boá can [bwa- permissive prefix]
boáš sweat [bwats]
boéča daughter [‘female son’]
boéd son [bwed]
boéi star [bwai]
boéiægə declination (of a star); latitude [‘(height) of a star’]
boéimate astronomy, naviation [‘star-knowledge’]
boéigur respect [bwenggor ‘honor’]
boéisti orgy, debauchery [bwaikti ‘feast’]
Boíəba Oigôp'oibauxeu. a city in Lašumu; the river it’s on [Bwimbai]
bóig bay, inlet [bwogig]
bomə wheat [borma]
borə nurse [bora]
bou again [bau]
bougə back (side); stern [bongga]
boula earth, soil [baulai]
bous ox [baus]
boutu pierce, penetrate [bontu]
bu four [bu]
bubiš warm [bubwits]
buəbu spy [budnabu]
buədə listen [budna]
buəŋil wound, hurt [bungie + dim.]
buŋišə reward [bungia]
but next to, near [bwut ‘rightward’]
čaok king [Far. čark]
čaoksa queen [‘king’ + fem.]
čælo school [kaimlau]
čæme study, learn [kaime]
čæn fire; burn [Far. šan]
čæniz admonish, shame [kaumisi ‘reprimand’]
čæŋlo lavatory [Na. cainglo]
čæšum powerful, great [kâtsum]
če one [ke]
čega only, sole
čeidu jester [kendu ‘skeptic’]
čeilə teacher [kenla]
čeino ask [kenau]
čeiŋ walk [keng]
ček throw [kek]
čekəl vomit [kek + dim.]
čelč danger [kelki]
čeobu student, scholar [kaimbu]
češus unreliable, risky, unhealty [ketsus ‘unsafe’]
čičih lightning [kikik]
čiəba tie [kîbai]
čiəpal whine, rant [kimpal ‘complain’]
čiən marry [Far. triban]
čiənu husband [Far. tribud]
čiətu generous, kind [kinto]
čil barley [kil]
čilo basket, bushel [kilau ‘barley-place’]
Čisse a city on the eastern coast [from the local indigens]
čosk threatening, hostile [Far. čoks]
čutu spit [imitative]
daba white [dauwai]
dačaok princess [Far. deučark]
dada but [daldâ]
dagane camp [Far. daghne]
Dagæm the islands east of Kasadgad [Dawaim]
dagubu host, proprietor
daguy host [Far. daghoin ‘make to stay’]
dalsu honey [dalsur]
daodan dance [Far. daradan]
daom warn [darem]
das fight [das]
dašiəm hemp; canvas, sail [Far. dašim]
dau male, masculine [dado]
dayadok (person) from Rathedān, the western mountains [Adāta Dāiadak]
daz goddess (of polytheistic religions) [dasi]
dæŋ mountain [daing]
deidin numinous, awesome, frightening [dautin ‘holy’]
deikəlo holy place (in the wild), haunted area [dêka ‘spiritual’ + ‘place’]
deimit support (dependants, crops), receive (guests); yield [dalmit ‘host’]
deine smarts, cunning [dene ‘reason’]
deiŋ finger [dengi]
deip young (of an animal) [dempi ‘child’]
demaš feast [Far. demač ‘celebratory dinner’, lit. ‘gift’]
depa shave [depmai]
dewmuh hunt [desmog]
diágə title of Edák rulers [diàka]
dida possible [ditai]
diəbæŋ lay aside, store, preserve [dimbang]
diəbo fat, grease, oil [dimbau]
digun thing, object [dikon]
dióa imagine [dioba]
dizo typical, ordinary [disau ‘usual’]
do you (2p nom) [do 2s]
dogu groan, moan [dowo ‘grumble’]
dorač breakfast, lunch [Far. drorač ‘awakening meal’]
dou five [dau]
doul weary, tired [dodo + dim.]
doum to you (2p dat) [dom 2s]
doumah glass (substance) [Far. domagh]
douŋ you (2p acc) [dong 2s]
duə praise [dungwi]
duəbu smell [dumbo]
dukəs master, teacher [Mûts. dux]
duzæm regret [dusam]
ebæ'ru bark (of tree), husk (of fruits) [mbâro]
ebédə order, arrange [mbesta]
ebewr short [mbâur]
ebí say, speak [mbi]
ebíč necessary [mbiski]
ebíəbe sing [mbîbwe]
ebíəbu singer
ebíu guilty [mbibo]
eboáge push, impel [mbwawe]
ebóbe enough [mbopm]
ebóbu musician
ebód color [mbod]
ebóp music [mbop]
ebórol be wary, distrust [mboraul ‘be careful’]
ebóuta seed [mbontai]
eboúrə strange, weird [mbwura ‘unusual’]
ebréibo ruins (esp. Edák ones) [Na. èvrevo]
ebúəwe carry, hold [mbunwe]
ebúmu belly [mbusmu]
ebúrə decide [mbura]
ečét fade, wilt [ngket]
ečidálo kitchen [eskidnalau]
ečíde cook [eskidn]
edáboə corrupt, rotten [ndabwa ‘dirty’]
edák An ethnonym; the name of the people of Kazəgad [Ndak]
edálide energy, vigor [ndalidn]
edástə the Edák language, parent of Fáralo [Ndak Ta]
edázə change [estasa]
edé rub; play (an instrument) [nde ‘touch’]
edébu musician
edéi tree; mast [ndai]
edélo theater, stage [‘play-place’]
edéinæ live [ndenam ‘breathe’]
edéio safe, secure [ndêwu]
edewn pure [ndaun]
edewnin holy [‘purer’]
edíəmu spare someone’s life; set free [ndimu ‘mercy’]
edúgə why [nduwa]
edu- some (indefinite article clitic) [ndo]
egág put [nggawi]
ege all, every [ewe]
egéi upward [nggai]
egemalə everywhere [‘every’ + ‘where’]
egew everyone, everything [ege ‘every’ + -bu]
egól foot [nggol]
egræn satisfy [egran ‘scratch’]
egúgo deceive, fool [ngguko]
eib freeze [aipi]
eibəl green [auspi + dim.]
eibur swim [embur]
eidu fall (v); fail [endu]
eigə good; name of the great river of Kazəgad and Lašumu [aiwa]
eikə (land) animal
eikəmate animal husbandry
eiku kill [engku]
eim turn [em]
eimo loose [emau]
einišə fly (v) [alnia]
einu bitter; vicious, resentful [eno]
eione obscure, hard to understand [aurne ‘muddy’]
eioti day, daytime [airti]
eiwəl west [emwel]
eiz paint, color [aisi]
eiziw painter, artist [aisibu]
ekéi egg [ngkai]
ekúi blessing, benefit; third day of week [Mûts. hexu’i]
elje clean [elge]
ekádə continue, persist [ngkasta]
elpe melt [ailpabm]
eluoga abundant, common [elul ‘everywhere’ + ‘way’]
enæ'də feel (an emotion)
Enčélade Ngahêxôldod, a city in Lašumu [Ngkeladadn]
enóuno mess up, get in trouble [Na. èrnàrno[ascii 0]‘do to one’s own detriment’]
eobu sleep [erbo ‘rest’]
eobulo bed [erbolau ‘rest-place’]
eočeiŋ limp, stumble [‘fail to walk’]
eodás be a coward [‘fail to fight’]
eomate guess [‘fail to know’]
eonáonu harm, injure [ernarno ‘due to one’s detriment’]
eosíən choke [‘fail to drink’]
epaf light (not heavy) [epwaip]
epág far [mpag]
epágal exaggerate, claim [mpaskali ‘assert’, influenced by ‘far’]
epágægə distance; longitude [‘distance of’]
epáte investigate, research [upmatn]
epæ'm cry [mpaim]
epæ'poge curse [ngkwaimpaugng ‘vomit’]
epé sit; meet (councils) [mpe]
epélo chair [‘sit-place’]
epéilu rain (v) [mpêlo]
epél rest [mpe + dim.]
epéiša fish, seafood [mpaiswa]
epépe breast [mpepm]
epído private [mpitau]
epoæ'n ball [eplain]
epóu because [mpau]
epš destroy [ebri]
epšilo ruins [ebrilau]
epúonim pagan, polytheist, infidel [mpurnim ‘heathen’]
eræ'bu drunkard
eræ'de be drunk or stoned [erande ‘fail to stand’]
ereibur drown [‘fail to swim’]
eríba be clumsy [erimbwa]
erólo impotent [Na. èrola]
eróušu defraud, con [eraitsu]
erúdu strive for, attempt [eroto ‘work for’]
esé bleed (v); ooze [ntse]
eséotim discuss, debate [ntsertim]
six [ets]
æ'd much [ntsand ‘greatly’]
eše method, operation, process [etsn ‘manner’]
ešen act, behave [etsen]
ešo always [etsau]
etá stop (aux) [nta]
etáše surrounding, all around; throughout [ntatsn]
eté with, by, using (instrumental) [nte]
etéiwa tiller; tail [ntêwâ]
etéišə wrong, incorrect [ntausia ‘false’]
etéše sail (v); govern, run [ntetsn ‘float’]
etéšu sailboat
etewg forest [ntâug]
etíədu metal [ntindo]
etíšə right, correct [ntia]
etíšal same [ntial]
etóumate complex, complicated [ntomatn]
etúbə docile, submissive [ntupa ‘peaceful’]
etúgə action, deeds; the main religion of Huyfárah [Mûts. ntû’a ‘religion’]
ewa snake [aimwa]
ewbu urchin, petty criminal [aimbu ‘peasant’]
ewmu reject, hate [aumu ‘spit’]
ewpa statue [âukwai]
ezul take [esul]
fáralo (person) from Huyfárah; the Fáralo language [‘Faraghin’ + -lo]
ferój Feråjin (people to the east of the Faraghin) [Far.]
fistaš unlawful, illegal [Far. fistats]
fizætud rookie, newbie, wet behind the ears [Far. fisrantud ‘inexperienced’]
foga make, create [Far. foghan]
fogalo workshop
gaba share [gabbwa]
gafač crime [Far. ghafač ‘theft’]
gafaču criminal
gah mock, disdain [gagak ‘smile’]
gaos boat [Far. gars]
gašu rabbit [gaido]
gatač galley [Far. ghantač ‘dragon’]
gate wood [gatn]
gatel plank, board
gæje those things, those people [pluralizer + ‘that one’]
geč mighty, powerful [Far. gheč]
geipša sheep [gaibra]
geirit until, up to [nggairit]
geiru atheist, cynic [Na. gèddo ‘skeptic’]
geoč fourth day of the week [Far. Gereč, the moon goddess]
gis dagger [Far. ghisk ‘knife’]
gissa cut [Far. ghiskan]
goá follow [gua]
goda descend, derive [Far. gudan]
gonin elder; elder brother [Far. gonin]
gou road [gau]
goubu traveler
goudah dream [gondag]
goul path, way [gau + dim.]
gouga break [gonggai]
goum high [gom]
goumoudu cross-staff (for measuring angles) [‘way-measure’]
gourun desert [gauron ‘semiarid land’]
gout dull (not sharp) [gaut]
gozu difficult [goso]
guab mark, draw [gubab]
guabu drawing
gube survive, escape [gubm ‘survival’]
guətu so, therefore [gunto]
guru guts, intestines [guro]
ha meat [sa]
hab eat [sab ‘drink’, confused with ‘meat’]
hačiš garlic [Gez. sakits]
hadír outside, out of; outdoors [sa tiri ‘from out of door’]
hadírlo open, overt, superficial [‘outside-ish’]
hadlu spicy [sadlo ‘rich-tasting’]
Hagíbəl ancient or poetic name for Huyfárah [Sau Ibli ‘north coast’]
haglu gross, nasty [aklu ‘ugly’ with some contamination from h- words]
halapu throw away, discard [salatpu]
halenadu republic (form of government found among Dāiadak) [Adāta hālenadu]
hape force, coerce [sapmi]
haran Faraghin (person or language) [saragin, from Far. Faraghin]
harsa tube, pipe [sarsâ]
hæpabe begin, start (aux) [sâpabm’lift’]
hætud veteran [Far. rantud ‘experienced’]
heben mutter, murmur, mumble [sepen]
hei blue [sai]
heil foreign [sai + dim.]
heimə wait [sema]
heipud crooked, twisted; deformed [Far. sempud ‘twisted’]
heite neat, proper [sête ‘tidy’]
helkun enemy [selkon ‘hostile’]
hewe water [saungwe]
hewegou dock [‘water-road’]
heweteka navy, fleet [‘water-army’]
hewpu alone, solitary [saimpo]
hiebu frog [sidespu ‘jumper’]
híen prove, demonstrate [sien]
hiəbur boil [simbor]
hiəm cloud [sim]
hiəteŋ different [sîteng]
hiəwa rotten [simwai]
hičidə misuse of office [sikîda ‘corrupt’]
hies jump [sides]
higade hurricane [sikadn]
hisəl bequeath [Far. khisel]
hislu child, heir [Far. khislud]
Histuənə an eastern nation, homeland of Etúgə [Mûts. Siixtaguna]
hitugə physical necessity; the mundane world [Mûts. sihtû’a]
holə when [sola]
hou coast [sau]
hounilin numinous, scary in a supernatural way [sonulak ‘imaginary’ with confusion from hounilo]
hounilo graveyard, cemetary [sonîlaou]
houzuŋ left (side); port [saisung]
huəmu wrong [sumo]
huənšar help, aid [sungiar]
hude eight [sudn]
hupís defeat, conquer [sompīs]
Hutaba the founder of Etúgə [Mûts. Sútapaj]
Huyfárah the nation of the Fáralo [Far. Soifaragh ‘Faraghin coast’]
huz mouse [susi]
huzæ'tugə immorality, vice, perversion, evil [Mûts. hûsamhtû’a]
i I (1s nom) [i]
ibe touch, use [ispe ‘feel (experience)’, merged with *iba from imbwa ‘use’]
ibəl north [ibli]
ibu tool [imbwabu]
iče equal [iske]
æ'məl study; knowledge [iskaimel]
iden lose; fail to find or buy [isten]
idər seem, appear (aux) [idr- approximative]
idúəŋ sea, ocean [indùng]
idwæ arm [itwam]
iəb month, moon; one hundred [imbi]
iəbu me (1s acc) [î + agentive -bu]
iəlænə catastrophe, disaster [imlana ‘flood’]
iəma symbol, sign [imai]
iəmu head; top [imu]
iəm to me (1s dat) [im]
iənə see, look [ina]
iəptə cheerful, jovial [imbenta]
iətə hang, suspend [inta]
ifisænə the spiritual world; salvation; heaven [Mûts. ifiisana]
igə which one [iwa]
igrih absorb, dissolve [igrik]
ijir whisper [idgir]
ilč black [ilki]
imə sew [isma]
io noble, lord [idâu]
iodol sun [‘noble’ + tol ‘sun’]
ior sour, acidic [idur]
ioza noblewoman, lady [‘noble-woman’]
iozal girl of noble blood; figurehead or bow of a ship
ipah sense, perceive [ingkwak]
ipə straight [ikwa]
ipi liver [ingkwi]
iru open (v) [iro]
is should (aux) [is- hortative]
isə to, towards; before (time) [isla]
isəga early; preceding [‘before-ish’]
išo night [iswau]
išonoun journey, voyage [‘night-go’]
iwmu beautiful [ilmo]
iwmusa beautiful girl
izin sudden [isi + -in]
jægə indignant, wrathful [gâga ‘angry’]
jæje that one, that person [gâge ‘that yonder’]
jæn knife [gan]
jaŋu move [gangio]
jegə who, what [gewa]
jeipə insult [gempa]
ješ likely, probably [gets]
jiəku hard (not soft) [gingko]
jiənih iron [ginig]
jibe bad [gibm]
jiə tall [gingwi]
jiwnə slow [gilna]
jori wake up [Far. drorin]
jos awake, conscious [Far. drors]
juma complain, protest [Far. druman ‘denounce (officially)’]
kada amuse, please [Far. katan]
kadal like, appreciate [kada + dim.]
kæda ashes (pl) [ainda]
kaklo border, boundary [kaklau ‘borderland’]
kaltó wind (pl) [altò]
kaogádin uncle: father’s younger brother [Far. kargadin]
kaogə fog, mist (pl) [arwa]
kaotača aunt [Far. kartača]
kape last year [kapm]
kaš funny, amusing [Far. kats]
Kazəgad Kasca, the ancient Edák nation, now ruled by Huyfárah [Kasadgad]
kazil look at, watch [kasil]
kebač dinner, meal [Far.]
Kečæ'na the world; the planet Huyfárah is on (pl.) [pl. of ngkana]
kečem honor [Far. ketrem]
keil dress; wear [kail]
keilu tunic, rough skirt, peasant dress [‘something worn’]
keip grass, herb (pl) [empi]
keiplo pasture
keipmate herblore
keize snow (pl) [aise]
keoč angry [Far. kerts]
kepéilu rain (n; pl) [mpêlo]
kesé blood (pl) [ntse]
kə (Etúgeist) priest [Mûts kûhuuhu]
kiki a spice from the eastern islands [Thok. khiki]
kipa rice alcohol (pl) [Thok.]
kodə cover [kota]
kolə absurd, crazy [kola ‘funny’]
kouwə tongue; rudder [komwa]
kpuəma smoke, steam (pl) [pumâ]
kraš bold, brave [Far. khrans]
kræwa porridge (cheap meal of grain) [arâwa ‘dinner’]
kreota seize, capture [Far. krertan]
ksoudu sand (pl) [tsondo ‘dust’]
ku spirit, mind [Mûts kuu]
kučil rush, hurry [kuk + dim.]
kuəbə waste [kumba]
kuəpéigə assume, suppose [kumpaiwa ‘believe’]
kuən sturdy, strong [kun ‘stiff’]
kuəma redo [kumâi ‘repair’]
kuət devil, demon [Far. khunt]
kufas (Etúgeist) temple [Mûts. kûfase]
kugal tame, domesticated (of small animals) [kukail]
kuin holy, sacred [Mûts kuu ‘spirit’ + Far. -in]
kuka hiccough [imitative]
kumepél grave, burial place [ku æm epél ‘rest of the spirit’]
kusæp worship [‘give the spirit’]
kusræm olive [Gez. kusram]
kušu cough [kutso]
kuz records, archives [pl. of susi ‘record’]
kuzlo library; archive
kwaše these things, these people [pluralizer + ‘this one’]
labaf ignore [lapabap]
lad healthy [lasti]
lade not much [ladn]
ladmate medicine
lalpo heal, cure [‘make healthy’]
lalpobu doctor, physician
lanæh rich, fragrant [lanag]
laoma long [larmai]
laršaošə hour [lartsartsa]
laš land, country [lats]
lašin national
Lašumu Axôltseubeu, the nation upriver from Kazəgad [Latsomo]
laz close, shut [lasi]
læpu bone [langkwo]
læpusa penis [‘bone-meat]
læta fast [lantai]
leč sword [Far. lets ‘longsword’]
lečew eighth day of the week [Far. Lečeu]
lega word; language [lewai]
legal write [lewai + dim.]
legéiša poetry [lewaitsâi]
lei bird [lai]
leid year [laid]
leideiŋ wing [‘bird-finger’]
leidin annual
leil flow, pour; row [lail]
leilu rowboat
leir young [lairi]
leišo cold [lêtsau]
lestə collect, gather [lekta]
lewə delta [lâwa]
lewku thou (2s-T nom) [laingko]
lewkuŋ thee (2s-T acc) [laingkong]
lewkum to thee (2s-T dat) [laingkom]
lews free, independent [Far. leus]
lewsuy free, liberate [Far. leusoin]
liəmu smile [limu ‘laugh quietly’]
lišu form, shape [ligio]
lizegu shake [lisedgo]
loušə answer, reply [lonsia]
loute right, correct [lonte]
loumo visit [lolmau]
lu- the; abstract nominalizer (clitic) [lu]
luba lie [Far. lupan]
luətəm to us (1p dat) [‘the’, used as a pluralizer, + i]
luki we (1p nom) [‘the’, used as a pluralizer, + i]
luzis us (1p acc) [‘the’, used as a pluralizer, + is]
mabe mouth [mabm]
mač table [maki]
mačud slave [Far. magačud ‘captive (from a raid)’]
made force, violence [madn ‘violent’]
magač loot, pillage [Far.]
mai nobody, nothing [mage]
maiga empty [‘nothingly’]
malæwe successful [malâwe]
malə where [mala]
malge suck [malwe]
mardu human [maldo]
marš hammer [ngwartsi ‘tool’]
mas a few [mi ais ‘not many’]
mastač government [Far. maštač ‘house’ + nom.]
mastin royal, governmental; public [Far. maštin]
mašo never [matsau]
mate know [matn]
matel think, suspect [matn + dim.]
mateboéi astrolabe [‘know-star’]
matibəl magnet; compass [‘know-north’]
matugə the impossible (to normal men); fantasy, spirituality [Mûts. gmatû’a]
mau blunt, dull [mabbu ‘blunt thing’]
mæ believe [ngwâi ‘think’]
mæde heart; feel (an emotion) [maunde]
mædidə intelligence [maunde ta ‘mind’]
mædu purposeless, pointless [mandu ‘for no reason’]
mæg today [mâg]
mæm seven [mam]
Mæmedéi a city on the mouth of the Oltu [‘seven trees’]
mæsa cow [mâisâ]
mebe peasant, farmer [mebwe ‘father’]
mebelo farm [‘farmer-place’]
mei trade [‘journey’]
meibu trader, merchant
meikut bastard, sumbitch [Far. menkhunt ‘son of a devil’]
meil read [mêli]
meis lack, be insufficient [mebis]
melede include [meledn]
menčaok prince [Far. menčark]
mengaos first mate [Far. mengars]
menio young lord; boy of noble blood
Mentek first king of the Balanin dynasty [Far. Mentekh ‘son of a sword’]
meode squirt, spurt, splatter [ngwerde]
meokát younger brother, apprentice, cadet [merkát]
mewk rebel [mâuk ‘protest’]
mewkil oppose, resist [‘rebel’ + dim’]
meze meet (people), encounter [mese]
mezel greet [‘meet’ + dim.]
məlew figure out, realize [Ndok Aisô mîleu ’come to understand’]
mi no, none [mi]
midišæ'na fornicate [ngwitianal ‘get pregnant’]
Miədu the southernmost city in Huyfárah proper [Mos Mindu]
miəwə heroic [mingwa ‘powerful’]
miga thank [midgai]
mik bread [mik]
mimalə nowhere [‘no’+ ‘where’]
miopə deaf [‘no ear’]
miordo blind [‘no eye’]
mipimə dough, paste [mikwisma]
mipól nasty, indecent [ngwipaingkwul ‘terrible’]
miš modern, novel [mits ‘late’]
mišæ'f owe [ngwitsampi]
mišagu holiday, day off [miasko ‘celebrate’]
miúgur try, attempt [miukur]
moge backward [ngwogng]
mola full [ngwolâi]
molar prefer [morar]
molən alert, vigilant [molan ‘awake’]
mordu front; chest (of a person) [moldau]
more magic, mysticism, the occult [more ‘dim’]
mosin civilized, urban, cultured [NT mos ‘city’ + -in]
mosou port, harbor [‘city (of) coast’]
mospi uncultured, provincial [Ndok Aisô moispî ‘showing poor judgment’]
mou skin [ngwau]
moudu measure [mondu ‘count, measure’]
moumušezə council, senate [Far. mašmuršesa ‘house of warriors’]
mouru narrow [mauro]
mowe oral sex [Na. màwè ‘fellate’]
Muəbaz a city in Kazəgad, modern Momuva’e [Mos Mumbasi]
muəbazin lawless, anarchic [from conditions in Muəbaz]
muba worm [mombwai]
mube foolish, rash [muspê ‘foolish’]
mula ice [mulâ]
mus grow [mus]
muslo origin [muslau]
musmate agriculture
mušidutə belief, philosophy, ideology [Mûts mûtsitû'a]
muymis stupid [musmis ‘stupid’]
mwáogube ponderous, grave [mwarwobm ‘heavy’]
na in (locations, substances, regions), inside; on [nai]
nabe red [napê]
nača lady, baroness [nat + -sa]
nadír in (containers), inside of, indoors [nai tiri ‘in door’]
nadírlo secret, hidden [‘inside-ish’]
naei work, labor [nagebi]
naga inner, interior [‘in-ish’]
nagane capital; seat (of a noble) [Far. ‘lord-place’]
nagə god (of polytheistic religions) [naka]
nagu bear (animal) [Far. nagho]
naluŋuh organize, arrange [nalunguk]
naoga regular, predictable [nabâu + -ga]
naonu divide, separate [narno ‘cut’]
naoŋga split [naonu + ‘way’]
napóča play (e.g. games), have fun [Far. napalčan ‘mess around from boredom’]
narór horse [nalaròr]
naskuy exile, cast out [Far. naksoin ‘put outside’]
našiŋa futile, in vain [naisngai ‘pointlessly’]
nat lord, baron [Far. nagat]
nata the nobility, aristocracy [Far. nagata ‘lords’]
nayu noodles (an eastern dish) [Thok.]
nazə east [nasa]
næbə someone, something [nambe]
næbæm small [nambam]
næblo sometime [nambau + -lo]
nælul somewhere [namlul]
næm illness, disease [nam ‘sick’]
næme some, any [namê]
næmuh orange [namowi ‘brown’]
næpe swell (up) [nambepm]
neča wife [netrai]
nege the most; maximum; azimuth [newe]
neib aim [nembi ‘intend’]
neiŋə leaf [nenga]
neljæn twist [nelgan]
neobu sick person, patient
neos sick, ill [Far. ners ‘weak’]
niən if/then conjunction [nin]
nil nine [nil]
nioga war [Far. nirgha]
niogalo battlefield
noš die [nots]
noulo street [nonlau ‘go-place’]
noun go (aux) [non]
nuaš cheat [nugats ‘trade’]
nubázi realization, enlightenment [Mûts. nuduuhasihi]
nuəma boast [numagi]
nuge easy [nuwe]
nupáča slime, snot [nukà]
ŋa- prefix forming a participial adjective: ŋanoun ‘going’ [ngwa ‘few’]
ŋadə make love, have sex [ngata ‘sleep’]
ŋal very [ngal]
ŋalər too, too much; excessive [ngal + comparative -ur]
ŋalleil flood [‘too much water’]
ŋastís villain, rogue [ngaktīs ‘slave’]
ŋapšə thick [ngabra]
ŋæ gaffer; title for an elder peasant [ngâ ‘adult’]
ŋæne neck [ngane]
ŋæŋu laugh [ngango ‘laugh loudly’]
ŋeibə toe [ngemba]
ŋeide wipe [ngende]
ŋi two [ngi]
ŋiəbu sharp; acute, clever [ngimbu]
ŋiəbul needle [‘sharp’ + dim.]
ŋigatač bireme [‘two-galley’]
ŋouru ancient; also an ethnonym [ngauro]
Ŋourlo a city in Kazəgad [Ngaurlau]
ŋuəne prudent, cautious, conservative [ngune ‘moderate’]
ŋura cloves; brown [uncertain origin]
oa salt [odai]
oæm right (side), starboard [odam]
obo for, for the purpose of [ob ‘at’ + wau ‘for’]
odu come; (aux) be at the moment [oto]
odulo destination [otolau]
ogabe suffer, be hurt [odgabm]
ogu mourn, grieve [owu]
olæ'tə be exhausted, be wiped; be feeble with age [olanta ‘do too much’]
olinə not know, not perceive [olina ‘be blind to’]
olo place, location [olau]
oltu new; the name of the main river of Huyfárah [olto]
Oltumosou a city on the mouth of the Poráš [‘new port’]
oludo deserve, have a right to [oloto ‘deserve a place’]
oludu deserts, things rightfully one’s own
olyéna commit a faux pas [Na. oljènàn]
squeeze [orngi]
opə ear [okwa]
opin auditory; audible
opwo a type of meal popular in Lašumu [Ndok Aisô opweu]
ordo eye [oldau]
ordin visual; visible
orgal ignite, explode [ôriwal]
oslók forget [reborrowing]
ošyal propose, suggest [obial ‘offer’]
ote run, hurry [orte]
otóun thin [auntōn]
oubə almost all [omba ‘many’]
oudisa witch
oudiz magician [ondisi ‘expert’]
ougə behind, in back of [ob bongga ‘at the back’]
oumol younger sister [omai + dim.]
oumu mother [omo]
-oun and [on]
ouŋa vulgar, base [alngai ‘common’]
ouŋu without, except for [al ‘without’ + ngu ‘as’]
oupə boring [ompa ‘flat’]
oupu deep [ompu]
oušu promise [aitsu]
ouwa and [ongwâ]
ouzə suicide [ausa ‘sacrifice’]
ouzu yesterday [auso]
oymə recent [osma]
oyŋæ'ŋga serious, solemn [olngango ‘be serious’]
pabo analyze, categorize [reborrowing of papau ‘name’]
pačuna count, reckon [Far. pačunan, from pat-sun ‘one-two’]
padu attack [pasto]
padupe smash, break [kwatopm]
Palge a free city in Kazəgad, modern Pawé [Palwe]
pap defense [pap ‘shield’]
pardə valley [palda]
paš socket, niche [kwats ‘chair’]
pat stinky, smelly [kwat]
pæm round [kwaim]
pæn bite, chew [kwain]
pea ready [kweda]
pei big [pai]
peiblo beach [pailbelau]
peide loud [kwaidn]
peilbu hourglass [pailbe ‘sand’ + -bu]
peimæb mystery [palmambi ‘secret’]
peilaš mainland (as opposed to the sea) [‘big land’]
Peimast a city on the upper Poráš [‘big house’]
pein with, accompanied by, having [kwen]
peitə fucking do (aux) [penta ‘fuck up’]
peitu apart [kwentu]
pepə last, final [pekwa]
peras knight, first rank of noble [peras ‘brave’]
peše drop, let go; abandon [kwetsn]
pezə shit [pesa]
pezəlo outhouse, toilet
pi fingernail [kwi]
piədæmis understand [kwindamis]
piəm low; (v) abase; (refl) submit, lower oneself, sacrifice[pim]
pigəl first [piwel ‘early’]
pila send; (as aux) have done, send for [pilai]
pipe practical, earthy [pipm ‘useful’]
pir goat [kwir]
pišil pale, gray [pitsi + dim.]
popu fear [paingkwu]
porat trustworthy, sound [Far. ‘clean, pure’]
Poráš the river east of the Oltu
pouku refuse, deny [pokpo]
poun island [pon]
pouni plant, vegetation [ponî]
pragu tamed, broken (of horses) [Far. pragud ‘accustomed, tamed’]
præmbu architect
præn build; design [pirain ‘plan’]
prænmate architecture, building
pubiət threaten, menace [pupibat]
Puwa a Naidda-speaking city in the far south [Naidda Pu’a]
puwə nose [pungwa]
rari addicted [Na. raiddi]
Rasedán the western mountains [Adāta Rathedān]
raul fill [ragol]
ræbe along; during, in, within [rambe]
ræde sky [rande]
rædel pot, jar [rander + dim.]
ræpe fertile [rampa ‘abundant’]
ræpen instead of, in place of [rampen]
rætu hear [ranto]
rečiəs bleeding (of a wound); menstruation [rekibas ‘flood’]
reimur earthquake [remor]
relga hot [relsi ‘be hot’ + adj.]
rewebe unable, useless [râwebm ‘incompetent’]
rewŋ flat, smooth [raung ‘plains’]
rewŋəl platform; deck (of a ship) [raung + dim.]
rewŋlo plain, flatlands
rifəs ugly [Far. rifs ‘scary’]
rišo con, defraud [Na. risjo]
ro ten [ro]
robe feather [robm]
roda have, own (things) [Far. rotan ‘own, possess’]
rodu possessions, one’s things [Far. rotud]
rogə perform, act [rowa ‘play (an instrument)’]
roulə care for, be devoted to [raula ‘love’]
roumə that (relativizer) [roma]
route flee [habitative of ‘run’]
rozaru voter (in a republic) [Adāta rozarō]
rubadu annoy, irritate [rupasto ‘be agressive’]
rud man (male) [rud]
ruduga unpredictable [adjectivization of rututu ‘be unpredictable’]
ruənah priest (of the pagans) [runnak]
ruga gullible [adjectivization of rugua ‘be gullible’]
rulasa whore, prostitute [Na. rula ‘be promiscuous’ + -sa ‘woman’]
rumia trust, have confidence in [habitative of miga ‘trust’]
rušan blame; cast aspersions, sling mud [Far. rušnen ‘paint’]
rušoga fantastic, imaginative [adjectivization of rudioba ‘daydream’]
ruəga intelligent [adjectivization of rungwâi ‘be intelligent’]
sačin rich, wealthy [Far. sats + -in]
sašə sneeze [tsatsa]
satar democratic assembly [Adāta zathar]
satugə false knowledge, illusion [Mûts. ttsatû’a]
sæči soft [tsâuki]
sæŋ wash [tsaing]
sæp give [tsampi]
sæt gold [Far. sat]
sætil money [‘little gold’]
sætugə virtue, morality [Mûts. ktsantû’a]
sečas good luck, good fortune [Far. českudač ‘encounter with pixies’]
sečasin lucky, fortunate
seiš louse [tsêtsi]
seiza dawn [tsaisai ‘arise’]
sek name [Far. sekh]
seka name, call [Far. sekhan]
selo spear [tselô]
seor pour [tsebor]
seošan seventh day of the week and day of rest [Far. Seršan]
serčaok emperor (title of the Fáralo ruler) [Far. serčark ‘great king’]
serin imperial [from serčaok]
sernat minister (of state) [Far. sernagat ‘great lord’]
Sertek a city on the mouth of the Poráš [Far. ‘mighty sword’]
seze steep [tsese]
seziči be born [tsesir + refl.]
sezul infant [dim. + ‘born’]
si- that (clitic) [tsi]
sidin sad, unhappy [tsisten ‘be depressed’]
siəč separate, apart [tsingki]
siən drink [tsin ‘like’]
Siəæn the greatest of the Edák emperors [Tsinakan]
sigil urinate, piss [sig + dim.]
silo tooth, fang [tsilâu]
sirul there [tsilul ‘there (far)’]
sip thus [tsip]
siralo brothel [Na. sìddalo ‘inn with a brothel’]
sis dog [tsis]
sissa bitch [‘female dog’]
siš null (aux) [‘then’]
sišo then [tsitsau]
so must, have to (aux) [tso- obligative]
sobræn succeed [tsopirain]
sos mature, adult; second day of week[Far. sors]
sossa nubile girl, one who has just come of age
soy cause [tsobi ‘control’]
soudul powder, dust [tsondo + dim.]
sounči kneel [‘knee’ + refl.]
souŋ knee [tsong]
suji press, pressure [tsurgî]
sur tomorrow [tsuri]
susu whistle [imitative]
suš near, nearby [tsuts]
sušin neighbor
šælo hearth, fireplace; home [Far. šan ‘fire’ + ‘place’]
šesuy crown or select a ruler [Far. šesoin ‘make holy’]
Šišin the northern mountains (NT Daing Ibli) [Far. Čintsin ‘northerly’]
šuən stab, slash [Far. prunin]
šuys merciful, compassionate [Far. šois ‘sweet, gentle’, from šoi ‘woman’]
ta just did (aux) [ta dynamic particle]
tača older sister [Far.]
Tal the western provinces of Huyfárah [Tali]
talo the people of Tal; the Tlaliolz
tædi shelter [taindi ‘wing’]
tædil oar [taindi ‘wing’ + dim.]
tæm south [tam]
taš lawful, legal [Far. tats]
tatuy allow, permit [Far. tatoin]
tazbæm imply [tasbam]
teibe together [taibm]
teiŋu pull [tengo]
teiŋgas punt, flatboat [‘pull-boat’]
teitu wide [tento]
teiš bend, fold [tautsi]
teka army [Far. tekha]
tesses soldier [Far. tekšes ‘swordsman’]
tid flea [titi]
tiəŋišə flash, spark [tingia]
tikóu stone, rock; anchor[tingkāu]
tir door [tiri]
tišæna take as a concubine or consort [tianai ‘marry’]
toba horn [topai]
todu idiot, doofus [from totoli ‘be clumsy’]
tol shine; (n.) light [tol ‘sun’]
tolin bright
tou lake [tau]
toun hand [ton]
tudu amaze [tutu]
tuəd oversee, control [Far. tundan]
tulas cinnamon [Adāta thulus]
tuma pirate [Thok. ‘outlaw’]
twæno avoid, prevent [tuanau]
ubák palace [ospàk ‘throne’]
Ubáz the Mother Goddess of the Edák; sixth day of the week [ombāsi]
ubu soon [ubwu]
učébur rush foolishly into something [ukembur ‘behave recklessly’]
uəgu lame, crippled [unggu]
uəm cause (aux) [umbom-]
uəmə joke [unma ‘play’]
uəš blow, breathe [untsi]
uəta humor, wit [untai ‘joke’]
ugaš be a storm [uwaits ‘be cloudy’]
ugə from; after [uwa]
ugəga late, later [‘afterish’]
uksáb be eager or zealous [uksab ‘look forward to’]
ukšúy covet, long for the forbidden [uktsobi]
ulə rise, raise, lift [ula]
ulgə taste [ulwa]
ulgu rope [ulwo]
umórdu in front of, before (space) [ob moldau ‘at front’]
umóro be picky [Na. u’moddo]
undribu comedian [Na. unddivo]
uplə explain, describe [upla]
Ussor capital of Huyfárah [Uksaur]
ušóbe be horny [Na. usjàve]
utúči kill oneself [utnots + refl. -či]
uw cruel, savage [udu]
uwlo barbarian
uwméi yellow [ulmāi]
wa- this (clitic) [wai]
wabə hit [wapa]
wagaga peaceful
wagah peace [wawaik ‘calm’]
waš dig [wats]
waše this one, this person[waige]
wat age [wat]
wægól below, under [ob nggolang ‘at foot’]
wæpum hollow [wampum]
wære love [ugbâre optative of ‘have’]
wætáŋ beyond, past [ob ntang ‘at end’]
wætə about, concerning [wau ‘for’ + nte ‘with’]
we will (future aux) [we- future prefix]
wede vegetable [wedn]
weilo garden [wenlau]
weišo now [waitsau]
wiəm live [wim]
wiəmu above, over [ob imu ‘at head’]
wiəŋ wet [wing]
wilo house [‘living place’]
wimés adjacent, adjoining [wimès ‘neighbor’]
wimə mud [wisma]
wiməl dirty [wisma + dim.]
wiza yell, shout [wisai]
wodel wear, carry [wirdel]
wos three [wos]
wošlo dump, hick town [Na. wàsjlo ‘hole in the ground’]
wozgatač trireme [‘three-galley’]
woul here [wailul]
woupu remember [wompo]
wugu condemn, find guilty [wuku ‘blame’]

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